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The Earl of Essex to Sir Edw. Dyer — (Gives an account 
of his quarrel with Queen Elizabeth for her favours to Raleigh, 
and ill-treatment of the Earl's sister. July 21, 1587) . Page 1 


Anonymous to Sir Thomas Kitson — (Account of the action 
against Cadiz. July %Zy 1596) . . . .5 


Conspiracy of the Earl of Essex — (Extract of a letter from 
Secretary Cecil) . . . . . .11 

Nottingham to Montjoy — (Essex's behaviour after his trial. 
31st May) • • . . . .14 

The Lady Riche to the Lord Nottingham — (Clearing herself 
of her brother's treasons) . . • . .18 

Thomas Tooke to Mr. John Hubberd — (Account of Queen 
Elizabeth's progress to Basing, and her entertainment at the 
house of Lord and Lady Paulet. Sept. 19, 1601) . • 20 


Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth — (On his setting out for Ire- 
land) • . . . . . .23 

The Queen to Lord Montjoy . . . . 28 

Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth . . . ih. 

Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth . . .29 

VOL. II. b 


Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth — (Nov. 1, 1601) . Page 32 
Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth . . • 33 

Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth — (Jan. 1601-2) . 34 

Lord Montjoy to Queen Elizabeth • » .37 

Nottingham and Cecil to Montjoy-^Of the Queen's disposition 
towards the rebels. Oct. 6, 1601) . . .39 

Tyrone to Lord Montjoy — (Professing an absolute submission. 
Dec. 22, 1602) . . . . . .41 

The Queen to Lord Montjoy — (In answer to Tyrone's submis- 
sion. Feb. 16, 1602) . . . . .43 

Cecil to Montjoy — (How he is to manage the Queen. Feb. 
18, 1602) . . . . . .45 

The Queen to Lord Montjoy— (Feb. 17, 1602) • . 49 

Tyrone to the Right Honourable the Lord Deputy of Ireland 

—(March 29/1603) . . . . . 53 

[Death of Queen Elizabeth.] 

Simon Theloal to the Right Worship.ul Mr. DoetOr Dun, Dean 
of the Arches, at Bremen in Germany — (March 26, 1603) , 55 

[History gf the bye plot, or, as it is called, Raleigh's plot ; and 

the execution of the conspirators.] 

William Watson to the Lords of the Privy Council — (Giving m 
account of the plots of the Jesuit, and how he was betrayed by 
them) . . . . . . .59 

Robert Hobart to Sir John Hobart— (Execution of Watson and' 
Clarke. Dec. 5, 1603) . . . . .87 

Robert Hobart to Sir John Hobart — (Execution of Brooke and 
Markham. Dec. 13, 1603) • . . .89 

T. Comwalleys to Sir J. Hobart — (Execution of Brooke and 
Markham. — Exorcising at Court) . . ^ . .91 

Sir Walter Raleigh to his wife — (After he had hurt hinpttnlf in 
the Tower, takes his leave of her, and justifies suicide in his oWn 
case) . 4 . . . . .93 


[Anecdotes of Heniy IV. of France.] 

Sir George Carew to the Earl of Salisbury — (June 2, 
1605) ...... Page 97 

Sir Geoige Carew to Lord Carew, his kinsman — (June 30, 
1605) ....... 100 

Arabella Stuart to Prince Henry— (Oct 18, 1605) . 103, 104 

Arabella Stuart to * * * * . . . 105 

[The Gunpowder Plot.] 

Sir Edward Hobart to Sir Thomas Edmonds, Ambassador at 
the Court of Brussels — (Nov. 19, 1605) . . .106 

Lord Montague to the Earl of Dorset — (Defending himself from 
the imputation of being concerned in the Gunpowder Plot. Nov. 
8, 1605) . . , . . .118 

Lord Montague to the Earl of Dorset — (Nov. 12, 1605) . 120 

Lord Montague to the Earl of Dorset— (Nov. 13, 1605) . 122 


[Miscellaneous News.] 

Mr. Pory to Sir Robert Cotton — (Marriage of the Earl and 

Countess of Essex. Account of a mask by Ben Jonson and Inigo 

Jones. Jan. 1606) . . • . . 124 


Lady Compton to William Lord Compton, her husband — 
(Written upon occasion of his coming into possession of a large 
fertune) . . . . . . . 127 

Mr. John Sandford to Sir Thomas Edmonds— (Amusing de- 
Beription of Spain. March 6, 1610) • . . 132 

Mr. Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, Bart. — (Description of 
the arrival of the King of Denmark. July 29, 1 6 1 4) . 136 

Mr. Pory to Sir Robert Cotton— (Entertainment of the King of 
Denmark) ...... 138 


[Overbury, and the examination of those concerned in his death.^ 

Sir Thomas verbury to the Earl of Salisbury —(Sept 11) i 43 
The Queen to the Earl of Salisbury • . .145 


Mr. John Castle to Mr. James Milles^ at Southampton — (Exe- 
cution of Mrs. Turner. — Trial of Sir J. Elwys— His Execution. — 
Franklin's Indictment. Nov. 28, 1615) , . Page 145 

Sir John Throckmorton tp Mr. William Trumbull, Resident 
for King James at Brussels — (Execution of Sir J. Elwys. — Indict- 
ment of Sir Thomas Monson. — The Countess of Somerset) . 153 

Sir John Throckmorton to Mr. Trumbull, from Flushing, send- 
ing him an extract of a letter from England — (Sir Thomas Mon- 
son's arraignment) . . . . .156 


£Miscellaneous News.] 

The Archbishop of Canterbury to the Bishop of London— (De- 
sires him to assist in raising a loan for the King, upon the Parlia- 
ment refusing it. June, 1614) . . . .157 

Archbishop Abbot to Sir George Villiers, afterwards Duke of 
Buckingham — (Upon his rise at Court. Dec. 10, 1615) . 160 

Chief Justice Coke to Viscount Villiers — (Being out of favour 
he desires to be present at the Prince's creation. Nov. 4, 1616) 


Sir L. Cranfield to Viscount Villiers — (The abuses in the King's 
revenues. Sept. 3, 1618) . . . .164 

Mr. Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, Bart, — (Various news of 
the day. — ^A Frenchman makes an attempt on the King's life. — 
Account of a duel between Sir H. Rich and Sir Edward Villiers. — 
Stukeley's complaint to King James, and the King's characteristic 
reply. Jan. 5, 1618-9) . . . . .168 

Thomas Wallis to Dr. Ward, at the Synod of Dort — (Stukeley 
arraigned for clippuig coin. — The burning of Whitehall. Jan. 23, 
1618) . . . . . . .174 

Mr, Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, Bart.— (Feb. 16, 1618-9) 

The Countess of Buckingham to her Son the Marquis — (Ex- 
horting him to study the book which the King had dedicated to 
him. Feb. 24, 1618) . . . . .183 

Richard Trym to Sir Rob. Crane — (Miscellaneous news. Feb. 
26> 1618) . . . . . .185 


Gerard Hetbert to Dr. Ward — (Of the sickness of the Queen. — 
Burning of Whitehall. — Stukeley 's imprisonment. June 21,1619) 

Page 186 

[Miscellaneous News.] 

The Earl of Rutland to the Marquis of Buckingham — (On his 
running away with the Earl's daughter) . . .189 

The Marquis to the Earl — (Upon the same subject) . 191 

Robert Woodward to Secretary Windebank — (Miscdlaneous 
news. June 13, 1620) . . . . .193 

Doctor, afterwards Bishop, Hall to Dr. Ward, at Dort — (News 
of the day. March 30) . . . • .194 

Lady Lake to the Countess of Exeter — (Nov. 9, 16^0) . 196 

Mr. Mead to Sir Martin Stuteville — (Conspiracy against the 
King's life. Feb. 17, 1620-1) . . . .198 

L. Cranfield to the Duke of Buckingham — (State of the revenue. 
July 28, \62i^ . . . . . .202 

L. Cranfield to the Duke of Buckingham — (State of the revenue* 
Oct. 12,. 1621) . . . . . .207 

Prince Charles to the Duke — (Upon the House of Commons 
proving refractory. Nov. 3, 1621) . . . 209 

L. Cranfield to the Marquis of Buckingham — (Upon the same 
subject and the state of the revenue. Dec. 4, 1621) • 210 

Extract of a letter from Lake, Bishop of Bath and Wells, to Dr. 
Ward — (Account of Archbishop Spalato*s return to Romc^ 
June 9, 1622) . . . . . .218 

Lord Bacon to King James— (Upon his release fircHn imprison- 
ment. — His Instauratio Magna and other writings) — March 20, 
1621 . . . . • . . 220 

Lord Bacon to Buckingham — (On the same occasion) — March 
20, 1621 . . . . . .222 

Lord Bacon to Buckingham-^ Expresses his anxiety to be taken 
into favoiu: and to return to public life) — April 18, 1623 . 223 

Secretary Naunton to the Marquis of Buckingham— ^Upon hk 
disgrace. 1622) ..... 225 

Secretary Naunton to King James— (Upon hi8 disgrace. 1622) 


Lady Mary Jacob to Buckingham— (April 28, 1621) . 229 


Sir J. Wentworth to the Duke of Buckingham — (Desires to be 
excused from coming forward to justify his accusation of the Earl 
of Oxford and others) . . . . Page 231 

Gondomar to King James— (Moves the Spanish match. Sept. 
19, 1622) . • . . . ^ . 234 

Gondomar to Buckingham — (On the same subject. Sept. 10, 
1622) . . . • . . . 238 

Nailnton to Buckingham — (Thanking him for interfering in his 
behalf. Sept. 4, 1622) . . . . .241 

Heath to Buckingham — (Upon altering the coinage. August 
31, 1622) . . . . . .244 

The Marquis of Hamilton to the Marquis of Buckingham 247 

Mr. Mead to Sir M. Stuteville — (Sir E. Porter's accident in his 
embassy to the Queen of Bohemia. — Anecdote of James I. 
Oct. 19, 1622) . . . . . .249 

[The Spanish match.] 

F. Cottington to Secretary Calvert — (Readines^ of the Spanish 
Court to proceed with the match. July 7, 1622) . 252 

The Prince and the Duke to King James — (Giving account of 
their journey) . . . . . .253 

' King James to the Prince and the Duke — (Of the trouble he has 
had in selecting the Prince's servants who were to follow him, and 
some grants made to the Duke) «... 255 

The King to the Prince and the Duke — (Is resolved to bid fare- 
well to peace in Christendom, if things mend not. March 11) 

The Marchioness of Buckingham to her son — (After his de- 
parture into Spain. March 14, 1622) • . • 258 
— '" Copy of his Majesty's letter to the King of Spain . 259 
^"~ The Prince's answer to the Pope's Nuncio • . 260 
'"'^ iBalthasar Gerbier to the Duke of Buckingham . • ib* 
Toby Matthews to the Duke of Buckingham — (Of the cabals 
raised against the Duke during his absence in Spain. March 29, 
1623 '\ . . . . . .267 

Toby Matthews to the Duke of Buckingham — (Of the same 
subject. March 29, 1623) .... 270 

Secretary Conwey to the Duke of Buckingham — (April 2, 1623) 



The Marchioness of Buckingham to her son^ at the Court of 
Spain— (April 6, 1623) .... Page 276 

The Duchess of Buckingham to her Husband — (Desires his re- 
turn. — Gives an account of her little daughter Moll. July 16) 


The Duchess of Buckingham to her Husband . . 2S9 

Secretary Ccmwey to the Duke of Buckingham — (April 12, 
1623) ....... 286 

Conwey to Buckingham — (The King's kindness to little Mary 
Villiers. May 3, 1623) . . . .290 

Conwey to Buckingham — (June 15, 1623) . . 291 

King James to the Infanta — (Aug. 30, 1623) . . 295-<^-^ 

Prince Charles and the Duke to King James-^March 21^ 1623) 


Extract of a letter from King James to Prince Charles and the 
Duke— (Copied from the original by Archbishop Sancroft. April 
7, 162.3) . • . . . . .297 

King James, to Prince Charles and the Duke — ^for the Prentis — 
{May .11) . . . . . . .298 

The King to the Prince— (May 11) . . . ib. 

King James to Prinqe Charles and the Duke— (July 31) 299 
. Ed., Clarke to the Duke of Buckingham — (Proceedings at Court. 
Aug. 1) . . . . . . . 300 

R. Turpyn to the Duke— (Of the cabals at court during the 
Duke's absence. Aug, 1, 1623 .... 302 

Toby^Matthews to the Duchess of Buckingham — (Letter of com- 
fort. Aug. 8,1623) ..... 303 

Secretary Conwey to the Duke of Buckingham — (The King's 
affection for thp Duke is as strong as ever. Aug. 11, 1623) 306 

The Duchess of Buckingham to her Husband— -(Aug. 12) 309 

James Waddsworth . to the Duke of Buckingham — (Reports of 
his conduct in Spain. Nov. 11, 1623) . • .314 


The Earl of Bristol to the Bishop of Lincoln— (Miscellaneous 
News. July 8, 1623) ..... 320 

Bedell to Ward— (Examination of Cranfield Earl of Middlesex. 
April 16, 1624) . . .... 325 


Gerbier to Buckingham — (Giving him an account of his nego- 

ciation for different works of art abroad. Nov. 17, 1624) Page 326 

Conwey to Buckingham — (Proceedings against Middlesex and 

Bristol. June 14, 1624) . . . . 346 

Villiers Holman to the Cardinal Richelieu — (July 21, 1624) 


Gerbier to the Duke of Buckingham — (Dec. 2, 1624) . S56 

Duke of Buckingham to King James — (Upon certain sums to 

be given for honors at court) . . . .561 

Conwey to the Duke of Buckingham — (Arrival and reception of 

the French Embassador Villeaux Clercs. Dec. 4, 1624) . 363 

— Sir Walter Aston to the Duke— (Dispute between Olivares and 

Gondomar. Dec. 24, 1624) .... 368 

Gerbier to the Duke of Buckmgham— (Feb. 8, 1 624-1 625) 369 

Sir R. Heath and Sir T. Coventry to the Duke of Buckingham — 

(Proceedings against Lady Purbeck the Duke's sister-in-law, and 

Sir Robert Howard. Feb. 24, 1624) ' - . .376 

Kmg James to * * * *— (1625) . . .379 

Chevreuse to the Duke of Buckingham . .380 

King James to the Duke of Buckingham — (Invitation to hunt 

at Harrison's Heath, &c.) .... 382 

Gerbier to the Duke of Buckingham . • . 383 

Gerbier to the Duke of Buckingham . . . 388 

Earl of Bristol to Sir Kenelm Digby — (Of his dispute with the 

Duke of Buckingham. Feb. 6, 1625) . . .397 

The Earl of Bristol to Lord Conwey— (March 4, 1625) . 399 

Buckingham to Bristol— (March 21, 1625) . . 402 

* * * * to Mr. Mead — (Disastrous event of a duel — and other 

accidents of the time. March 4, 1824-5) . • 404 

Andrew Byng to * * * * — (Proceedings against Bristol in the 

House of Lords. May 9, 1625) . . . .407 




[Gives an account of his quarrel with Queen Elizabeth for her 
favours to Raleigh, and ilUtreatment of the Earl's sister.] 

Mr. Dier, 

I HAVE been this morning at Winchester House 
to seek you ; and I would have given a thousand 
pounds to have had one hour's speech with you, 
so much I would hearken to your counsel, and so 
greatly do I esteem your friendship. Things are 
fallen out very strangely against me, since my last 
bdng with you. Yesternight the Queen came 
to North-hall, where my Lady of Warwick 
would needs have my sister to be ; which though 
1 knew not at the first, yet, to prevent the worst, 
I made my aunt Leighton signify so much unto 
the Queen before her coming from TheobaldV, 

* Afterwards Sir Edward Dyer: he was employed by the 
Queen as her agent in the Low Countries, in 1583. Birch's 
Elizabeth, c. 46.. 



that at her coming to North-hall this matter 
might not seem strange unto her. She seemed 
to be well pleased and well contented with it, 
and promised to use her well. Yesternight, after 
she was come, and knew my sister was in the 
house, she commanded my Lady of Warwick 
that my sister should keep her chamber : where- 
upon, being greatly troubled in myself, I watched 
when the Queen had supped, to have some speech 
with her ; which 1 had at large, yet still she giv- 
ing occasion thereof. Her excuse was, first, she 
knew not of my sister's coming, and besides, the 
jealousy that the world would conceive that all 
her kindness to my sister was done for love of 
myself. Such bad excuses gave me a theme large 
enough, both for answer of them, and to tell her 
what the true causes were why she would offer 
this disgrace both to me and to my sister; which 
was only to pleiase that knave Raleigh, for whose 
sake I saw she would both grieve me and my 
love, and disgrace me in the eye of the world* 
From thence, sh^ came to speak of Raleigh, audit 
seemed 3he could not well endure anything to be 
spoke][i against him ; and taking hold of one word, 
disdain, she said there was no such cause why I 
should disdain him. This speeqh troubled me 
so much, that, as near as I could, I did describe 
unto her what he had been, and what he was ; 
and then I did let her see whether I had cause to 
disdain his competition of love, or whether I 


could have comfort to give tayself over to the 
sa*vice of a mistress that was in awe of such a 
man. I spoke, what of grief and choler, as much 
against him as I could ; and I think, he, standing 
at the door,* might very well hear the worst that 
I spoke of himself. In the end, I saw she was 
resolved to defend him and to cross me. From 
thence she came to speak bitterly against my 
mother ; which because I could not endure to see 
me and my house disgraced, (the only matter 
which both her choler and the practice of my 
enemies had to work upon,) I told her, for mine 
»ster she should not any longer disquiet her ; I 
would, though it were almost midnight, send her 
away that night ; and for myself, I had no joy to 
be in any place, but loth to be near about her, 
when I knew my affection samuch thrown down, 
and such a wretch as Raleigh highly esteemed of 
her. To this she made no answer, but turned her 
away to my Lady of Warwick.f So at that late 
hour I sent my man away with my sister, and 
aft«r J came hither myself. This strange alter- 

* As captain of the guard. 

t The CountesR of Warwick seems to have been a zealous 
friend to the Earl. When he fell under the displeasure of the 
Queen, which was the occasion of his ruin^ she promised hin^ 
to take a lodging at Greenwich, that when the Queen went 
abroad in good humour, of which the Countess would give him 
notice, he should have an opportunity of presenting himself, and 
obtaining the restoration of the Queen's favour. Birch's Bacon 
Papers, ii. 462. Unfortunately, the Earl had not patience 
enough to wait for the opportunity. 

B 2 


ation is by Raleigh's means : and the Queen, that 
hath tried all other ways, now will see whether 
she can by these hard courses drive me to be 
friends with Raleigh, which rather shall drive me 
to many other extremities. If you come hither 
by twelve of the clock, I would fain speak with 
you. My resolution will let me take no longer 
time, I will be this night at Marget, and if I 
can I will ship myself for Flushing, I will see 
SI use lost or relieved, which cannot be yet, but 
is now ready to be done. If I return, I will be 
welcomed home ; if not, una bella morte is bet- 
ter than a disquiet life. This course may seem 
strange, but the extreme unkind dealing with me 
drives me to it. My friends will make the best 
of it, mine enemies cannot say it* is unhonest ; 
the danger is mine, and I am content to abide the 
worst. Whatsoever becomes of me, God grant 
her to be ever most happy ; and so in haste I 
commit you to God. 

Your's assured. 

This 21st of July [1587].* R. Essex. 

If you show my letter to any body, let it be 
to my mother, and Mr. Secretarie.f 

• The date of this letter is inferred from the mention of the 
siege of Sluys, which we learn from Camden was in this year 
beleaguered by the Prince pf Parma. Essex did really execute 
his purpose of stealing from court ; but the Queen sent Sir Ro- 
bert Gary after him, to persuade him by all possible means to ' 
return. Gary's Mem. p. 8. 

t Tan. MSS. part in Ixxvi. 46 ; part in Ixxvii. 384. Gorrected 
by Abp. Sancroft. 



[Account of the Action against Cadiz.*} 

Sir, ^ . 

Albeit I am well assured that you cannot 
ivant many good advertisements of this late news, 
whereof sundry have prevented the ordinary pace 
of this common courier; yet because such con- 
firmation of this most prosperous and triumphant 
success is not yet come, and is to be wished, and 
is hourly looked for, I will be bold to impart what 
I have heard, how late soever the same do come 
.unto you. The news that are now here thus 
common, were first brought into Britain by a bark 
of Ruoco,f and thence advertised hither. Second- 
ly, by a small pinnace, a man of war, who had 
been on the coast of Spain and taken a small 
prize, and brought it into Porchmouth. Thirdly, 
by an Englishman, who had been prisoner in 
Spain, and escaped away in a ship of Denmark ; 

* In 1596, Queen Elizabeth, hearing that the King of Spain 
was preparing to invade this country, resolved to prevent him. 
For which purpose she despatched a fleet of one hundred and 
fifty sail, with two-and-twenty Dutch ships, and seven thousand 
soldiers, under the command of Lord Howard, and the cele- 
brated Essex, against Cadiz, which they captured on the 2l8t 
of June, burning the Spanish fleet which lay there. The par- 
ticulars of this action are narrated in Birch's Bacon Papers, i. 
465. This action at Cadiz is referred to in several parts of his 
Memoirs by Bishop Goodman. See also Camden's Elizabeth^ 
p. 516, and Tytler's Life of Raleigh, p. 166. 

t C. Roca? 


who, being landed in the West Country, is come 
hither to London, and this day by chance I spake 
with this man upon the Change. But, fourthly 
and lastly, which carrieth yet most credit, this 
news is brought by certain Flemish merchants, 
who are very lately come from St. Lucars, and 
making some stay in the West Country ; Sir 
Francis Godolphin have taken their examinations, 
and Sir Henry Palliners, and sent them to the 
Court, whereof many copies are every where pub- 
lished. That which giveth greatest hope and bear- 
eth likelihood of truth is this, that all these four 
several advertisements happening (as we heard it) 
in three several days, do all in substance concur^ 
which is of the overthrow of ninety sail of Spain ; 
whereof forty freighted with Spanish commodi* 
ties and bound for the West Indies, twenty-two 
or twenty-four great ships of war loaden with 
victual and ordnance only, and three great ships 
loaden with biscuit, to be carried to Lysborne 
and the Spanish fleet in other places. Two of 
these, viz. the Admiral and Vice-admiral, being 
called St, Philip and St. Paul, burned themselves 
in the harbour at Cades ; the Philip was said to be 
of fifteen hundred tons. The rest were almost all 
gallies, which were all sunk and taken, saving 
two or three. It is reported that the gallies main- 
tained fight long, and took fresh men from the 
shore instead of them that were slain three several 
times, and the latter time they were quite over- 


thrown. These things were done the SlOth and 
the 21st of June. On the 20th, Cades was entered, 
as it is said, by the Dutch first, who in their fury- 
spared neither age nor sex, but put all to the 
sword : there was found in the Philip, after the 
fire was quenched, forty-two great pieces of ord- 
nance. The Duke of Medina Sydonia, who was 
general of their fleet in anno 1588, came to the 
r^cue of Cades from St.Lucars, with four hundred^ 
horse and three thousand foot, but was discomfited, 
and two great commanders of his slain ; himself 
escaped. This duke is holden in Spain to be a 
man of incomparable wisdom and wonderful 
valour, as Seignor Anthony de Peres,* the Span- 
iard that was here, reported ; but against the Eng- 
lish he hath had but mean fortune. There were 
twenty -eight [eighteen ?] ships coming from Se- 
vile, which upon the alarm at Cades retired up the 
river, being (as they say) pursued by some of our 
smallest ships, and such gallies as they took : it is 
holden that St. Mary Port and St. Lucars also are 
both burnt. I pray God send us once some cer- 
tainty from my Lord of Essex himself, for it is 
a full month since these things were done, and 
yet no word is come from the fleet. The reason 
hereof is verily supposed to be this, that my 
lord will not send till he have been at Civile, 
which our wisest courtiers do verily think, and I 

* A great friend to the Earl of Essex. He is frequently men- 
tioned in the Bacon Papers. 


hear them confirm their conjectures with oaths, 
that they will undoubtedly take Civile also. The 
news of taking Cades and overthrowing the Span- 
ish fleet, was on Tuesday last confirmed by letters 
from the French King to the Queen's Majesty, 
who hath received the very latest advertisement 
that we have here; but none that was present 
hath yet made report thereof, either in England 
or France. I have sent you here enclosed the 
copy of a letter which was sent from my Lord of 
Essex to the Council here,* a little before his go- 
ing from Plymouth. I beseech you keep it very 
, private, and return it safe enclosed in a sheet of 
paper when your worship may conveniently. It 
may be you have seen it before ; but I am sure 
there are very few copies thereof, and I came by 
this by great chance. I have sent your worship 
some collections touching the present state of 
Ireland, which were lately sent over to the Coun- 
cil here. For all the good service of the Dutch 
in Hulst, the town is now in distress and in great 
danger to be lost, the siege is now so strong. I 
hear that there shall presently go from hence to 
the relief thereof, for that it is a town of very 

* This letter of the Earl of Essex is found in the volume, 
next to this letter here printed, and contains a postscript which 
is not generally printed with the letter. 

" I beseech your Lordship's pardon my using of another hand 
for this transcript, for I have been forced to go from ship to ship 
to make our loiterers go out of harbour ; and have made my 
head unable to write so long a letter.*' 

It is generally printed among Lord Bacon's Letters. 


great importance. The Council here are much 
busied about this [supply], and the matters of 
Ireland ; Sir Richard Bingham is drawn into 
some question there by means of General Norris, 
who is not his friend, and accused of great mat- 
ters, and removed from his charge in Connaught ; 
but it is thought he will both acquit himself ho- 
nestly and recover his place very shortly. 

The Borderers in Scotland have lately made a 
road into our borders and carried away one Cap- 
tain Musgrave, a gentleman of good living and 
worthy, notwithstanding all the pursuit that has 
been made to recover him. There were yester- 
day two of the Greames before the Council 
here, who were accused as accessory to the con- 
veying away of a prisoner out of Carlisle Castle, 
whereof you have heard, which the Lord Buck- 
clughe of Scotland took ; but they have cleared 
themselves. The Earl of Northumberland is come 
to the Court, and hath made his excuse for going 
into France; so as the burden will now lie upon 
my lord for the performance of that service, for 
so it is agreed both by the Queen and Council. 
The greatest part of this negotiation will be, to 
take the King's oath to certain articles already 
agreed upon betwixt her Majesty and him ; and 
the Duke of BuUein* cometh hither to take the 

* Added in the margin, '* The Duke of Bullein is looked for 
here about a month hence." 

The Duke de Bouillon and M. de Harley Sancy were sent 
over into England by Henry IV. of France, to negotiate with 


Queen's oath. On Tuesday last, 20 July, old Sir 
Francis Knowles, Treasurer of the Household, 
departed this life. On Wednesday the 21st, Mr. 
Bashe of Essex, the son and heir of Gascoiiiges 
Bashe, that married Mr. Carys's daughter, of the 
Privy Chamber, was drowned, shooting London 
Bridge at low water. Yesterday, being Thurs- 
day, betwixt eleven and twelve of the o'clock at 
night, my Lord Chamberlain* departed this life ; 
a nobleman to whom my poor self was more par- 
ticularly bounden for many honourable good 
usages than to any in court. 

My lord and lady are not yet returned, but 
to-morrow I do undoubtedly look for their coming. 
Thus, having patched up a rude tedious letter, 
after mine accustomed manner, I humbly take 
my leave, beseeching you to present my most 
humble duty and service to that worthy knight 
Sir Thomas Comewaleys, of whom I do of my 
faith assure you [I] continually here in London hear 
more honourable commendation for many notable 
things in this time than of any of his coat in Eng- 
land; so as I heartily pray the Almighty that 

the Queen. The principal articles of this treaty consisted in 
stipulations for mutual assistance in event of either kingdom 
being invaded. It was also agreed, that neither of the two 
crowns should make peace without the consent of the other. 
The Queen swore to this treaty at Greenwich, on the 29th of 
August. A very amusing account of the ceremony is still pre- 
served in the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian. 
* Henry Brook, Lord Cobham. 


he will prolong his days upon earth, to the com- 
fort of all those that are dear unto him in parti- 
cular, and for the relief of the poor commons 
about him in general. Mine humble duty to my 
singular good lady I desire your worship may be 

This Friday, 28rd of July 1596. 

Your worship's in all duty to command, 

♦ ♦ • « 

To the Right Worshipful Sir Thomas Kitson, Knt. 

at Hengrave.f 



In Winwood's papers f the reader will find the 
celebrated letter of Cecil to Win wood, 7th March 

t Tan. Orig. Hoi. cxlvi. 77. 

I The conduct of the Earl of Essex at his death was marked 
with the same inconsistency which characterized most of his ac- 
tions during his life. His accusation of his sister, who had 
been a most earnest suitor for his life and liberty whilst he was 
under the Queen's displeasure^ is of a piece with his betrayal, 
on their accusation, of his accomplices. The apologists of the 
Earl are at a loss to account for his conduct on this occasion ; 
and difficult indeed would be the task, if we are to form our 
estimate of his character from their descriptions. 

In his confession he charged several of the conspirators with 
designs of destroying their country ; specifying Sir Christopher 
Bloun^, and his own secretaries, Cuffe and Temple. After his 
condemnation he desired to speak with the former, and told him 
that he had been one of the chiefest instigators to these disloyal 

§ Vol. i. p. 299. 


1600, giving an account of the trial and conduct 
of the Earl of Essex. Probably a circular letter 
of a similar nature was sent round to all our em- 
bassadors, to make use of as a kind of official do- 
cument ; since I find another letter of Cecil's to 
Sir George Carew, President of Munster, almost 
verbally the same, except at the beginning and 
the ending, and differing in such expressions as 
were of necessity to be changed in a letter written 
at a later date, as this is. 

The latter part of this letter * is here presented 
to the reader. 

" It remaineth now that I let you know what 
is like to become of the poor young Earl of South- 
ampton, who merely for the love of the Earl hath 
been drawn into this action ; who, in respect that 
most of the conspiracies were at Drury-house, 
where he was always chief, and where Sir Charles 
Davers lay, those that would deal for him (of 

courses. To this charge Cuffe made no other reply than by 
complaining of his lordship's inconstancy, and betrayal of those 
who had devoted themselves to his service. The Earl then pro- 
ceeded to say, that several persons had been privy to his designs, 
especially Lord Montjoy and Sir Henry Neville ; the latter of 
whom (who on his return from France was imprisoned on this 
very account) complained that the Earl, in his confession, had 
acted towards him both unequally and uncharitably. Birch's 
Bacon Papers, ii. 479. These facts from independent and im- 
partial sources add weight to the testimony of Nottingham, 
which otherwise should be received with caution, since it is not 
improbable that he and Essex were not on favourable terms. 
See Camd. 535. 

* Tan. Ixxvi. 74. In Bancroft's hand, and copied, in all pro- 
bability, by him from the original. 


which number I protest to God I am one as far 
as I dare) are much disadvantiaged of arguments 
to save him. And yet, when I consider how 
penitent he is, and how merciful the Queen is, 
and that never in thought or deed, but in thid 
conspiracy, he offended ; as I cannot write in de- 
spair, so I dare not flatter myself with hope. 

" For the rest of the noblemen that are in the 
Tower, as Rutland, Sands, Cromwell, Monteagle, 
excepting Sands and Cromwell, I presume the 
other two shall have mercy ; but Sands and Crom- 
well are appointed to be tried to-morrow by the 
peers at Westminster-Hall. For Sir Charles Da- 
•vers, nothing hath more alienated the hearts of 
men to deal for him than this, that above all 
others, till he saw all their own hands, he was 
most obstinate in impudent denials.* Sir Henry 

* He persisted in his denials till he had seen the confession 
of the other conspirators under their own hands. Upon this he 
made a full and complete acknowledgment of the plot. This 
confession has been printed by Birch in the Bacon Papers, ii. 
470, and is of the utmost importance for the secret history of 
the proceedings of the Earl and his friends. If the paper was 
ever perused by the Queen, no wonder that Montjoy felt the 
uneasiness which he shows in his letters : and less wonderful 
is it that the Queen was implacable towards Essex, whom she 
would thus see employed in intriguing for the succession of 
James, or attempting to raise a party in Wales, to satisfy his 
own private ambition; this latter course Montjoy prudently 

From the same paper it appears that Davers had been obliged 
to Cecil ; for he says , ** I owed a respect to Mr. Secretary, 
unto whom I was much beholden ; and therefore > would not be 
engaged in anything against his person.*' 


Nevil, that was embassador in France, is likewise 
in displeasure, for having been acquainted with 
all the circumstances of this plot by Cuff and 
Davers, and not revealed it ; which in a gentle- 
man of his wisdom hath been no small crime, 
nor to me no small grief, having married mine 
own cousin-german. Three or four days since, 
here arrived the Earl of Marr with the Lord of 
Kinloss, embassadors from the King of Scotland: 
their errands are generally holden to be to deal 
plainly and sincerely with the Queen about the 
foreign employments wherewith the King hath 
been scandalized abroad; likewise about Sir Wm. 
Evers and other prisoners here. He hath not yet 
had audience, because his carriages are not yet 

" Your affectionate friend to command, 

" Ro. Cecyll.'* 


[Essex's behaviour after his trial.] 


I HAVE received your letter of the 16th of May, 
and must acknowledge myself much beholden 
unto you, that it pleaseth you to protest the trust 
which you repose in me ; which I will never fail 
you of. 

Sir Oly ver St. Jon hath showed me the journal 

* A different cause is supposed in Cecil s letter to Winwood. 
NVinw. i. 302. 


of the sundry services that hath been done upon 
the rebels* since your lordship's government. And 
by that I see how you have not only taken from 
thedi their goods and chattels^ but also cut off 
their lives and burnt their towns ; and jo ruinated 
a Dumber of them, as, if the feathers of the arch- 
traitor be so plucked, and his members so dis- 
jointed but a little more, he will not be able to 
show his face but in the bushes, where he can but 
creep. So as your lordship may think yourself 
a most happy man to bring that poor ruinated 
country into frame again, great service to her 
Majesty, and infinite pleasure to yourself. 

And whereas your lordship doth write to me 
that I should be a means unto her Majesty that 
yourself might be the reporter to her of the state 
of that realm, it is a question with me and maketh 
a great doubt, bearing the place I do, whether in 
my duty to her, considering how all things doth 
prosper under you, to press to her your now com- 
ing thence; the other in my love to you, which 
I protest in respect of yourself, and the desire 
you have, I should be most glad to see you here 
with us your companions at the feast, and yet 
ever with that respect to the service of the state 
there, that by your absence too long that might 
not be neglected. But all this power lyeth in 
her Majesty, whose pleasure in it your lordship 
may , understand. And now, but by passage, I 
think bar Majesty could be most, glad to see and 

♦ He means in Ireland. 


look upon your black eyes here, so she were 
sure you would not look with too much respect 
of other black eyes. But for that, if the Admiral 
were but thirty years old, I think he would not 
differ in ojinions from the Lord Montioy. 

I am sure your lordship hath had the relation 
at large of the late Earl of Essex' proceedings, 
who forgot God, his loyalty to his sovereign, 
above all measure of a reasonable man. Yet he 
died like a Christian, and God hath his soul. Yet 
will I acquaint your lordship with some particu- 
lars. The day after his arraignment he humbly 
desired that her Majesty would send some of her 
council to him, and that I might be one of them. 
So the next day, being Friday, Mr. Secretary* 
and myself was sent unto him. And thus he did 
begin with us:— I do humbly thank her Majesty 
that it hath pleased her to send you two unto me, 
and you are both most heartily welcome; and 
above all things I am most bound unto her Ma- 
jesty that it pleased her to let me have this little 
man, Mr. Ashton, my minister with me for my 
soul. For, said he, this man in a few hours hath 
made me know my sins unto her Majesty, and 
to my God. And [I] must confess to you, that 
I am the greatest, the most vilest, and most un- 
thankfuUest traitor that ever was born in this 
kind. And therefore, if it shall please you, I will 
deliver now the truth, though yesterday at the 
bar, like a most sinful wretch, with countenance 

* Cecil. 


and words I maintained all falsehood. Then he 
began to lay open the practice for the suppressing 
of her Majesty and the court ; who were at the 
counsels at Drewry House, the Earl of Southamp- 
ton's lodging ; that these were they appointed by 
the Earl to consider how it should be put in exe- 
cution, — the Earl of Southampton, Sir Charles 
Danvers, Sir Fa. Gorg, Sir Jo. Davis, Sir 
Nevill and Coffe ; Sir Christopher Blunt he ever 
kept with him; he spared none of these to let us 
know how continually they laboured him about it. 
And now, said he, I must accuse one who is most 
nearest to me, my sister, who did continually 
urge me on with telling me how all my friends 
and followers thought me a coward, and that I 
had lost all my valour ; and then thus, that she 
must be looked to, for she had a proud spirit; 
and spared not to say something of her affection to 
you. Would your lordship have thought this 
weakness and this uhnaturalness in this man ? This 
moved her Majesty to think fit that she should 
be conimitted, and appointed me to that pleasing 
office. I did obey her as it became me, and sent 
her to Mr. He. Lakford's house, where she re- 
mained till she was examined by myself and her 
secretary. She used herself with that modesty 
and wisdom, as, the report being made unto her 
Majesty, she was presently set at liberty, and sent 
unto my lord her husband's. 

I cannot forbear, after all this unpleasant dis- 

VOL. IL c 


course, but a little to make you afraid with sending 
you this enclosed, when you consider what a youth 
I am. Yet this you shall be assured, that I am 
faithful to my friend; and my Lord Montjoy 
shall so ever find me 

Most readiest to be commanded by him, 


There hath been executed the Earl of Essex, 
Sir Charles Danvers, Sir Crystofer Blunt, Sir 
Gilly Meryke, and Cofe; and I trust they shall 
be all. For the Earl of Southampton, though 
he be condemned, yet I hope well for his life; 
for Mr. Secretary and myself use all our wits and 
power for it. I hope no more of the noblemen 
shall be attainted. Good my lord, when you have 
read this letter, consume it; for so will I with yours. 
This last of May.* 

To the Right Hon. and my very good Lord, the 
Lord Montjoy, Lord Deputy of Ireland ; with a 
letter from the Lady Penelope Rich. 


Worthy Lord, 

I MUST humbly intreat you to pardon my im- 
portuning you with these lines, since the obliga- 

♦ Orig. Hoi, Tan. Ixxvi. 38. 

f The blank should be filled with the name of Nottingham, 
as appears by the last letter. This lady loved Montjoy, with 
whom she afterwards livedj and by whom she had several children. 


tions your favours have laid upon me are so great 
as they even burthen my soul with thankfuUness; 
and desire to let your lordship know, that as my 
mind hath been long since dedicated to honour 
you, so hath your late kindnesses vouchsafed me 
so much comfort, as the bond is more infinite than 
I can any way discharge, but only with the true 
and inviolable love of an obedient friend, which 
I will rather die than fail of, so long as I have 
breath. For my deserts towards him that is gone, 
it is known that I have been more like a slave 
than a sister ; which proceeded out of my exceed- 
ing lov^, rather than his authority. What I have 
lost or suffered, besides her Majesty's displeasure,* 
I will not mention : yet so strangely have I been 
wronged, as may well be an argument to make 
one despise the world, finding the smoak of envy 
where afiection should be clearest. But God par- 
don such humors, and deal with me as I was free 
from the love or knowledge of these unruly coun- 
sells. And, lastly, I beseech your lordship to 
hold me in your precious favour, since you are 
the person that, above all others, I have reason 
to honour and respect, both in regard of your 
own vertues and your noble kindnesses towards 
me, who can present you with no merit but my 
vowes to be endlessly your lordship's most faith- 
full to do you service. Penelope RiCHE.f 

* See Birch's Bacon Papers, ii. p. 441. 
t Tan. cxiv. 174. Orig. Hoi. 

C 2 


Your lordship's noble disposition forceth me 
to deliver my grief unto you, hearing a report 
that some of these malicious tongues have sought 
to wrong a worthy friend of yours.* I know the 
most of them did hate him for his zealous follow- 
ing the service of her Majesty, and beseech you 
to pardon my presuming thus much, though I 
hope his enemies can have no power to Tiarm 




[Account of Queen Elizabeth's progress to Basing, and her en- 
tertainment at the house of Lord and Lady Paulet.] 


It is your pleasure I should acquaint you with 
the estate of our house, and how matters are car- 
ried with us at Basinge ; demands sorting neither 
with my coat, nor fitting with my occupation to 
answer. If to be satisfied in our domestic affairs 
had been your only desire, I would, knowing 
your sound affection to the honor and owners 
thereof, have borrowed so much of good manners 
to have been a blab in our household business. 
But to deal with the court of a prince, or deliver 
ought of the occurrences thereof, Basing being 
now the royal seat of our Queen, is much unbe- 
seeming the clerk of a kitchen ; yet, under bene- 

* Montjoy. 



dicite, 1 will make a brief confession of both; 
Her Majesty, with Scarborough warning, divert'^ 
ing her course intended to my Lord of Hertford's^ 
directly to Basinge, on Saturday night, this 5th 
of September, thereinto entered, where all things 
for so great entertainment but elbow room and 
good will were wanting; which considered, my 
lady's counsel stood firm for her remove to Hack- 
wood, and thereof had fully resolved. But Sir 
William Comwallis, to whom the entertainment 
of a prince hath been but a pastime, with his 
violent persuasions prevailed for her continuance 
at Basing ; undertaking himself to manage the ac- 
tion, which he performed with more honor and 
less charge than was expected ; yet with more 
charge than the constitution of Basing may well 
bear. On Saturday the 12th, Mons. de Biron, 
accompanied with divers lords and gentlemen, 
French, repaired from The Vine, where they were 
nobly lodged, unto Basing ; from whence, after a 
small time of audience given, they departed. On 
Sunday, Countie Aberque* (?), and divers nobles 
of France, by means of the council, dined with 
my lord and ladyf that night for mere good 
will and love of the fair ladies. They invited 
themselves to supper, w^here there was that 
night great revellings; and so likewise on Monday 
night, and Tuesday's dinner, when we were of 
them delivered. Many were the importunities 

* Or Merque. f Lord and Lady Paulett. 



and devices for my lady to entertain them all 
with a dinner on Monday, but her good fortune 
and the favor of her friends found means to avoid 
it ; so that the same day after her Majesty, with 
the said French lords, had spent the forenoon in 
the slaughter of some 20 deer in the great park, 
feasted them at her own charge in my lord's great 
chamber, erst the wardrobe in the Armory Court, 
but by Sir William transformed to a fair pre- 
sence; on Friday, 18, her Majesty, upon the 
instant of her departure, with abundance of grace, 
in Basinghall, made 11 knights; namely, Mr. Ed. 
Cicill first, Mr. Hamden Paulett, Mr. Tickh- 
bome, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Carey Rawley, Mr. Lud- 
lowe, Mr. Yooton, Mr. Kingsmell, Mr. Hunger- 
ford, Mr. Beynton, Mr. Stoner. And the Sunday, 
dining with Mr. Whit at Southwarmborrow, to 
make up a full dozen, her Majesty strengthened, 
or rather overlaid (if a prince's favor may be 
a burthen) his weak shoulders with the same 
order, and swore his wife one of her women. 
This for the court, of whom we are now cleared. 
Now for our house, the state whereof being subject 
to a continual motion, being carried about with 
so many motives, seems at this time to bring on 
us a new alteration. Mr. Steward, as far as I 
can gather, excepts with great dislikes ag^nst 
many proceedings; being already in a manner 
deprived of all power, and overpowered by others : 
and I doubt of his continuance, such is his 


discontentment. If fair leisure would permit, 
your person, no doubt, would do good ; for if 
this disease be not now cured, or at the best 
stirred, it will prove ever hereafter incurable. 
Other news here is none, but the woeful and 
most pitiful burning of Basingstoke, on Wednes- 
day, the 16 of this instant, where is consumed 
with fire 14 fine houses, besides bams and sta- 
bles. Thus, with my duty, &c. Yours truly, 

Thomas Tooke.* 

Basing, the 19 of Sept. 1601. 




Sacred Majesty, 

If in this employment 1 should only expose my 
life and what sustains it to assured hazard, I 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxvi. p. 224. 

t The following letters relate to a period in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth^ generally passed over by our historians in a 
very summary, not to say, careless manner. They are in- 
teresting, also, as being the only autographs as yet known of 
one who was as distinguished by the grace and beauty of his 
person, as by the qualities of his mind, — the gallant Charles 
Blunt, Earl of Montjoy. 

This lord had the ability and happiness to terminate the 
Irish war, which broke the heart of Norris, was the ruin of 
Essex, and caused greater uneasiness to Queen Elizabeth than 
any other occurrence during her reign. The concurrent state- 
ment of Naunton and Camden^ that the rebellion of Tyrone 
sunk deep into the heart of Elizabeth, and produced that set- 


should take no other counsel but your will, and 
think them vile respects in comparison of the 
precious opportunity to serve you. But, the first 
faceof this journey threatening unto me the certain 
loss of your favour, pardon me if I look fearfully 
thereon. It is natural unto reasonable instru- 
ments, before they work, to know and to look 
upon the end, and with discretion to think and 
find out the means unto it ; which if they cannot, 
both nature and wisdom do shun impossibilities. 
If I will conclude to myself herein, by example, 
I shall behold all that have gone before me, with- 
out exception, for many ages to have been thun- 
derstricken with the indignation of the prince, 

tied melancholy which hastened her death, has hardly met 
with sufficient attention. Tyrone was pardoned, but with a 
very ill grace, as will be seen by the following correspondence. 
Had Elizabeth indeed lived longer, she would probably have 
found the means of inflicting upon him the full force of her 
severest resentment. 

The following remarks of Naunton, in the Preface to his Frag- 
menta Regalia, are so much in accordance with the spirit of 
these letters, that I think fit to submit them to the reader : 

** This also," he observes, " 1 present as a known observation, 
that she was (though very capable of council) absolute enough 
in her own resolutions, which was ever apparent even to her lasty 
in that her aversation to grant Tyrone the least drop of her merct/y 
though earnestly and frequently advised ; yea, wrought only by the 
whole council of state, with very many pressing reasons, and, as 
the state of her kingdom then stood (I may speak it with assur- 
ance), necessitated arguments. * * * * The Irish action we may 
call a malady and a consumption of her times, for it accom- 
panied her to her end, and it was of so profuse and vast an ex- 
pense, that it drew near a distemperature of state and of passion in 


which doth not only wound deadly, but leaves 
where it strikes the black marks of infamy ; the 
which not to fear is not valour, but im- 
piety. If by reason (since your end is to reduce 
your kingdom to a peaceable obedience) I must 
consider whether in respect of their state and 
affections, or of the power and countenance that 
you will give to your action, or, lastly, of the in- 
terpretation I am likely to receive of my pro- 
ceedings, I may hope for any better than this 
worst that hath happened to my forerunners. 
The hearts of your unnatural subjects there, which 
have already declared themselves above their lives^ 

herself; for, toward her last, she grew somewhat hard to please ^ 
her arms being accustomed to prosperity, and the Irish perse- 
cution not answering her expectation and wonted success for a 
good while ; it was an unthrifty and inauspicious war, which 
did much disturb and mislead her judgment ; and the more, for 
that it was a precedent which was taken out of her own pattern ; 
for as the Queen (by way of diversion) had, at the coming to 
the crown, supported the revolted states of Holland, so did the 
King of Spain turn the trick on herself, towards her going out, 
by cherishing the" Irish rebellion." 

According to the same authority, the yearly establishment of 
horse and foot was about 20,000. The charge of the war 
alone cost £300,000 per annum, which was not the moiety 
of her other disbursements. 

All these letters of Lord Montjoy are in his own hand. It is 
stated in Morison's Itinerary, that, when the Earl of Essex fell 
into trouble, the Lord Montjoy, for fear of having his papers 
seized, took them out of his secretary's hands, and wrote the 
drauijchts of all his letters with his own hand. 

He frequently requests to be recalled ; the sincerity of this 
request may, however, reasonably be doubted. 


affect, by shaking off your royal and equal govern- 
ment^ to enjoy their old licentious liberty; and 
by reason of the multitude and quality of their 
offences despaipof your mercies : they were never 
in greater hope to effect the one, becoming proud 
by success and strong in power, nor more despe- 
rate of tlie other, by reason of the diffidence they 
have in the disability of your instruments safely to 
derive your mercy unto them. The same desire 
of this kind of liberty hath infected even those 
indigence in whom you build to have most in- 
terest. The greatest of whom, and of greatest 
appearance to be yours, the Earl of Ormond, is 
suspected to have strict intelligence with the 
enemy, for the present preservation of his coun- 
try and for his future interest; and is known 
ambitiously to desire the place you employ me 
in. The rest, when they despair to be defended, 
will suddenly fall, as now they do cleave to the 
enemy. Wherefore what assistance, nay, what 
opposition, I may look from them, I humbly 
submit to your Majesty's judgment. For your 
power, the reputation and effect whereof is the 
only mean to govern them that have now no other 
bonds but their own fear and your constraint : 
when I shall succeed our head,* greatest in your 
favor, and greater by his place and offices, (the 
arguments thereof,) and of greatest reputation 
among your subjects and realms for his service 
to you, enabled with a strong army and large 

* Probably Essex. 


commission; with only means to govern them 
by laws that have their swords already drawn, 
or to negociate a peace with less power over 
their lives, or less authority to derive unto them 
your mercy with assurance, what shall I hope 
for, but that which could not be effected by far 
greater means will not be by far less? And, 
lastly, for the interpretation of my proceedings, 
which may turn both good and ill success to 
my ruin ; what shall I look for when I know 
this employment of me is by a private man that 
never knew what it was to divide public and 
honorable ends from his own, propounded and 
labored to you (without any respect to your 
public service,) the more eagerly, by my ruins 
to rise to his long expected fortune. Wherein, 
by reason of the experience I have heard your 
Majesty holds him to have in that country, he is 
like to become my judge, and is already so 
proud of this plot that he cannot keep himself 
from bragging of it. But since I dare not pre- 
sume to trouble you with all my reasons, these 
being but only lights of them, I humbly desire 
your Majesty, before you resolve herein, that 
as it only belongs unto you to be the supreme, 
you will make yourself only my judge herein, 
and let whomsoever you will appoint be my 
actors, for with you 1 may not, with you I 
cannot contest, and had rather prove a dumb, 
though never so unfortunate a creature.* 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxvi. 18. 



O WHAT malincoly humour hath exhaled up. 
to your brayne, from a full-fraughted hart, that 
should breede such doubte bred upon no cause 
geven by vs at all, never havhig pronounced 
any syllable whereon such a work should be 
framed. There is no louder tromp that may 
sound out your praise, your hazard, your care, 
your luck, then we haue blasted in all our 
court and elsewhere in deed. Well, I will at- 
tribute it to God's good Providence for you, 
that (leste all these glories might elevate you 
to much) he hath suffred (though not made) 
such a scruple, to keepe you vnder his rod, 
who best knowes that wee all have more neede 
of bittes then spurres. Thus, va leant ista amara! ad 
Tariaros eat melancholia ! 

Your Souueraine, 

sit, xv« 

Endorsed — *^A copy of her Majesty's lettre^ lest you can not reade 
it.** Then, in Lord Montjoy*s own hand, *' Receaved at Ac- 
braken (?) the off January, ih a packet from Mr. Secre- 
tary' [Cecil].* 


Sacred Majesty, 

If darkness be the mother of fearful appre- 
hensions, excuse me that so long have wanted 
those beams of yours, that only give light and 

* Tan. Ixxvi. 17. The words in italics are cautious Mr. Se- 


lightness to my heart, which cannot but be 
troubled in so tempestuous a sea, having lost 
the sight of. my only star. But since, by your 
divine letters I feel the influence, though I see 
not the heavenly substance, my mind shall sing 
in the midst of all dangers : for I cannot be so 
weary, but your voice will make me go cheer- 
fully forwards ; nor so sick, but I shall be sound 
if you bid me be whole. Yet shall I never bid 
farewell to all bitterness till 1 kiss your sweet 
hands, who have only power to lift up or depress 
my mind, which I have fixed against all other 
fortunes and armed against all other powers. 
And, most dear Sovereign, I cannot acknow- 
ledge in myself any such swelling thoughts as 
were fit for Providence to correct ; but rather 
think that fortune will take this little from 
your otherwise accomplished happiness, that you 
shall esteem him least that loveth you most, 
and want the fruits of a matchless faith by not 
esteeming me, as I am, and ever will be, your 
truest servant. [Montjoy].* 

Endorsed in the same hand — " From Trim, the of 

January, in a packet sent to Mr. Treasurer for Mr. Secretary.*' 


S. M. 

Our end is faithfully to serve and please yxyxi 
by working the safety and honur of your coun- 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxvi. 42. 


try ; our means, by the most reasonable counsels 
and uttermost endeavors to labor the advance- 
ment of your royal estate and the .empairing of 
your enemies' abilities. The success is without 
us, and only in the power of God : yet to those 
that judge by success, and look thorough passion, 
all counsels are measured by their events, and 
their actors valued with the gain or loss thereof; 
which maketh us, your humble vassals, happy 
to serve so understanding a prince, that vouch- 
safeth so graciously to accept our faithful desires 
find travails, though hitherto void of all effect ; 
and doth encourage us to advise hereafter with 
all consideration, and to execute without all fear, 
since you ask no other account of us but that 
which is in our powers to give you of our cir- 
cumspection, adventure, faith, and diligence. 
Hitherto your army, as it hath been commanded 
by a worthy head,' so the whole body, of how 
contrary complexion soever the parts be com- 
posed, hath conspired with great unity to 
strengthen itself, the better to serve you, where- 
in, as yet, there hath been no distemper, neither 
now any appearance of disease to grow ; only 
the weak and corrupt parts thereof, that had no 
other ends but their private gain, cut off by 
their own feeble resolutions. And since all our 
crosses, being of so much terror and so little 
harm, seem to be rather the warnings of a lov- 
ing father than the punishments of a determined 


enemy, we have great reason to hope that Gk)d 
hath done it to purge us of them, and to reserve 
us to do you the greater service. Your chief 
and avowed encL which is to affi^ont the army 
of Spain,* and thereby to secure for this time 
your own dominions, I doubt not but by Good's 
power shall be done, and your happiness we 
shall accomplish ; whereby the honor, if not the 
charge, of your preparations will be saved. What- 
soever else you have commanded, I am confi- 
dent that your constant felicity, and our infinite 
desires to serve you, will make certain and easy, 
how uncertain or difficult soever they be. For 
myself, your humble and truest vassal, as there 
is no proportion between infinite and finite, so 
do I esteem even the least of your favors to be 
infinitely above my deservings, and as much 
above the most I can receive from any ease; 
^md there shall be no rest in my heart till I 
have obtained this end, which I have pro* 
pounded to myself as my chiefest good in this 
world, to deserve better of you, both by my 
faith and efiects thereof, than any other; and 
that your royal Majesty may think, as in my 
own heart I think, myself to be 

Your Majesty's trUest servant, 


* The Spaniards landed in Ireland, Sept. 23, 1601. 
t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxvi. 261. 



Sacred and most dear Sovereion. 

My desire is to present unto you the thankful- 
ness and affections of my heart with the continual 
relation of some service performed for you ; but, 
when I have performed anything, it seemeth to 
me too little to be remembered, when I think of 
my obligation to your infinite worthiness and pre- 
cious favor unto me. But though in the infancy 
of our work we speak like children of small things, 
yet I hope every day will make our style more 
strong, until we shall plainly pronounce unto you 
the confusion of your two enemies. Ambition and 
Rebellion, in Spain and Ireland. Against both 
which in them and in all others, and against any 
mortal power that shall lift itself up against you, 
if I shall not ever show myself a faithful, indus- 
trious, and sharp instrument, let me receive shame 
in this world, and my soul no rest in any ; the 
first of all mortal plagues I hate, the other above 
all I desire. And, dear Sovereign, let not others' 
weakness, malice, or practice stain me in your fair 
eyes with any spot of disloyalty ; for I have ever 
studied and strived to prevent invasion, to break 
rebellion, to calm all swelling humors of your 
subjects, though rather by healing them than by 
lancing them. And lastly, ever since my charge 
of this your army, I have endeavored to rectify 


all turbulent and wandering spirits from the true 
scope of their duty to concur with me in this one 
point; next under God, to have no other hope 
but in you, nor to hold any dependency but on 
you. I do know that God will never so forsake 
me as to suffer me to be any other's than yours : 
and therefore I do boldly vow, what I do confi- 
dently mean, that I will be the last man that shall 
abandon you, and never but with my life will I 
leave you ; and I will ever strive to be the first 
that shall wet his sword in the blood of any man 
that shall be your enemy. The eternal God pre- 
serve your Migesty, confound your enemies, and 
{HX)sper your armies ; and send me the happiness 
to do you the service your own royal heart doth 
desire, and after to be so blessed as to kiss your 
fair hands in your gracious favor. 

Your Majesty's truest servant, 


From your Majesty's Camp before 
Kinsale, the 1st of Nov. 1601. 


Sacred Majesty, 

It hath pleased God to preserve your army 
hitherto through many extremities of danger and 
enduring, by a continued line of good success unto 
the greatest victory that ever your forces obtained 

• Tan. Ixxvi. 266. 

t " By Sir H. Davey ;** note in Lord Montjoy's hand. 


in this kingdom.* Unto God you do owe much, 
and all that you owe to any ; but more, and infi- 
nitely more do I, that by him was used as the weak 
instrument in so great a work, for so dear a mis* 
tress, with so happy event. Yet, when with my 
own affection I look upon your favors to me, I 
think nothing is done till all be done ; and even as 
your own royal heart doth most desire it should 
be done. The which I was confident to perform 
when I had some reason to despair ; and continue 
in the same hope, because I did not trust to the 
strength of the ground I stand upon, but have 
lifted up my eyes to those hills unde venit auxilium 
mihu In the mean time, most royal Sovereign, 
vouchsafe that I may name you my dearest mis- 
tress ; and at the least, if you will not do so, yet to 
give me leave to esteem myself, as I believe I am. 

Your truest so'vant, M.t 


Sacred Majesty^ 

Although it be no example to me, that hold no 
proportion with your infinite worthiness, to con- 
ceive what you would and were able to do by 
your royal pres^ice against any the most power- 
ful or pcditic army that the greatest monarch 
could erect, — who am but the weak and unworthy 
minister of your powers ; yet if I had thought or 
had not assuredly believed the contrary, that any 

* The victory over Tyrone, at Kinsale, 24 Dec. 1601. 
t Orig. HoL Tan. Ixxvi. 2Q9. 


thing which I did or consented unto should have 
given cause to your foes to triumph in your 
weakness, I would rather have sacrificed my life 
and all our bloods unto your honor : but until I 
may have or may obtain your Majesty's leisure to 
hear a more complete demonstration of what I do 
now only affirm, I beseech your Majesty to be- 
lieve that never any prince, since the greatness of 
Spain, hath gotten more honor against them than 
you have done by this last action; never any 
prince in so little time expelled so many of that 
nation, being settled in a country where they had 
so great a party ; never any army did more im- 
prove itself for the honor of their mistress ; (that, 
for an instance of the rest, we did rout beside 
four thousand natural Spaniards with two thou- 
sand English, and overthrow above six thousand 
rebels and invaders with less than twelve hundred 
of your subjects ;) never articles, the present 
estate of both your kingdoms considered, were 
more honorable and profitable, and I think hardly 
any precedent of so great a pledge as the King 
of Spain grants to be given for the perform- 
ance enough ;♦ and lastly, no prince can say that 
five thousand Spaniards being p<^sessed of four as 
good havens as are in Christendom, after they had 
been well beaten and many of them killed, were 
glad to depart with the passport of one of their 

* This letter has undergone so much correction, that it is not 
easy to determine the writer's meaning. 

D 2 


poorest ministers. This, most dear Sovereign, do 
not 1 write with any swelling justification of 
myself, but in the interest of your honor, the 
which I will never live to violate, nor suffer it in 
the least degree to be ^profaned. If any impious 
tongue do task my proceedings, as they are mine 
I will only patiently bless it, that, by making me 
suffer for your sake, doth increase the merit which 
is dearest unto me ; for I that have suffered for 
your sake a torment above all others so many 
years, a grieved and despised love, the ingratitude 
of my friends, the malice of my enemies, the 
labors of a most dangerous war, and all the trials 
that can be required to make good the truest pro- 
fession of my affection, am even glad that, to ac- 
complish my suffering for your sake, even the 
merit of all this is taken from me. But since the 
desert of others is not mine, and therefore unjust 
for me to conceal it, from whom you should 
chiefly know it, I most humbly desire your 
Majesty not to deprive your army from the com- 
fort of their labors, which is your gracious accept- 
ance; and, above the rest, your President of 
Mounster,* unto whom I owe the testimony of the 
most sufficient instrument you have in this king- 
dom, both for his valor and judgment. But for 
me, what belongs unto me, most dear and royal 
lady, but the conscience of being your truest 
servant, M.f 

[Beginning of January 1601-2.] 

* Sir George Carew. t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxvi. 270. 



Pardon me, sacred and dear Sovereign, if 1 be 
more jealous than I should of your favour, since 
the truest love is the fullest of fear, and self- 
lovers are most confident in their own merit. 
And since all I can do for so entire a mistress is 
too little, I do justly punish myself with the grief 
that I can perform no more ; and it is only the 
mercy proper to your sweet and royal nature that 
doth approve and comfort me in what I have 
done. I am glad that I was ill,* since you vouch- 
safe to be glad of my recovery. I did love my 
health and life only to do you service, and I will 
hate my own heart when I find it fallen to you 
or negligent of your commandments; all which I 
will sincerely endeavour to fulfil, and not presume 
to trouble your Majesty now with what I mean to 
do, but when I have done anything not unwor- 
thy of so excellent a direction.! Only this I hum- 
bly do aflSrm, if Spain had not joined with Ireland, 
the estate of this kingdom had been by this time 
to your contentment. If Spain do no more assist 
them, it will be suddenly as you would have it. 
If you be forced here to make the war with both 
Spain and Ireland, I can promise nothing but 
the uttermost use of your poor servant's life; 

*. He fell sick in April 1602. 
t Directrix. 



though I hope, with the favor of God, and the 
help of your royal hand, to beat them both. 
Dear ladv, since all the world are slaves as well 
to your fortune as to your beauty,* 1 have only 
chosen to profess ray love in the unsuspected 
language of faithful labors, dangers, and suffer- 

* It must be remembered that Elizabeth was now in her 
70th year ; and for the proofs of the sincerity of this compli- 
ment the reader should refer to vol. i. p. 164. The delicate flat- 
tery of Raleigh, and the incessant compliments paid by other 
courtiers to the Queen, upon the score of her beauty, are generally 
known. But an instance occurs in a letter of Sir Henry Unton 
to the Queen, written six years previous to this of Lord Mont- 
joy's, which outstrips all the rest. After relating an account 
of his interviews with Henry IV. of France, and his introduc- 
tion to the King's favourite, Madame de Monceaux, whom he 
takes especial care to disparage, and to insinuate that she was 
" altered very much for the worse in her complexion and favor, 
yet very grossly painted/* he observes that, after she had with- 
drawn, the King asked him what he thought of his mistress. 
" I answered," writes Sir Henry, •* sparingly in her praise ; and 
told him that, if without offence I might speak it, that I had 
the picture of a far more excellent mistress, and yet did her 
picture come far short of her perfection of beauty. * As you 
love me,* said he, ' show it me, if you have it about you,' I 
tnade some difficulties, yet, upon his importunity, offered it 
unto his view very secretly, holding it stillin my hand. He 
beheld it with passion and admiration, saying that I had reason 
je me rends^ protesting that he never had seen the like ; so with 
great reverence he kissed it twice or thrice, I retaining it still in 
my hand. In the end, with some kind of contention, he took it 
from me, vowing that I might take my leave of it, for he would not 
forgo it for any treasure ; and that, to possess the favor of the 
lovely picture, he would forsake all the world, andliold himself 
most happy ; with many other most passionate words. Then he 
did blame me (by whom, he said, he had written many passionate 


ings ; and will only open my mouth to pray for 

your eternal happiness ; and write no more, but 

that I know myself to be 

Your truest servant, 


From your Camp at Monahan.f 

[Of the Queen's disposition towards the rebels.] 

Our vbry good Lord, 

Upon the arrival of these Spanish forces, her 
Majesty, like a provident prince, beginneth to 
consider into what length of a war she is like to 
fall, which is not the thing that so much troubleth 
her for her own interest, as it doth in regard of 
the great grief in which she is when she be- 
holdeth how much blood is like to be shed of her 
so dear and loving subjects. In which considera- 
tion she hath commanded us privately to let you . 
know, as one in whose judgment and fidelity 
she will repose more than ever she did in any 

letters, and to whom he had^ with such earnestness, recom- 
mended his affection, making me his Messiah) in not return- 
ing him any reciproke favor from your Majesty ; and did com- 
plain of your Highness' neglect and disdain of him, which was 
not the least cause of his discomfort. Whereupon I replied as 
fit an answer as I could, and as I found his humour more or 
less apt of apprehension. But I found that the dumb picture 
did draw on more speech and affection from him than all my 
best arguments and eloquence.'* — Murdin, 718. 

• Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxvi. 272. 

t The Deputy's camp was at Monaghao, July 19, 1*602. 


governor of that kingdom, that if the two traitors, 
Tyrone and O'Donnell, despairing that this army, 
which is landed, shall be able to prevail, or misliking 
that they have planted themselves in Munster, so 
far from them as not to be able to give them other 
assistance than by way of diversion, whereof it 
shall likewise appear unto them that they shall 
find no great fruits, seeing the northern prosecu- 
tion shall still be in some measure continued, 
shall either of themselves be stirred in weariness ^ 
of misery, or under hand can be wrought by such 
as they may find to speak only for their own 
good, and offer such submission and a course of 
proceeding as may show their resolution to quit 
this foreign party, with offer of obedience upon 
any such terms as you shall think may be toler- 
able for the Queen to receive, and may break 
absolutely confidence between this foreign enemy 
and them ; in this case, though heretofore her 
Majesty would have stood upon more precise 
terms with them, yet now her Majesty is con- 
tented, for the good of her people, to commit 
to you the order and rule of their case, and to see 
what they will be brought unto. And therein, 
as we do know that whatsoever you shall think 
meet to advise her unto, she will never be un- 
willing to follow, so we are commanded to let 
you know, that if you shall be forced to conclude 
with them for effecting of any so important ser- 
vice by them, or any other person in like case, 


which will not admit a delay to send hither for 
.directions, her Majesty will in no sort disavow 
your act^ but ratify and confirm the same. In 
this case you may use the advice of the Lord 
President,* if you please, and suffer what minis- 
ters you think fittest to deal with them. But 
her Majesty, not knowing the success, is not dis- 
posed to open to any other in that kingdom that 
she is yet acquainted with your dealing. And 
thus, for this time, we commit your lordship to 
God's favorable protection. 

Your lordship's very loving friends, 


Ro. CEcyLL.t 

From the Court at Richmond, this 6th of Oct. 1601. 

To the Right Honorable our very good lord, the 
Lord Montjoy, Lord Deputy of Ireland. 

Endorsed by the hand of Montjoy's secretary — ^* Received 1st 
November, by the post of Bristow. From Mr. Secretary 


[Professjng an absolute submission.] 

Right honorable and my very good Lord, 

I AM given to understand that you have re- 
jected my last letter of submission sent to you, 
and therefore have caused the same to be sent 
to me again, because you did perceive I did 

• Of Munster, see p. 36. Orig. Tan. Ixxvi. 263. 

X The Irish traitor referred to in the previous letter. See a 
further notice of him in the Memoirs, p. 93. 


not make therein an absolute submission. I am 
sorry your lordship did mistake my meaning, 
for that which I did write did proceed from a 
penitent heart for the offences by me committed, 
and from an earnest desire to obtain her Majesty's 
mercy; and to that end I do now again make 
bold to send to your lordship bearing her Ma^- 
jesty*s place, whose merciful nature I know, 
though I am not worthy to crave her mercy; 
and therefore, without standing upon any terms 
or conditions, I do hereby both simply and ab- 
solutely submit myself to her Majesty's mercy, 
and will be ready to perform either such con- 
ditions as were offered me by the Lord of Or- 
mond, or any other her Majesty shall think fit, 
so as I may recover her Majesty's favor; for 
the obtaining whereof I humbly pray your lord- 
ship to be a mean, as before I did write, that I 
be not driven into utter despair, and forced 
either to fly or seek to any other prince. And, 
in so doing, I will become a new man, and will 
pray for her Majesty's prosperity, and will truly 
serve her the rest of my life. So I humbly 
take leave, the 22d of December 1602. 
Your lordship's, if you please, 

Hugh Tyrone.* 

Endorsed in a different hand from Lord Montjoy's, but pro- 
bably by his secretary^ — " Copie of Tyrone's lettre to the 
Lord Deputy," 

* Tan, Ixxvi. 277. 



[In answer to Tyrone's submission.] 

Elizabeth R. 

Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you 
well. We have seen the submission made by 
Tyrone which you have sent us, and perceive 
the course which you have taken thereupon, 
which hath been to give no such credit to his 
words, either in deed or appearance, as upon 
those fair pretexts to give over any other good 
means of his prosecution ; which if you should 
have done upon this overture, the same effect 
might follow which hath done before, when in 
the instant of his submission he hath been 
deepest in practice ; in which respects we ac* 
knowledge that you have proceeded very dis- 
cretely. And now to speak of the course he 
holdeth. We conceive the world hath seen 
sufficiently how dear the conservation of that 
kingdom and people hath been unto us, and 
how precious we have been of our honor, that 
have of late rejected so many of those offers 
of his, only because we were sorry to make a 
precedent of facility to show grace or favor to 
him that hath been .the author of so much 
misery to our loving subjects. Nevertheless, 
because it seemeth that this is a general con- 
ceipt that this reduction may prove profitable 
to the state by sparing the effusion of Christian 


blood, (the preventing whereof Christian piety 
teacheth us,) and because the manner of the sub- 
mission maketh the best amends that penitency 
can yield to offences against sovereignty, (if 
amends there can be after so horrible treasons,) we 
are content to lay aside any thing that may [be] 
herein contrary [to] our own private affections, 
^nd will consider that clemency hath as eminent a 
place in supreme authority as justice and seve- 
rity. And, therefore, to the intent that either 
the effect may fall out which is expected by his 
submission, or the ingrafted falsehood and cor- 
ruption of his nature may declare itself, we are 
content, and so we give you authority hereby, 
to assign him a day with all expedition to make 
his personal repair to you ; where we require 
you to be careful to preserve our dignity 
in all circumstances, assuring him, that seeing 
he referreth all absolutely to our grace and 
mercy, where we would never have yielded that 
if he had kept his former courses of presumption 
to indent with us beforehand^ we are now con- 
tented that you do let him know he shall have 
his life, and receive, upon his coming in, such 
other conditions as shall be honorable and rea- 
sonable for us to grant him. And thus much 
for that which he shall need to know before his 
coming in; which if he do accept without 
any other particular promise procured from 
you beforehand, then could we like it very well 


that you should make stay of him in safe cus- 
tody until you hear our further pleasure ; whose 
meaning is, not to break our word in the point 
of his life, for which it is only given, but only 
to suspend his liberty till we see whether any 
conditions which shall leave him free again to 
return as he came, can make us in better state 
than we are now, when we shall have nothing to 
trust to but the ordinary assurances which can 
be had from traitors. And these our letters 
shall be your sufficient warrant and discharge in 
this behalf. 

Given under our signet at our Manor of Rich- 
mond, the xvL of February 1602, in the five 
and fortieth year of our reign. 

To our right trusty and well-beloved the Lord Montioye^ 
our Deputy of our realm of Ireland. 

Signed by the Queen, with the seal appended. Endorsed 
by Lord Montjoy — " From her Majesty ; receaved the 2nd off 
Marche 1602." ♦ 

[How he is to manage the Queen.] 

My good Lord, 

You may still see how glad we would be to 
believe wor^s when they make for our desires 
in the world (be we of private or public quali- 
ties); where, on the other side, in things not liked, 

♦ Tan. Ixxvi. 280. Orig. 


oaths and vows are often excepted against by 
US5 out of the just reasons which we see of con- 
stant prejudice when our desires make us not 
too credulous. In this case standeth it with our 
dear Sovereign, who being almost in conflict with 
herself how to terrify future traitors, when so hor- 
rible a traitor is received, especially upon any 
condition, he pretending to ask none, doth ponere 
rumores antesalutem; seeing only how she descends 
(a little in one point only), but sees not what by 
it she riseth up otherwise, especially if (upon 
these points) God do her the favor to stay the 
rebellion. From hence, therefore, cometh this 
her Majesty's postscript by me, (for so I may term 
it, because it succeedeth the perclose of the let* 
ters,) the effect whereof foUoweth, but so carried 
as it taketh nothing from your former power 
given in her own letter, though it recommends 
to you (if it might be without overthrow of 
greater considerations,) the accomplishing thereof. 
In which, as I could not avoid obedience to de- 
liver it unto you, being with that reservation 
as not to overthrow the main ; so, my lord, I know 
you would satisfy her in it too, if you could, 
and I hope, both for your own discharges and 
mine, will take notice of your own desire to have 
done all you could in this nature, and of your re^ 
ception of my letter, which form will satisfy 
them, because she is not presently crossed, and 
so her passion, by little and little, towards him 


spending, will give way when she sees by ex.- 
perience what will be returned in these things, 
which now she still insists upon to be moved 
as not impossible (if it be tried), at least not in* 
convenient to impose, if it can be gotten (straight 
opposing their opinions which deny now that the 
effect will prove so,) with the words of his own 
submission, of which all too know he will look to 
be explained per civilem interpretationem. Shortly, 
therefore, her Majesty desires you should seek 
by all the best means you can to promise him 
pardon ; but by no name of Tyrone hereafter, 
for that name she saith is ominous and odious, 
and rather she would have him named Baron of 
Dongannon, or (if need must be) some other 
earl's name, but not Earl of Tyrone. Secondly, 
sir, she would be glad it might not be found 
that he should have that country so large as he 
either claimeth or made it, but to see how honoris 
gratia you can pare it. Lastly, that where he 
makes many artiiScial plashes in pairs, to hinder 
passages, thereby to live less accessible, she would 
have him enjoined to alter them. Now, sir, 
know, I pray you hereby, that this is her own, 
and neither our propositions nor conceipt; but 
rather suffered pro tempore than we would lose 
the former warrant, by contesting too long 
against that which will die as soon as she is 
satisfied from you that we have obeyed her, and 
that you find the impossibility of these things 


which she would be glad of, but so as not t6 
prevent the rest ; and, therefore, now I have done 
all and said all, I know in these last I have said 
nothing, and yet in obeying I have done much; 
And so hoping, by your next despatch, you will 
write that which is fit to be shewed her Majesty; 
and that which is fit for me to know (a parte), 
in which kinds all honest servants must strain a 
little when they will serve princes, I end. 

Your lordship's afiectionate friend to command. 

18th of February, 1602. 

You see that though I know what your answer 
will be for these things, yet that I adventure to 
write my conceipt, how you should satisfy, by 
writing that you would have done it if it would 
not have hurt the whole. I would not do this 
to two men living, and under my hand to no man; 
if otherwise it should be. If, therefore, you will, 
for accidents unlooked for, return this my letter, 
I will thank you ; your warrants for that which 
you must do, or can do, remaining under her 
own hand. 

Endorsed in Lord Montjoy's hand — <' From Mr. Secretarye ; 
receaved the 2nd off Marche 1602." Not in Cecirs hand,^but 
in the same as that of Queen Elizabeth's letter, p. 28.* 

♦ Tan. Ixxyi. 277. 


Elizabeth R. 

Right trusty and right well-beloved, we greet 
you well. Forasmuch as we (in our former let-? 
t^) have made you see that we do not retain so 
deep an impression of the heinous offences com- 
mitted by Tyrone (for which he hath made him- 
self unworthy to live), but that we can be content 
to yield him a life to save so many of our subjects: 
and although we would take it for an acceptable 
service, if he might be taken in so, by the words 
of his late submission, as we might have him in 
our power without violating of public faith ; yet 
rather than we would, for our own satisfaction, 
let go any such opportunity as his personal sub- 
imsdioni (whereof universality of opinions concur 
^t good use might be made,) we can be content, 
if he shall come in upon such humble terms as 
9X% formally contained in his submission, that you 
thall not only receive him as is expressed in the 
Ot^er letter; but forasmuch as it may be, when 
the time comes to perform what he hath promised, 
he may particularly stand upon assurance of 
liberty also, as well as life, before he will come to 
you, we are then contented that you do in that 
ease give him your word for his coming and going 
safe, though you should in other things not agree. 
And for your better judgment and knowledge 
how in such case we mean to dispose, we do give 
you warrant hereby to pass him our pardon upon 
these conditions. 



First, our pleasure is, upon no consideration to 
give him. our pardon except lie do come person- 
alty where you shall assign him to receive it : 
<• Secondly, that, in the point of religion, h6 
presnime not to indent ; seeing it savors but of 
presumption, when he knows so little fear of 

• 'Thirdly, he shall publicly abjure all manner of 
dependency upon Spain and other potentates^ and 
shall promise to you to reveal all he knows of our 
demy's purposes, and rejwe the name of OneilL > 

Fourthly, he shall not presume to treat for aay 
but himi^elf and his own natural followers of 
Tyrone ; but shall leave all others, (over whom he 
tifijustly usuq)S, either flf^ vriaths, or a$ dependents j 
and over whom he can challenge no superiority 
but as a chosen head of rebellion,) and ahsoltdeli^ to 
make their own suits for themselves. 

He shall yield to such places for garrisons, and 
such portions of lands and composition besides [?]; 
to be reserved as you shall think fit for our ser- 
vice; with this condition, :to banish all strangecs 
fi^m him^ and call home all his follower3 that dd 
hiaih tain the rebeilioh in foy other, province/ to^ 
getber with such a subjtetion to sheriffs; and exe^ 
cution of justice, as you shall think fit for dor 
sern^re and the present time. .. ! l. . • .\ 
•'Andi as heretofore, he ofi*ered to send cwer-bis 
eldest son, if you canget it^ to be disposed ait our 
pleasure, either in Ireland or in England, All 


^hich being doiie, we leave the reist of your proi- 
eeedihgs to your own best judgment, so to dis* 
pose of him in otie kind or other as shall be fittest 
for olir service. This being our end in th6 writ- 
ihgiof both these letters r first, to let you see what 
we wish to be done, if it may be, in the first kind, 
as is contained in our other letter ; next, to let it 
appear to you and the world, that seeing there is 
so general- a conceipt that good may happen there- 
by, that we will not leave any course untried 
which can be expected of any prince to take in 
commiseration of her distressed and loving sub- 
jects of both her realms, whose conservation she 
preferreth before any other worldly thing. Last-^ 
ly, because we do consider that his being nearer 
with you for some time (if it could be procured) 
would be a good security from those practices^ 
which may be doubted he may fall into when he 
retumeth; (seeing how common it is to them to 
neglect either faith or pledges when the breach 
of any conditions may serve their turn,) we db 
only i'ecommend unto you, that, the longer he 
doth remain under your wing, it were the better : 
but beesui&e ive do confess that we remain assured 
of your afiection to use all things to the btest foF 
us, and' see 'that yod have extraordinary foresight 
andi judgment' 'in the government of that realmi 
wedof attribute so nmch to you in the handlin^g 
of this ' tnattier, as we leave it and the rest of thig 
particular conditions (mentioned in the formet 

£ 2 


Jetter, or in this,) to your discretion, who inay see 
cause to vary in some circumstances, which are 
not worthy the sending us to know our pleasure 
in^ but to be altered as you shall see cause. Only 
in these two letters we show you two things : in 
the first, of [the] l6th of February, our desire 
appears to have him stayed if he would come in 
without asking more than yet he doth ; and in 
this other, our resolution (rather than he should 
hot come in at all) to give you authority to se-r 
cure him both of life and liberty, and coming in 
upon those terms, both to maintain your word 
really^ (as it is given in our behalf, and which 
shall never be violated,) and, rather than to send 
him back unpardoned to be a head still of rebel- 
lion, to afford him these above-mentioned^ or other 
reasonable conditions, considering the long work 
you find it to extirpate him, and the difficulty 
our estate findeth to maintain that action which 
must finish it For the rest, concerning some en- 
largement of your authority, in case you see occa-« 
sion to encrease [the council] at any time [by] some 
members ; we minded not to tye you to such strict-* 
ness in petty things, having, committed so much 
trust to you in greater: and therefore we have 
given order to our council to direct our letters to the 
treasurer for the same, and hereby do give you au- 
thority to do it, and to use the advice of as many or 
as few of the council in this as you shall think fit 
to do in this service ; requiring you, above all 


tbingi^, to drive him to some issue presently, 
because contrariety of successes there, or change 
of accidents in other parts, may turn very much 
to oiir disadvantage. For which we are still apt 
to believe that he lieth in advantage^ and will spin 
put all things further than were requisite, with 
delays and shifts, if you do not abridge him. 

: Given at our manor of Richmond, this 17 of Feb. 1602, and 
of our reign the 45.* 

To our right trusty and well-beloved Lord Montjoye, 
our Deputy, [of our] Realm of Ireland. 

Endorsed in Lord Montjoy's hand — •* From her Majestye ; 
reeeaved the td off Marche 1602. For the taking in of 

(The words in italics are corrections, whether or not by the 
same hadd I am uncertain; they rather appear to be in the 
Deputy's hand. After this letter follows an abstract^ in Lord 
Montjoy's hand, of the conditions he was required by the Queen 
to offer and receive from Tyrone.] 



. Right Honorable, my duty remembered. I 
have ofttimes heretofore, both by my messages 
and letters, been an humble suitor unto your 
lordship to be a mean to her Majesty to receive 
me into her gracious favor, and to grant unto 
me her Highness' pardon, which, above all earthly 


* Tan. Ixxvi. 285 ; Orig. signed and sealed. * 
+ Orig. Tan. Ixxvi. p. 291. 


thingsi, I do desire, even upon my knees ; acknow- 
ledging mine offences to be such as I am unwor- 
thy pardoned, but yet still remembering 
that her Majesty's mercy exceeds my ill doings; 
To this end I sent after your lordship as fai? as 
Gal way, in December last, my humble submission^ 
which proceeded from a penitent heart ; and ever 
since that time I have lived in hope of .mercy : 
and, seeing my answers yet delayed, and that I 
can receive no manner of comfort, notwithstand- 
ing I have since that time continued no messages 
lo your lordship, I thought good once again to 
write to your lordship; and do hereby beseech 
you, of your nobility and honor, to take com- 
passion upon me, that I be not cast into an utter 
despair to forsake my native country, but may 
feel her Majesty's grace ; in hope that I may hercr 
after, by my service, redeem some part of mine 
offences. And, to the end your lordship may 
perceive how earnest a desire I bear to become a 
subject, 1 do entreat your lordship either to al- 
low myself to come to speak with your lordship 
upon your word in some such place as I may be in 
safety, or to send me some honest gentleman of my 
acquaintance (as your lordship shall think fit) with 
whom I may confer, and to whom I may deliver 
my mind, which is wholly bent to do anything that 
is fitting, for a good subject ; so as I may find her 
Majesty's gr^e and recover her favour, which 
by my evil courses I have justly lost. And so, 



befieeohing your lordiship to send me some com- 
fortable answer^ I tak,e my leave. From Glancou-^ 
keine,* the 29th of March 1603. 

Your honor's tocomraandi 

; Hughe Tirone. 

Endorsed m the hand of Montjoy's secretary — '' 29 March. 
1603, stylo novo; rec. 23 March, stylo veteri ; & 1602, coni- 
putatibne Angiorum." 


[Death of Queen Elizabeth .]t 



My humble duty unto you remembered. By 
reason of a restraint of late for sending over of 


. * 'Gleanchaoin in Co. Glare. 

t The following account of the death of the Queen is, in, 
all probability, as authentic as any we possess. It is preserved 
in the MS. diary of a writer who lived upon terms of intimacy 
with Dr. Parry, one of the Queen's chaplains, afterwards success 
sively Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. 

^*23 March 1603. I dined with Dr. Parry in the privy- 
chamber, and understood by him, the Bishop of Chiches-. 
ter, the Dean of Canterbury, the Dean of Windsor, &c. 
that her Majesty heid been, by fits, troubled with melancholy 
some three or four months, but for this fortnight extreme op- 
pressed with it ; insomuch that she refused to eat any thingi 
to receive any physic, or admit any rest in bed till within these 
two or three days. She hath been in a manner speechless foi; 
two days ; very pensive and silent since Shrovetide ; sitting 
sometimes with her eye fixed upon one object many hours to-« 

■■ * 

I Bremen* : ^ 


letters^ (the sickness of our late Queen being the 
cause,) I durst not write unto you, nor have 
sithence the ix. of this instant March, which 
letters I hope you have received. 

Her Majesty God took to his mercy, the SSrd 
of this present, in the night time, at Richmond; 
and King James was proclaimed the next morn- 
ing, being the 24th, as may appear by the pro- 
clamation, which here inclosed I send you, with- 
out any controversy : yet many men in the city 

gather ; yet she always bad ber perfect senses and meiaory : and 
yest;erday signified, by the lifting up of her hand and eyes to 
heaven (a sign which Dr. Parry entreated of her), that she be- 
lieved that faith which she hath caused to be professed, and 
looked faithfully to be saved by Christ's merits and mercy only, 
i^nd no other means. She took great delight in hearing prayers ; 
would often, at the name of Jesus, lift up her hands and eyes 
to heaven. She would not hear the Archbishop speak of hope 
of her longer life ; but when he prayed, or spoke of heaven and 
those joys, she would hug his hand. It seems she might have 
lived if she would have used means ; but she would not be per- 
suaded, and princes must not be forced. Her physicians said 
she had a body of a firm and perfect constitution, likely to have 
lived many years. A royal majesty is not privilege against 

'' ^. This morning, about S at clock, her Majesty departed 
this life, mildly, like a lamb ; easily, like a ripe apple from the 
tree ; cum levi quadam fehre : absque gemitu. Dr. Parry told 
me that he was present, and sent his prayers before her soul. 
And I doubt not but she is amongst the royal saints in heaven 
in eternal joys. 

** About 10 at clock, the council and divers noblemen, having 
been awhile in consultation, proclaimed James VI, King of 
Scotland, the King of England, France, and Ireland ; beginning 
at Whitehall gates, where 6ir Robert Cecil read the proclama* 


in aims, and more afirayed than hurt. It was 
known, a se'night before her decease, that there was 
no hope erf recovery to be expected ; insomuch that 
many men, both noble and others, have made very 
great provision of armor, munition, and victuals ; 
so that meal was sold in London, the gSrd of 
March, at viii s. the bushel^ and the 25th of the 
same, at 4s. 4d. And now there is very great 
hope of a peaceable coming in of our King, con- 
trary to the expectation of many. It is thought 

lion, which he carried in his hand, and after read again in Cheap- 
side: many noblemen, lords spiritual atid temporal, knights, five 
trumpets, many heralds. The gates at Ludgate and portcullis 
were shut and down, by the Lord Mayor's command, who was 
there present with the aldermen, &c. And until he had a token 
beside promise, — the Lord Treasurer's Greorge,— that they would 
proclaim the King of Scots King of England, he would not open 
them. ♦ • * * 

- "The proclamation was heard with great expectation and si- 
lent joy; no great shouting. I think the sorrow for her Majes- 
ty's departure was so deep in many hearts, they could not so 
suddenly show any great joy, though it could not be less than 
exceeding great for the succession of so worthy a King ; and at 
night they showed it by bonfires and ringing. No tumult, no 
contradiction, no disorder in the city ; every man went about his 
business as readily, as peaceably, as securely, as though there 
had been no change, nor any news ever heard of competitors. 

*' The people is full of expectation, and great with hope of his 
worthiness, of our nations' future greatness ; every one promises 
himself a share in some famous action to be hereafter performed 
for his prince and country. They assure themselves of the con- 
tinuance of our church government and doctrine. Their talk is 
of the advancement of the nobility, of the subsidies and fifteenths 
taxed in the Queen's times ; how much indebted she died to the 
commons, notwithstanding all those charges laid upon them." 


that his Majesty will be here afore Easter next* 
The Lord E vers? Iwother, Mr. Moris, Mr. Secre- 
tary Herbert*s man, and myself, went to Sir 
Robert Cecill the 25th of March, to understand 
hia pleasure about your coming home; and his 
answer was, that he would think upon it. And 
the same day, in the afternoon, Mr. Morris and I 
went to the Lord Treasuuer, who, together with 
the rest of the nobility, had (as it seemed) con^ 
f erred in the morning concerning you and the 
riest of the commissioners, and his answer was, 
that they would write unto you ; signifying fur- 
ther (as far as we could gather by his word») that 
they had no determination to send for you home 
until they first understoood the King's pleasure 
therein. ♦ * * AH things are very quiet here 
at this time, and the common people so well 
satisfied and so joyful as ever they were, hoping 
of a flourishing common wealth. The Earl of 
Northumberland beginneth to flourish already. 
The Countess of Notingham died of late. * * * 
Your worship's always most bounden, 

Simon Theloal.* 

London, this 26th of March 1603. 

* Grig. Tan. Ixxv. 79. 



f History of the bye plot, or, as it is called^ Raleigh's plot ; and 

the execution of the conspirators.] 


. ■ ■ ^ . . ■ • . • . , 

Right honorable and my most respected Lords, • 
Although unknown to you all by sight, unless 
my ever honorable friend, Su- George Home, 
Treasurer of Scotland, yet too, too well known by 
name to you, and all the world, through means of 
p. . late proclamation come out against me most 
wrongfully, as Gk)d and his angels, yea, and even 
my greatest enemies, that falsely have suggested 
this against me, shall witness : I have hereupon 
(being apprehended upon suspicion by the bearer, 
Mr. Henry Vaughan, Esq. and Justice of Peace 
and Quorum,) made choice of your honours before 
all others in this my presumption to address the 
ensuing discovery unto, with the accusation of 
the guilty and clearing of the innocent; as also 
a letter to be delivered by you unto his Majesty ; 
noUiing doubting but that, out of your own 

* *' The letter of Watson (the Quodlibetarian), written with 
his own hand, directed to the Right Honorable the E. E. of 

without any names added; without date too; but endorsed 

10 Aug. 1603, when perhaps it was received.*' — Note in Arch- 
bishop Bancroft's hand. — Watson was one of the persons sup- 
posed to be implicated in the plot. How far will best appear by 
his own letter.. See also Goodman's Memoirs, p. 64. : 


honorable dispositions, and for that special loyalty 
I ever conceited to be in you all, and every of you, 
to his Majesty, you will procure a speedy dispatch 
for me, either to be employed in his Majesty's 
service here, or elsewhere ; or if for mine unwor- 
thiness I be rejected, that at least for my loyalty, 
and known poor good-will to have always used 
all possible diligence (agreeing to my posse) 
on his Majesty's behalf, you will vouchsafe me 
that honorable favor as to procure a present ex- 
tent of the King's most ample and gracious par- 
don towards me thus far, as that I may spend the 
residue of my wretched days in exile and banish- 
ment out from my native country for evermore* 
Which though mine own conscience assures me 
that I never deserved so sharp a censure, yet, 
finding iniquity to have prevailed so far, as that 
even his Majesty's known enemies can conspire 
his death, and utter extirpation of his royal 
issue, and without all fear or blushing (like the 
devil himself) lay their treasons and treacheries 
to my charge, and thereupon procure either my 
death or a worse matter (which is torture, famine, 
and pining imprisonment) ; notwithstanding that, 
I dare speak a great word, and am known to 
many thousands to speak true, that there never 
any was, or is, more loyal to his Majesty than I 
am, and have been ; never any that hazarded 
their lives more willingly, nor farther, for his 
sake ; as being imprisoned, having all I had taken 


from me, and hardly escaping with niy life out 
of fnriacm in Queen Elizabeth's days, only upon 
a like calumny to this, which they then informed 
some great persons in authority of, as that I 
went about to bring in the Lord Dacre out of 
Scotland with 30,000 men to invade this land. 
Neither was there any that spoke or writ more 
resolutely and boldly on his Majesty's behalf than 
I did that time ; as the first and only one of my 
<xmt and profession that broke the ice against 
Parsons' book of succession, and against all the 
rest of the Jesuits, and Spanish faction, concern-^ 
ing the Lady Infanta's title to the crown of Eng- 
land, and in conclusion broke their necks thereby; 
by prosecuting his Majesty's cause and title so 
eagerly (where I durst), that the former settled 
conceit of the Spanish title was generally exr 
ploded by all, unless where Jesuits and the faction 
lay. Many, not only Catholics, but even also 
those noted and known to be Protestants, reported 
some to be Puritans, yet did take notice of my 
poor endeavours on his Majesty's behalf .therein, 
as one whom they acknowledged, in their opinion, 
bad deserved more at my sovereign's hands than 
ever I expect or can desire. But to the pur- 
pose : although I wish for either violent or civil 
death (which is banishment), rather than to die 
of famine and pining imprisonment by the Jesuits' 
and others of mine enemies* procurement; yet, not 
doubting of justice, (and withal hoping of extra? 


x^rdinary favor [and mercy] at bis Majesty's handle 
by your honors' procurement;) I will set down 
here in brief the original' cause of this slandering 
and impeaching of me^ and others with treason, 
&c. and who the traitors are indeed, and what 
witnesses I have of it, and what I have done my^ 
■self, and how far gone therein : reserving the rest 
to his Majesty's jsacred wisdom, and your honors- 
able censure^ to judge of all aright. * 
: After my last being with his Majesty in Scot> 
land, reporting to my Lord Dacre, and some 
other of his honorable friends, then at Dumfries, 
what a gracious and comfortable answer I had re^ 
ceived at his hands on the behalf of all Catholics 
known to be his loyal subjects ; I returned thence 
presently into England, longing much. to drive 
all doubtful conceits and dangerous attempts^ 
tending to disloyalty, out of all EngUsh, but «i^ 
pecially all Catholic hearts. And, first: of all, 
ineetingwith one. of my company in the north, 
being asked what hope there was of the King 
concerning Catholics, I answered, very good; 
and that his Majesty did bid me tell my friend^^ 
the Catholics in England, that himself was neithet 
heretick, as/ Parsons . and other; Jesuits bad blazed 
him to hi ; neither wouldihe afflict [them] as they 
Imd been^: and therefore wished them by me not 
td ibe afraid, ^c. Then he replied, aiid asked what 
jtssurance^ Catholics , could have, of any favor, 
unless the King would be Catholic^ For/;as to 

'KING JAMteS. '68 

my report, I had been always suspected to be 
too forward en the King*s behalf/ and rather iA 
policy to draw all Catholics to hope well, atld to 
bave«a;good conceit that the King w^ould be 
either presently > Catholic, or at least proclaim 
liberty of conscience : by which teniporising it 
was do.ubted by some that I had deceived many. 
Bot, howsoever, the time serving now for it, and 
it standing upon Catholics, either before the 
eorcmation, or not at all, to procure to them^ 
selves quiet and redemption from their bond^- 
age^ and suppression in Queen Elizabeth's days; 
adding farther^ that undoubtedly the Jesuits and 
archpriest^^ with his Jesuitical assistants, would 
upon the sudden, and at time least looked for, 
soisoon as ever they were prepared for it, send out 
excommunications against all that should takd 
parte against the -Spaniard and his associates, &cii 
And, therefore, he asked me what be should ^t> 
in that case ; and if it were not best for him to 
go an4 warn all the Catholics and schismati<is in 
those two shires beforehand to be in a readiness 
toaresi^, and not to accept any such excommiunica^ 
liqn when it oaine ; nor of su(^h, or such, as were 
like ^enough in his judgment to work underiisuld 
with persuading to acceptance of iti &c^i 'To this 
I answered^ that he should do well to move tbelb 
so 4 andy withal,^ upon such an occasion to exhoft 
and prepfuie them beforehand to join all together 


under some Catholic head^ or captain of note^ on 
the King's behalf, making religion and loyalty 
all one intent and action. And much talk we 
had to this effect, but tliis is the brief; where- 
with I left him well satisfied: but not so as by 
reason of the general jealousy the Jesuits had 
caused to be had of me, yea, even among some 
otherwise of my dear friends. I was constrained 
both with that party and divers others, (as here- 
after shall appear,) sometimes to affirm by insinua- 
tion on the King's behalf, as well in respect of 
religion as of the common wealth, more than ever 
his Majesty delivered unto me; and sometimes 
again to make show of advancements to come 
unto them, and otherwhile to yield unto their 
humours in one thing, to draw them on to ano^ 
ther thing to my wish and desire; imitating 
herein the Jesuits' policies in like cases on the 
Spaniard's behalf. 

After this I departed towards the south ; where, 
on the way, at Doncaster, I met with a gentle* 
man, an earnest prosecutor of his Majesty's cause 
at all times, who, very glad of my return to hear 
some news out of Scotland^ told me, amongst 
other things, that a letter was newly intercepted, 
directed from one Pool, as he named himself, to the 
Archduke's court ; the contents whereof was, 
that 40,000 men were ready to rise in arms for 
restoring of religion, and bringing his grace aid 
to make a conquest of the land. What became 


of this letter, I know not ; or whether the dis- 
covery of the Jesuits' intendments, or that other 
which happened, of a prepared commotion in 
Worcester and Staffordshire, (the discovery 
whereof was sent unto me into Scotland, to 
have exhibited unto his Majesty, and as also 
sundry other letters came, which I received not, 
because ccmie thence before,) or a third commo- 
tion prepared in Wales, and discovered also, and 
thereby infringed, or what other cause was of the 
Jesuits' demur, I know not: but, within two days 
after, I understood how sundry of them had been 
tampering with Catholics in those quarters, to 
dissuade them from acceptance of the King's 
Majesty ; that they ought all rather to die than 
to admit of any hereticks (as they continually 
term his Majesty) to the crown ; and that they 
might not, under pain of excommunication, ac- 
cept of any but a Catholic for their sove- 
reign. This was hot for a while; but presently, 
after these discoveries, finding Catholics fear- 
ful and cold in acting their treacherous de- 
signments, they begin to turn cat in the band,* 
and to cast about another way, as hereafter shall 

Amongst those Jesuits thus suddenly hot and 
cold, one (who calleth himself Darcy), having of 
long time, together with Gerard, another Jesuit, 
been often tampering underhand, and by mes- 

• Cat in the pan ? 


sages, with a worshipful knight to have won him 
to their * to have stood for the Ijady In- 

fanta, promising great and many nohle advance- 
ments unto him if he would^ on the Spaniards^ 
behalf. All which discourses, from time to time, 
in Queen Elizabeth's days, the said knight relat- 
ing unto me at large; and withal how that he 
had discovered himself so far in dislike of their 
unnatural projects, and asserting of our new 
sovereign's title, as he feared it would work his 
utter overthrow, by reason that he perceived 
even then how that her Majesty, and his former 
honorable friends about her, estranged their grace 
and favors from him, and, withal, began to call 
his name in question ; which he knew could not 
be, but by some false-hearted Jesuit's suggestions 
and means. To this I answered, that he had done 
very well to open himself so far in opposition 
unto them; knowing, as he did, their vile and 
treacherous minds to be such as they will betray 
their own father and dearest friend they have in 
the world for their own advantage, and propter 
bonum publicum societatis^ which they count a pub- 
lic or common good; though a whole common- 
wealth, yea, and the whole Catholic church be 
overthrown thereby. But now the only way was 
for him to insinuate himself by all means possible 
unto them, as by way of an umpire to make 

* Sic : though, from something written over, the word should 
apparently be way or bent. 


atonement between them and us ; and so should 
he get within them per force, to lead them and 
their faction where he would when time should 
come to do our new sovereign service. Which 
time happening presently after, although he first, 
and another afterward, and lastly myself in my 
return out of Scotland, talked with, some one, 
some another Jesuit, and three of us at several 
times with the aforesaid Darcy, to whom I 
alleged divers reasons, acknowledged by him to 
be good and sound, why there should be an atone^ 
ment between us; but in conclusion nothing 
was agreed upon, because they had such treason- 
able practices in hand, as they knew we would 
never join in with them ; and so the conferences 
between some of ours, and Gerard, Holtby, and 
Datcy, the Jesuits, ended only in a breach. 

Some fortnight after, (which was at Easter last,) 
coming up to London, I there fell in talk with 
an honorable gentleman and my very friend, that 
came to welcome me home oiit of Scotland, and 
to know what news ; because (as he said) he had 
sent unto me by three sundry persons, a lofd, a 
knight^ and an esquire, none of which could hear 
of me. Notwithstanding that he had received a 
most gracious letter from his Majesty, whereby 
he understood I had been in presence : I told him 
I bad ; and using the like speech as I had done 
to all others of his gracious speech unto me, how 
wise, merciful, and just a prince we had, void of 

F 2 


all vices or other moral faults, unless such as pro- 
ceed of too flexible and sweet a princely nature ; 
which could be no fault in a prince, save only 
where evil counsellors were about him, who doubt- 
less might endanger him by too much lenity to 
some, by too great severity to others, and by too 
extraordinary partiality to others again, at the 
counsel's persuasion. But in few I told him how 
Sir George Home, Lord Treasurer of Scotland, 
told me, at my coming away, how his Majesty 
liked well of my message and speech, and bid me 
come again when any occasion should be offered. 
"That was well," quoth this noble gentleman, "and 
I think you shall have occasion very shortly to do 
his Majesty service; if, in the meantime, you 
have any acquaintance yourself, or know of any 
such friend of yours, that is thoroughly acquainted 
with a sergeant at law who can tell you matters 
worth the knowing and revealing in time of 
need. For since Queen Elizabeth's death, and 
the proclaiming of our sovereign King James, 
there hath been a meeting of sundry noblemen, 
that have had private conference, and, as I take it, 
already subscribed to the setting up of another 
prince, with the utter extirpation of our lawful 
King and rightful heir, together with all his royal 
issue. The party that told me this (whom you, 
quoth he, do also know,) doth not remember the 
noblemen's names, and dares not ask the sergeant 
again of them, lest he suspect he have some mean- 


ing to call him in question for it ; and therefore 
must it be very warily handled." But afterward, 
understanding by report of some that the sergeant 
was suspected to be Jesuited, I could not devise 
the means to come in with him myself, nor any 
other whom I might trust in so weighty an 

Shortly after his Majesty came to London, and 
in tract of time discontents began so to discover 
themselves, as none could tell whom to trust, or 
who was pleased: it were too tedious and imper- 
tinent to the matter to recite all that I have heard 
of discontented minds since his Majesty's com- 
ing to the Charter-house to the present hour. 
Amongst others, this concerns myself. One sent 
me word how, that if I would join with him, and 
withal make him of my council in my proceedings, 
for those matters which he was to inform me of, 
he would pawn his life for it that he could and 
would discover such treasons of two honorable 
persons of the privy council to Queen Elizabeth, 
and two of the greatest enemies I had in the 
world, and all for King James's sake, as I would 
admire how ever such great men should so eagerly 
seek my destruction ; and that, since the time I 
first began to defend the King's title in writing 
against the Jesuits and Spanish faction, I walked 
in a mist, as all the rest of the secular priests ap- 
pellants did, who were traduced by those noble- 
men whom we took to have stood wholly for us 



against the Jesuits and Spanish faction ; whereas, 
indeed, it was quite contrary, as he said ; adding 
further, that there was now of late a book pub- 
lished for the French title to the crown of Eng- 
land, and fathered upon the appellant priests, 
which, as I take it, he said himself had seen: 
wishing me to live very warily, for there were 
no few watchful eyes over me* And for his part, 
he confessed he had heretofore betrayed me, and 
brought my life in danger for my faithfdl heart 
unto his Majesty ; but he was so urged unto it as 
he had endangered his own if I had not been then 
taken. But afterwards, hearing how contrary to 
^U expectation I had cleared myself, and God 
had wonderfully delivered me, he then wds 
heartily sorry for accusing and betraying me so 
unjiii^tly ; and of mere remorse of cmisciaice, 
knowing my innocency, he had since refused 
£2000 or £3000, or I know not how much, as he 
saith, because he would not seek my blood, as was 
motioned that he should. To this effect he sent 
me word, offering himself to approve all this, with 
much more, before his Majesty. About the same 
tiipe another told me, how that his Majesty was 
heartily conceited of me, and that I was suspected 
to stand for the French. And a very friend of 
mine, ever most deeply affected to his Majesty, 
CQjme to me in the streets, and asked me iti what 
terms I stood with his Majesty. I answered, "Very 
good, for ought I know ; that I rested in mine 


own conceit most certain and assured of it, be- 
cause of his princely gratitude, even to the mean- 
est (as I am), and by reason of my innocency 
towards him." Whereunto the gentleman replied, 
that it was very true, and that he did not think 
his Majesty could or would forget me ; he himself, 
though an earnest Protestant, yet oflfering to avow 
it on my behalf, that none was ever more faithful 
arid loyal to defend his rightful title than I was, 
ice. The like said a very worshipful knight of 
mine acquaintance, and divers others to the same 
eflFect, which made me muse what the matter was, 
and how I should be traduced ; but made no 
great matter of it, because I thought it to be but 
some Jesuitical rumour for some vile intendment 
against me, as after it proved : they making this 
a color of my intended villanous mind, as they 
most falsely have informed against me, that out 
of a malcontented mind, and seeing myself re- 
jected, and not advanced as I expected, I there- 
upon fell into desperate courses and traitorous 
attempts against his Majesty's person. But God, 
who hath ever hitherto protected and defended 
me, even from innumerable and some seeming 
inevitable dangers, d juventute med, hath provided 
this good means for my purgation to his Majesty 
before your honors, which otherwise I should 
have despaired of ; knowing too well what great 
enemies I have in court, the least whereof is too, 
too heavy for me, poor worm ! to bear, if but in 


the breath or blast of youc mouth against me. 
And therefore thus it foUoweth. 

In Easter term, amongst others that came up 
to London, one was the gentleman who suspected 
how the Jesuits had traduced him in Queen Eliza- 
beth's days, and who, after divers conferences by 
him and others with Gerard and Darcy, was at 
length half persuaded they meant bond fidt to 
join really in any action for restoring of religion by 
any lawful means ; but, contrary to his expecta- 
tion, they most fraudulently went about to en- 
trap him, and writ a letter back unto him quite 
contrary to their former speech. A most treache- 
rous letter it was ; and as he told me, when he 
showed the letter unto me, there was not a word 
in it consonant to his speech and Davies with 
Gerard's had together. Which when I heard, 
and, withal, had thoroughly considered of the 
contents of that letter, I told him he had undone 
himself, and all his acquaintance and friends : 
for the issue could be none other but this, that 
the Jesuits having some treasonable practice in 
hand, which they would not impart unto him, 
they would take advantage against him and his 
by this letter, in such sort, that if their treasons 
came to effect before discovery, then down should 
go all the appellant priests, and those that sided 
with them on their sovereign's behalf; again, 
if it were discovered, they would then cast it 
upon his back, and upon all the secular priests. 


but upon mine in chief, as now they have. But 
to proceed. 

About the same time that this letter was showed 
unto me, one came and told me how the Jesuits 
had sent down from London into the country 
greatiStore of powder and shot, securely conveyed 
to their friends ; wishing them not to stir, but to 
keep themselves quiet until they heard from them. 
The same party, also, who showed me the letter, 
told me he had advantage enough against them, 
(and they none at all against him, whatsoever 
my conceipt were of that letter,) as well by their 
former plots, whereof he had testimony in writ- 
ing, and which were yet suspected to be in ham- 
mering, as also by their then present proceedings ; 
for that notwithstanding their show in that letter, 
that butter would not melt in their mouth, yet 
was he privy to it how at the same time Gerard 
was in buying of a great horse for the wars, and 
had, with help of his friends, under pretence of 
teaching a young lord to ride, bought up all the 
great horses he could throughout the country. 
So as it is manifest that they intend some sudden 
exploit yetj before Midsummer, or so shortly after 
as they can be provided, if not before discovered 
and prevented. The presumption hereof, .and 
suspicion of some treason to be intended by them, 
was augmented as well by reports that went of a 
sermon or speech which the president of Douay, 
one Doctor Worthington, made in some reviling 



terms against his Majesty, with extolling the 
name and title of another competitor to the 
crown, whom if Gk>d did hless, and awhile 
preserve, he made no douht but should prevail ; 
as also for that a certain Jesuited person, being 
in company with honorable lords, whereof «6ome 
or all seemed much discontented with the present 
course of things and times, the party, whispering 
one of them in the ear, isaid, "My lord, be not dis- 
mayed, for you shall see, ere it be long, that the 
Catholics will redress these and other wrongs sus- 
tained/' And again, about the same time, there was 
such posting up and down of Gerard, Oldcorn, Dar- 
cy. Blunt, and other Jesuits and Jesuited persons, as 
made it apparent that some great matter was in 
hammering and working amongst them, though 
kept so close as by no means I could find it out ; 
that they had gathered a great mass of money to- 
gether, amounting to a million of pounds, as one, 
or of crowns, as another reported, to levy an 
army undoubtedly therewith, when time should 
serve for it. This huge sum, as no man can 
imagine it possible to be raised out of all the 
Catholic stores in England, so was that part and 
portion which they got, coUected very suspiciously 
but yet cunningly. For, first, it waB not motioned 
by any but of the Spanish faction that I could 
ever hear of, nor to any but such as they thought 
affected that way. Secondly, a caveat was given 
that certain persons, whereof myself was one. 


(who yet knew more than many of their own 
knew thereof,) should in no wise be made privy 
to it. Thirdly, this collection went very halting ; 
for in some it was made under pretence of send- 
ing over a great many youths, none of which 
must pass under £60^ or £50 a piece, and others 
not under hundreds or thousands, as they or their 
friends were possibly able, by selling their lands, 
goods, or otherwise, to afford it. In other places, 
and to others, their pretence was to procure liberty 
of conscience by gift of this huge mass of money 
to certain Scotch lords very near about his Majes- 
ty ; and sometimes they would pretend other 
necessities, either for themselves or Catholic pri- 
soners or colleges beyond the seas. Yea, to some 
they pretended one thing now, and, having gotten 
the parties' benevolence for that, would come 
upon them again for another matter. So as no 
doubt the mass of money is great which they 
have collected by these means, but not amounting 
to near a million. I heard shortly after Jiow it 
was, or should be made up by Count Vanburgh,* 
who then, as I take it, w^as embassador here from 
the Archduke for that pui-pose, as was suspected. 
And in truth in my poor judgment it was most 
manifest ; for that about the same time an offer 
was made by a lord of the land to another, his 
honorable friend, to procure £1000 sterling of 
yearly pension to be given him to stand for the 

* Vandenberg or Eremberg. 


Spanish faction with all the power (which he 
knew to be great) that he was able to make; 
affirming further, that another great person, and 
competitor to the crown, should receive £10,000 
of yearly pension from Spain for that purpose, to 
be at their disposing. 

These things thus growing to a head, I beg^n 
then to look about me and to devise some means 
for to do God, my prince, and country some 
piece of extraordinary service, though not by my 
worthless self, yet by the many and great ac- 
quaintance I had every where : and, first of all, 1 
devised how I might come to inform his Majesty 
truly and exactly of all these things ; but found 
so many obstacles and impossibilities therein as I 
despaired of it, as well by reason of many enemies 
I had, which would discover, apprehend, or keep me 
from the King's presence, as also for that I un- 
derstood of the difficulty which even great per- 
sons had to come in presence. Then I purposed 
to impart all I knew to some lord of his Majesty's 
honorable privy council, or other noble near about 
and deeply affected to his Majesty ; but the gene- 
ral discontents between the Scots and English on 
the one side, and the suspicion I imagined they 
might justly have of me on the other side, lest 
I should have come to entrap them by some 
words or action, made me quite give over that 
intendment, and resolved at last to write to Mr, 
Edward Ashfield, as I did, desiring him (being 


now at liberty out of the Tower) to come and 
speak with me ; intending to have informed him 
of such matters as might have brought me to the 
King^s presence by his means, to have discovered 
all. My letter he received, sent me word he would 
come to me ; but to this hour I never saw him. 

Thus doubtful what to do, and the dangers 
daily encreasing and hasting forward, so as I 
greatly feared they would not be prevented 
without God's wonderful providence, at last I 
called to mind two stratagems not unfitting for 
me to imitate in another kind than the first prac- 
tisers did. One was an example which I heard 
a Scots gentleman used, to win himself credit and 
advancement at his Majesty's hands; and that was, 
to confer with divers of his acquaintance and 
friends, every one apart and in secret by himself ; 
to desire him to be in a readiness to do his sove- 
reign service when he should give him notice, 
which was by wearing some color or token known 
to bimself alone, and such as he could win into 
the like, with oath taken and promise made not 
to reveal it to any one. By which pretty device 
of his, on the sudden, after Queen Elizabeth's 
death, he showing his colors, a great many of his 
association did the like, and in the end many 
thousands, not knowing what it meant, but 
imagining these to have been the King's colors 
indeed, or worn for his sake; whereas the in- 
tent of the first inventor was, that if any rebellion 


or resistance had been against his Majesty at the 
Queen's death, or otherwise, he would upon the 
sudden have made as great a party as the most 
should, on his liege's behalf. The other strata- 
gem was, and is an ordinary [subtle] device of 
the Jesuits, yea, and of all politicians that are of 
wit and action ; and that is, to work in open sh6w 
all by contraries to their intention : as, (to go no 
further,) in the case proposed and now in hand, 
they had diversities of pretences to [outward] 
show in the collection of this great treasure now 
in readiness, dispersed amongst their consorts and 
confederates. Again, they gave out to same that 
such and such honorable and great persons were 
quite now alienated and gone from them, (which, 
would they were,) but the contrary is too true, and 
the policy therein more dangerous. Again, to some 
they use most disgraceful and suspicious speeches 
of the King, to exasperate men's minds against 
bis Majesty. To others they make large promises 
of great rewards and honorable advancements ; 
and to others a marvellous applause of his Majesty, 
with such a liking, good conceit, and hope, nay, 
rather assurance, that he will be Catholic, or at 
least grant liberty of conscience, as a simple mm, 
unacquainted with dissimulation and hypocrisy, 
would think it impossible that ever they should 
attempt or intend any thing against his Majesty, 
or that one word of this my discovery in the preu 
mises should be true. But I thank God I have 


witnesses, and can and will, at time and in place 
convenient, name to his. Majesty, or your honors 
at his appointment, .yea, bring in, by his or your 
authority and protection under him, all and every 
author of every particular practice and conspiracy 
here set down, as they were from time to time 
delivered unto me. Marry, this last device of ex- 
tolling the King's Majesty, singing of Placebo, is 
not amongst their own assured, when none of 
ours, they think, can come to discovery, as those 
places are where the treasure is kept for levying 
of forces, and the powder and shot, with other 
armour and artillery, is in a readiness. But this 
smooth speech of toleration, &c. is where some of 
the faction is in house or near to some of our com- 
pany, whose loyal hearts they know to be such to his 
Majesty as [it is] in vain and dangerous for them 
to speak otherwise. And therefore one Holland, 
a Jesuit, understanding that a noble lady, seduced 
by him to be an enemy to the appellant priests, and 
wholly for the Spanish faction, had discovered 
herself so far (I verily think, of a good and reli- 
gious true meaning heart in her, though not con- 
formable to their atheal zeal and policy,) as great 
likelihood there was (in his guilty conceit) of 
some danger to them, or at least some hindrance, 
if not discovery of their projects and platforms ; 
be therefore fared like a madman in dislike of 
her for it, &c. And thus much for stratagemSi 
Now for my imitating of them. 


In devising how to imitate these two stratage^ 
mical examples on his Majesty's behalf^ and for 
the good of our country, yea, and withal (I must 
confess) for a dear desire I had of restoring religion 
again in our country, or at least of procuring 
liberty of conscience, which I made no doubt of 
but would have been granted upon the sequel of 
this special service intended by Catholics at my 
procurement on his Majesty's behalf, amongst 
many hopes there were two I did much presume 
upon ; and those were two Catholic gentlemen of 
good worth and great alliance and friends, and 
both standing for the priests against the Spanish 
faction : the one I never saw myself, but knew 
how to have him wrought upon [if] need were ; the 
other I know as one who, spite of the greatest in 
that shire, and before any authority^ commission^ 
or direction came down into the county, pro- 
claimed King James presently, at what time as 
another great knight and his confederates were 
about to proclaim another sovereign over us : 
these two Catholic gentlemen being, the one 
deeply affected to a northern, the other to a 
southern earl, both which 1 understood, by other 
of my friends, were no less honorable in their ac- 
tions than affected of all men, and most loyal to 
his Majesty from the beginning, as it pleased his 
Highness to acknowledge unto me upon some 
speech of them at my last being in Scotland. 
Hereupon I made no doubt, but when time should 


come, these two [Catholic] gentlemen could and 
would by my instructions inform the said two 
honorable lordd so thoroughly of all matters as 
the Jesuitical faction should have a cold fall for a 
conquest of this land. Yet, thinking it not fit for 
the present to impart any matter of moment unto 
them, I proceeded in this manner in imitating the 
former stratagems. 

First, hearing of divers upbraiding speeches 
against me, proceeding from the Jesuits' malice, as 
though there was Watson's king ! There was he 
that was said to be so well aflfected to Catholics as 
that he would grant toleration! &c. I answered, 
that it was true, and that I made no doubt 
of it but his Majesty would be drawn unto it, if 
our cause were once thoroughly known unto him ; 
which could not, as I thought, ever be but by 
public means. The public means (quoth I) must 
be this, for all Catholics out of every shire to repair 
up to London about midsummer, for I understood 
the Jesuitical or Spanish treason would break out 
about that time; and to bring with them, of 
schismatics and others, so many as they could 
make of their friends, or win to give their voice 
for toleration of religion on the Catholics' behalf; 
and that all these repairing up together as they 
might without suspicion, — some to the term, 
others to see our sovereigns, King and Queen, 
and Prince and Princess, others to expect the 
coronation, and some under one pretence, some 



under another, — they should present themselves 
before his Majesty and honorable council, all with 
one voice crying out for justice in toleraitton of 
the Cathdlifc religion there to be granted by his 
Majesty, and ratified and confirmed by his prero- 
gative royal before all his noble peeSrs presently, 
in apt place. Otherwise they were not to expect 
it, by reason of sinister suggestions that would 
still in private be whispered into his princely *ars 
against us, and also for that particular faults 
would be made general oflfences hereafter, as it 
was in Queen Elizabeth's days. And besides, thSs 
public grant would be so notified and known to 
all the world, that no civil magistrate could 6v6r 
after except against it, nor seem to be ignorant 
of it Adding, withal, that there were so many 
noble and honorable perdoAs (as some were tried 
that were even Protestants and Puritans, wbo, 
notwithstanding, thought well of tdleration, and 
promised to give their voice, &c.) that would -like 
well of the motion, as when it should be asked in 
presence. What say you, my lord ? and What say 
you ? (and so from one to another of the chiefs.) 
Will you deign us your voice to his Majesty for 
toleration of our religion ? there were so few thait 
would not like of it, either in piety, or at least in 
policy, as the willing impugners of so good a mo- 
tion should even of fear and shame be put to 
silence, when especially it should be known to 
tend to the common good of all, the securing of 


his Majesty's person and royal issue still to reigo 
prosperously over us, iand the great profit, quiet, 
and .eputexvt which it would bring to the whole 
CiQiiiDGkonwealth of and within his Majesty's 
iiaaperial dominions. Yea^ to make this certain, 
the Catholics should all in that place prostrate 
^emselves at their sovereign's feet, desiring no^ 
thing buit justice at Ms hands.; that if they had 
deserved to he used ^s his children, (as a prince is 
pater pfitria: in respect oi all his subjects,) thew 
not to skuffer !them to llive as aliens, stijangors, 
bastards, bond-slaves, or men unw:orthy of his 
gi*aiciou3 favors, common to all oth^ sects or 
prc^Qsaicuis. If any would accuse them, or give 
a roa^n why they ought jpot to have such favor, 
that it might not be suggestted in detracting man- 
ner and in hucker-^mucker bi^hind their back9 ; 
hut therein presence to have the case pleaded, apd 
the convicted put to silence ever after. Nay, 
lurther, to take a solemn oath of ^legiance, with 
offer erf hostages for ooiitinuanQe of their loyalty ; 
and discovery, with delivery of all, qr any one 
Ctktholic that should practise or. conspire any man- 
lier of way . against the premises. 

This proffer ibeing well liked of :by all .men at 
first that ever heard of At, and divers haying pro- 
mised, yea, and some upon their oaths granted, to 
further it Jto their power ; thus far, tp wit, to, do 
their endeavOT ;by all lawful me^ns for restoring 
of the Catholic faith in our country, for preserva- 

G 2 



tion of his Majesty's life in safety, and for con- 
servation of the laws of our land against all who- 
soever, and not to impart this their intent to any 
until time should come for it, none taking nor 
imagining how to take exceptions against the pre- 
mises ; yet the matter being heard of amongst 
the Jesuits^ they presently conceiving of it (as 
true it was) that it would be an utter overthrow 
to all their plots and treacheries, as a discovery 
perforce of their treasons and conspiracies, a 
mean to cause all Catholics to cashier and reject 
them, and a violent expulsion of them all out 
of this land, they hereupon began to stamp and 
stare like madmen, and to deyise all means possi- 
ble either to hinder it, or else to bring us all into 
question about it. They sent down post-haste 
into the country, for all Catholics to beware of 
such and such priests as were about a most dan- 
gerous conspiracy. They reported that I was set 
on by the Lord Cecil of Essendon and the Bishop 
of London,* and I know not whom, to betray all 
Catholics, and bring them within compass of trea- 
son. They affirmed there could be no good mean- 
ing in it, by reason that Catholics, Protestants, 
Puritans, and all discontented persons of any 
profession were in it. In few, the devil himself 
could not have invented more manifest, false, 
and spiteful lies than the Spanish and Jesuit fac- 
tion did blaze abroad against us ; and in conclusion, 

* Dr. Bancroft. 


finding, notwithstanding all this, themselves so 
strait-laced as they neither could wrest themselves 
out of danger and prevent discovery, nor yef 
effect what they traitorously intended, which 
was the death of our sovereign and all his royal 
issue, as then it bolted out (no doubt as God 
would have it) by a speech of one nobleman un- 
to another to this effect, saying, there is no way 
of redress save only one, and that is to take away 
the King and his cubs, (for these were his words 
as they were to me delivered,) not leaving one on 
life. The party that spoke these words was the 
same that a little before that time had promised 
the procurement of the £1000 on the Spaniards' 
behalf to this his friend; whom the Jesuits under- 
standing of to be acquainted with me, your 
honors may judge what a fear they were in, and 
whether it were not high time for them to stir, 
to cry whoreson first, in bringing all in question 
who either were suspected to be acquainted with 
that gentleman or me, or else that had blabbed 
those conspiracies to bring them to our hearing. 
Hereupon, Darcy, Gerard, and others, informing 
what they could against the aforesaid gentleman 
that had the dangerous letter sent unto him, and 
they and others augmenting one lie with another 
against me to the Arch-priest, and Walley, the 
Jesuits' provincial, these two presently sent for 
John Gage, whom they instructed what to say, 
and deliver up to some of the privy council, or 
other lords against us ; causing him withal to come 


to one Barnaby a fjri^st, wbo, whether of fear lest 
Gage had come [of purpose] to entrap him, or 
-else that he believed the thing reported by him 
to be triie indeed, or what else did move him to 
so unjust an accusation of the innoceilt, I know 
hot ; but by his owii confession he is the man^ 
together with Gage, who hath accused me and 
others most falsely and igndrantly, not knowing 
any thing of the original cause and ground of 
these matters, nor hoW the Jesuits^ had set 
them on for clearing of tbefu^elves by laying 
their own treasons and cotispirades to others* 
charge. Which when I heatd of^ and that I was 
so proclaimed, I sought to have got ilito sotne 
private place for a time, until 1 had set down all 
this at large, and found out a donvenient messen**' 
ger to address it by unto his Majesty : but being 
prevented of that my int^ndmefit by my appre- 
hension, I now, as his Msijesty'id prisoner, do send 
it unto your honors^ either to deliver or impart 
unto his Highiiess so much as it shall please him 
to hear of^ or in your wisdoMs shall be judged 
meet to trouble his princely ears withal. As for 
the names of the parties that are unnamed, I 
have concealed them until I opett them myself 
in your presence, I hope Without ofiPence to your 
honors and for just cause. Thus committing 
all to your honorable considerations, and my 
poor self, your prisoner^ to be employed for 
performance of what I here have promised, or 


eke banished for ever the land^ or, lastly, kept 
by some of you, I humbly take my leave. 
At all your honors* service. 

Your honors' ever, 

William Watson.* 

[Execution of Watson and Clarke.] 

Good Brother, * 

Since your departure from London, tUere hath 
phanced sinall occurrents, worthy the repetition, 
that hath come to my hearing. From Wipchesr 
ter I hear that, upon Tuesday last, the lords of 
the council departed from thence to the court, 
as the Lord Chancellor, Treasurer, &c. which ha^ 
commission to execute all, or so many of the pri- 
soners condemned as they in their discretion^ 
t^hought good ; but they, in discretion, thought 
fit to reprieve them all till they had made par- 
ticular relation of every particular man and his 
ai}ti(»is unto the King, and that he should deter- 
mine thereof according tq his pleasure. But 
thQ furious impatience of the Lor.d Chief 
Justice! was such as, the same night the 
lords went, he, by a writ of the crown-office, 
executed two of them, viz. Watson and Clarke, 
the next morning, lest a reprieve should have 

♦ Tan. MSS. Ixxv. 88. In Sancroft's hand, <* Ex. Orig. P. O." 
t Sir Edward Ck)ke. 


come for them. Watson made short work, and 
had quick despatch, for he only asked the Jesuits* 
forgiveness,* and prayed them to forgive him, 
and to pray for him both alive and dead ; and so 
was quickly despatched. But Clarke would have 
told tales how they were abused, and the truth 
of things, how they were misled, and how the 
people were blinded with coloured shows, but 
could not be suffered; but was most miserably 
tortured, to the great cliscontent of the people, 
who now think that matters were not so heinous 
as were made show of. On Friday, at night, 
the Lord Admiral, and some other lords, came 
back again to Winchester, whereupon there was 
an execution expected on Saturday morning, but 
was not so ; for the clerk of the crown's man 
stayeth the return of the Lord Chancellor to 
make the writ, either to remove or execute the 
rest of the prisoners. The sheriffs are pricked, 
but they must put in better assurance to answer 
the King than they have done. There is a Po- 
land embassador come with presents and gratu- 
lations to the King ; he hath a company of 
followers, the lustiest, tallest men that ever I 
saw of any nation. There is an embassador 
coming from Savoy; Sir John HoUis and a 
Scotch knight were sent to receive them at 

* The same thing is stated, in substance, by Hicks in his 
letter to the Earl of Shrewsbury, in which he has given a de- 
tailed and interesting account of the trial of the several con- 
spirators. — See Lodge's lUust. iii. ^18. 


Harwich, but I see them not yet come to Lon- 
don. Geneva are gathered for in parish churches, 
for their piercesf are not able to maintain their 
garrisons of soldiers. Grave Morris beginneth 
to grow wearisome to the states, for that this 
summer he hath spent a great deal and done 
nothing ; heretofore when he got them some- 
thing towards the charges, though but a third 
or fourth part, yet it was something. The Prince 
Cometh shortly to Oatlands ; the Queen is ex- 
pected on Thursday at Hampton Court, and the 
King about Thursday come se'nnight. The 
plague somewhat slaketh, but still * * ♦ scat- 

All the business at the end of this term was 
despatched in Mr. Hickman's name * * ♦. My 
Lady Billensby is dead. * ♦ * 

Your loving brother, 

Robert Hobart.J 

From Clifford's Inn, London, 
This 5th of December 1C03. 

To Sir John Hobart, Kt. 


[Execution of Brooke and Markham.] 

Good Brother, 

* * * If you could be well spared from 
Hayles, 1 wish you were here again, about a 
se'nnight or fortnight hence after the court be 

t So in the original. t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxv. 113. 


come, whida is expected to be i^t Hampton Court 
some time this week ; for the coming thereof 
doth quicken London and revive it very mudi, 
tor there is cauae. For it is expected that there 
will be as great a multitude and concourse of 
people in it before Easter as ever was. There 
is already laid in 200 tun of wine into White^ 
hall; there is order given already for trimming 
up of the Parliament House and Westminster 
Hall; wherefore we in London expect^ at least, 
the solemnity of the King's coronation, and a 
parliament immediately after the term. There is 
at the Court in London, besides the French and 
Spanish Liegers, two embassadors from Venice^ 
one lieger and one special messenger, one from 
the Duke of Florence, one from the Duke of 
Savoy, one from the King of Poleland ; and the 
Constable of Spain is expected about February. 
[There]fore now all men expect a peace at 
least, if not a marry [age. I thi]nk I writ 
you word that Mr. George Brooke [would] be 
headed ; * but since, upon Friday last, the two 
lords and Sir Griffin Markham were brought to 
the place of execution to be headed ; but, when 
every one was severally ready to be executed, 
they were all reprieved and carried back again. 
Yesterday, being Monday, it was expected Sir 
Walter Rawley should be executed ; but whether 
it was done, or not, I hear not yet the certainty. 

* The letter is much torn and decayed in this place, which I 
haye endeavoured carefuUy to restore. 


Ther^ h a speech Sir Benjamin Tichborne shall 
bfe lieutenant of the Tower. 

There died the last week, of the plague, but 55. 
Thirty parishes infected, but 'tis doubted this 
week will be more. There is a captain hath 
stain a Scotch knight, called Douglas, in fight 
upon Hounslow Heath. For my own particu-- 
lar a£Pairs, I can certify you no more than I did 
the last week. * * ♦ 

Your poor brother, 


From the office in Fleet Street, London, 
this 13th of Deeemher 1603. 

To air John Hobart, Kt. 


[Execution of Brooke and Markham. — Exorcising at Court.] 


My keeper (according to your desire) attended 
the coming of your man, and went with him to 
Wetherden^ where he killed such a fat doe as 
my keeper saith he hath never seen a fatter: it 
will be a present well beseeming a Lord Mayor. 
I thank you for your news, in requital whereof 
I send you such as I received yesterday from a 
friend of mine ; viz. that on Friday last, the 
Lord Gray, Lord Cobham, and Sir Griffin Mark- 
ham, were severally brought to the scaffold ; all 
of them prepared themselves for death. The 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxv. 115. Much injured 


Lord Gray protested to die a Protestant, Sir 
Griffin Markham a Catholic ; the Lord Cobham 
professed nothing.* After this done; they laid 
their heads on the block, when his Majesty's 
pardon was pronounced untq them all. Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh was not brought forth, but still ex- 
pecteth the King's mercy ; which perhaps at length 
will come, according to the proverb, in space 
cometh gi^ace. What my son hath done with 
those good fellows that were in his purse, you 
shall understand by his letter here inclosed ; which, 
after you have read, I pray return again. 

The last week were taken two priests at court, 
which should have been banished, but were stayed 
by occasion of a gentleman of the court, possessed 
by a spirit, whose friends desired these priests to 
exorcise him : they answered they would, if they 
might have an altar and mass, and such other 
rites as belong to that action, all which were 
granted them. Some of the council desired to 
be present, which they granted, so be it they would 
behave themselves without contempt or irreve- 
rence. The issue of this is expected, which we all 
pray for, that it may be with good success ; for it 

* The following lines were written upon their behaviour on 
this occasion : — 

Fortiter occubuit Grayus, quasi vivere spernens ; 

Cobhamius timide sed tamen ut decuit ; 
In medio tacite vadit Markhamius, ut qui 

Vivere nee spernit pertimuitque mori. 

From Yelverton's MS. All Souls' Coll. Oxf. f. 59, b. 


may work much good in God's church, and in 
particular to yourself. And so, with my hearty 
commendations to your good father and mother, 
and yourself, I end. 

Your loving kinsman, 


To my very loving Cosin, Sir John Hobart, Kt., 
At Hales Hall, in Norfolk. 



Receive from thy unfortunate husband these 
his last lines, these the last words that ever thou 
shalt receive from him. That 1 can live to think 
never to see thee and my child more, I cannot. 
I have desired God and disputed with my rea- 
son, but nature and compassion hath the vic- 
tory. That I can live to think how you are both 
left a spoil to my enemies, and that my name 
shall be a dishonor to my child, I cannot, I can- 
not endure the memory thereof: unfortunate 
woman, unfortunate child, comfort yourselves, 
trust God, and be contented with your poor 
estate ; I would have bettered it if I had enjoyed 
a few years. Thou art a young woman, and 
forbear not to marry again : it is now nothing to 

* Orig. Tan. Ixxv. 1 2. 

t This letter at once determines the much vexed question, 
whether or not Sir Walter did attempt to stab himself in the 
Tower.-— See Ty tier's Raleigh, p. 438. 


me ; thou art no more mine^ nor I thine. To wit- 
ness that thou didst love me oace, take care that 
thou marry not to please sense, biit to avoid pover- 
ty, and to preserve thy child. That timJL didst 
also love me living, witness it to others ; to my 
poor daughter^ to whom 1 have given nothing ; 
for his , sake, who will be cruel to himself to pre- 
serve thee. Be charitable to her, ^nd teach thy 
son to love her for his father's sake. For myself, 
I am left of all men, that have done good to many. 
All my good turns forgotten, all my errors re- 
vived and expounded to all extremity of ill ; all 
my services, hazards^ and lexpenses (for my coun- 
try, plantings, discoveries^ flights^ councils, and 
whatsoever eke^ malice hath now covered over. 
I am now made an enemy iind traitor ^by .the 
word of an unworthy man .; he >hath pmckimed 
me to be a partaker of his vain inpciginatlons^ npt- 
withstanding the whole ^course of my life ,hath 
approved the contrary, as my death «haU approve 
it. Woe, woe, woe be unto him by whose false- 
hood we are lost ! he hath separated us asunder j 
he hath slain my honor, .my fortune »; he hath 
robbed thee of thy husband, thy child of his 
father, and me of you both. Qh, God ! thou 
dost know my wrongs: know then, thou my wife 
and chUd ; know then thou, my Lord and King, 
that I ever thought them too honest to betray, 
and too good to conspire against. But my wife, 
forgive thou all as I do; live humble, for thou 
hast but a time also. God forgive my Lord 


Hairry,* for he was nay heavy enemy. Amd for 
any Lord Cecill, I thought he woidd never fior- 
sake me in extremity ; I would not have doi^ it 
him, <5od knows. But dfo not thou know it, for 
he must be master of thy child, and may have 
compassion of him. Be not dismayed that I 
died in despair of God's merdes ; strive not to 
dispute it ; but assure thyself that God hath not 
IdPt me, nor Satan tempted me. Hope and des- 
pair 'Hve not together •, I kmow it is forbidden to 
destroy ourselves, b«i-t I trust it is forbidden in 
this «ort, ttmt we destroy «not ourselves despairing 
of God's mercy. 

The mere}'' of God is immeasurable, the co^- 
tations of men comprehend it not. In lihe liord 
I have ever trusted, and I know that my Re- 
deemer liveth : far is it from me to be tempted 
with Satan ; I am only tempted with sorrow, 
whose sharp teeth devour my heart. O Grod, 
that art goodness itself, thou canst not be but 
good to mel Oh, God, that art mercy itself, thou 
canst not be but merciful to me ! 

For my state is conveyed to feoffees, to your 
cousin Brett and others ; I have but a bare estate 
for a short life. My plate is at gage in Lombard 
Street: my debts are many. To Peter Vanlore, 
some £600. To Antrobus as much, but Cumpson 
IS to pay £800 »of it. To Michael Hext,* £100. 
To George Carew, £100. To Nicholas San- 
ders, £l00. To John Fitz- James, £100. To Mr. 

* Cobham. 


Waddom, £100. To a poor man, one Hawker, 
for horses, £70. To a poor man, called Hunt, 
£20. Take first care of those for God's sake. 
To a brewer at Weymouth, and a baker for my 
Lord CeciU's ship and mine, I think some £80 ; 
John Renolds knoweth it. , And let that poor 
man have his true part of my return from Vir- 
ginia ; and let the poor men's wages be paid with 
the goods, for the Lord's sake. Oh, what will 
my poor servants think at their return, when 
they hear I am accused to be Spanish, who sent 
them, to my great charge, to plant and discover 
upon his territory ! Oh, intolerable infamy ! Oh, 
God ! I cannot resist these thoughts ; I cannot 
live to think how 1 am derided, to think of the 
expectation of my enemies, the scorns I shall re- 
ceive, the cruel words of lawyers, the infamous 
taunts and despites, to be made a wonder and a 
spectacle ! Oh, death ! hasten thee unto me, that 
thou mayest destroy the memory of these, and 
lay me up in dark forgetfulness. Oh, death ! 
destroy my memory, which is my tormentor ; my 
thoughts and my life cannot dwell in one body. 
But do thou forget me, poor wife, that thou 
mayest live to bring up thy poor child. I re- 
commend unto you my poor brother, A. Gilbert. 
The lease of Sanding is his, and none of mine ; 
let him have it for God's cause ; he knows what 
is due to me upon it. And be good to Kemis, for 
he is a perfect honest man, and hath much wrong 

* Hickes.— See Lodge*s Illust. iii. 218, 


for tny siake. For the rest, I commend me to 
tbem, and them to God. And the Lord knows 
my sorrow to part from thee and my poor child ; 
biit part I must by enemies and injuries, part 
with shame and triumph of my detractors ; and 
therefore be contented with this work of God, 
and forget me in all things but thine own honor, 
and the love of mine. I bless my poor child, 
and let him know his father was no traitor. 
Be bold of my innocence, for God, to whom I 
offer life and soul, knows it. And whosoever 
thou choose again after me, let him be but thy 
politique husband ; but let my son be thy be- 
loved, for he is part of me, and I live in him, 
and the difference is but in the number, and 
not in the kind. And the Lord for ever keep 
thee and them, and give thee comfort in both 
worlds ! * 


[Anecdotes of Henry IV. of France.] 



From Paris, June 2nd, 1 605. 

My very good Lord, 

Since my last unto your lordship, there happen- 
ed here a great and sudden accident, which was 

* Contemporary copy, transcribed from Serg. Yelverton's col- 
lection in All-Souls. Marked MS. 16, 18, fol. 100, b. ^ 



like to Uave made d great alteration in this estate ; 
but, God be thahked, all is ^iow well again ! It 
wiis that the King and Qaeen her-e were very near 
drowning; and it canie to pasjS on Friday last, the 
^Oth t){ Mayj being an exceeding #et day; on this 
sort. The King and Queeh had been at St. Ger* 
maih to-i§ee th^ Dauphin and the re^t of their chil- 
dren j and in the evening took their coach, with six 
hbrses, to return to Paris again. The King at that 
time wa^ troubled with the todthach ; '^nd; there- 
fore, contrary to his wonty sate then in the hinder 
part of the coach : at other times he nsed to/sit in 
the boot. There Were besides with theni in the 
coabh the Dukfe of Venddmfe, his late son by the 
Buchess of Beaufdtt, the Duke Montpensief, 
and the Princess of Cdtlti. Between St. Germains 
dnd Paris th^e are diveriS ferries. Or bacs, asJ they 
call them here. The rest they passed well ; but 
at the last, which is hard by the house of Madrid, 
when two of the horses were gotten in the ferry- 
boat, the two hinder most, in the descent of the 
bank, being wet and slippihg, fell int6 the water, 
which is deep, the length of a pike, close to the 
shore, and drew up the coach on one side after 
them, that beifag nethermost on which the Queen 
sate. There is joined to the side of the great 
ferry-boat a little flat-bottonied boat for men to 
pass over in, wtiieh the King was wont ever to 
pass, but the wetness of the weather and his tooth- 
ach then kept him in the coach; That little boat 
was the means of saving all their lives ; for the 


coa^h falling upon that, was thereby supported, 
whieb otherwise had slid and sunk clean down. 
Tbe King petceiying the overturning of the coach, 
called . to haye the harness cut, took little Ven- 
doiSe in his bands,- and cast, him to those standing 
in rthe ferry-bpat ; ,.M(n?tpeiisier being in the boat 
th^t .turned uppermost, got out and helped him- 
iSglf with t\fi top of the coa^h. The King, seeking 
to get out from ,the hinder part within, was hit 
baqk by the side bar of the boot of the coach then 
turnings and was much wet, but soon recovered 
and had 0ut by gentlemen that put themselves 
into the water $o help. There were not many 
p^etont; li'Isle, Chastaigneray^ and Ursi are 
earned , for the chiefest. The Queen was in the 
Idwef side of the coach a great while under 
ifrater; the bed of tjle cc^ch falling that way^ and 
tt^ Priricess of Conti likewise^ and being wedged 
in with hier short farthingde, or trainse^ueue, made 
it the Ddore difficult for her to get out. The King 
caught atjier gown ^t first, and held it still, bring- 
ing in his hand a piece of it out that he i^nt off; 
then returned into the water himself and lament- 
ed much the Que^i, thinking she must have 
perished, giving oi-der for grappling for her and 
for the. Princess of Conti, which the rest in that 
haste and confusion thought not on. At length 
they, were both gotten out, the Queen's gown and 
hair and all that came next to hand being laid 
hold on, so that all her head-tire she lost, and 

H 2 


amongst that some of her hair and jewels of value, 
and came to Paris in a man^s hat. The Princess 
of Conti, sister to the Duke of Guise, a very 
courteous, fair, and good lady, much affectionate 
to the King, my Sovereign, using all good oflSces 
to all appertaining to his Majesty, as soon as she 
came to have help, got in a manner as much hair 
as the Queen lost ; for the first thing that she laid 
hold on was his beard, that came to help her, and 
that she held so fast as hath made the places of 
his face, where it grew, bare. Being all gotten 
out, they passed the ferry presently, and first went 
on foot to heat and stir themselves, then got into 
another coach, the King making all the speed he 
could to be the first man that should bring the 
news of his well doing to this town of Paris. 
That night he supped abroad, recounting his ad- 
venture to the Princes, that came to see him, and 
telling of the time of his falling into the water, 
said, " Aussi bien estoit rheure de boireJ"' The next 
day Te Deum was sung in many places of Paris 
for his deliverance.* 



SOth of June 1605. 

Touching women, the KingJ is vehemently 
bent for entertaining the Marquise of Verneuil 

* Birch, 4160. t Vice-Chamberlain to the Queen. 

J Henry IV. of France. 

i 3 

^ ? J T 5 « O O '3 > T , ■ - , > ^ . " -> J ^ -> . ^ U o vJ ^ 

-' J .-^^ •• J ',','' , -• J . ; 3-J - ^ -J -> 

"> > -, '• Jijy- ^. ' J ■ ■ ' i ■ J J 'J ^ J 


again. The Queen, of all women, fears her, as 
one that hath had very handsome children by the 
King, pretendeth a contract of marriage with him 
before the Queen's, and in way of discourse is 
only capable and sufficient above any woman in 
France, as the King himself professeth (Tentretenir 
son esprit ; to which kind of delight with women 
he now most bendeth himself, being not any more 
in case afarlaprouezze d' Her cole. To divert him 
from this Marquise, the Queen hath been con- 
tented that he should entertain the Countess of 
Moritt.* She hath given way and furtherance to 
the matter of La Haye ; but upon speech with her 
two things have distasted the King; the first a 
demand of thirty thousand or fifty thousand of 
crowns by her ; to which the King answered, Beau^ 
mont vous a instruit en cecy; the other, that she 
began to play the preacher with him, and per- 
suaded him to content himself with his Queen. 
The King answered that she was son pain cotidien, 
but he must have besides somewhat for collation. 
She persisting in her former two terms, the King 
told her she was une sotte, and that he would see her 
no more. The Queen hath also sought to bring in 
the Marquise's own sister in competence of love 
with her ; but the King cannot be wrought to any 
of these people. Therefore the Queen falls into 
great passions and weepings if she hear that either 
the King goes to the Marquise, or that she comes 

* Moret la Haye. 


* • • • • t, • 

• b b 

t „ 



to Paris : and the Princess of Canti is the Queen's 
chief councillor therein. The King thereupon is 
at tbeih both with bitter chidings sometimes ; and 
at other he employs his most inwar4 counicillors to 
satisfy the Queen herein. Rosny hath been ever 
in opposition with the Marquise ; and therefore 
be is brusquement against her. Sillery and ViUe- 
roy deal with the Queen in more persuasive terms, 
telling her that . at first she was afraid of Queen 
Mai'garet's coming to the court, but that she find- 
eth now that it proveth for her greatness and for 
her assurance and for the good of the Dauphin. 
So likewise it were more for her assurance to have 
the Marquise here publicly as a concubine, than 
to have her hold the secret {Pretensions of a wife 
by living apart ; which pretensions receive strength 
by the fears which the Queen showeth of them ; 
the only way to destroy th,em Were to show a 
contempt of them. These reasons, though they 
be true, yet is not she capable of, but leads such 
a life about these matters as troubleth both ex- 
tremely, and this bruit de message I take to have 
been some cause of putting off Sir William Go- 
dolphin's audience the longer, the King being in 
these terms with the Queen and the Ppncess of 
Conti at his arrival, and therefore himself to Fon- 
tainebleau d passer son ennui/. Since I hear the 
King hath written a kind letter to the Marquise, 
wherein he telleth her he can be no more without 
her company than the body without the soul. 

4th Jii>ly.-rTl}e Qiaeen, upop the lipubt of th^. 
King'3 fetprn tp the Marquise, grew into such 
$b^ temis as that $he prpteste^ rather than s\iei 
wpuldf ndtil^ $U|eh indignities, sh^ would return %q 
Flqrenise again, and rjeceiv^d as qi^ an answer, 
that for to bring her thither she shpuld hayfe the 
easiest jcoajch/es and litters of all France providjed 
fpr her.* 


18th Oct. 1605, 


My intention to attend your Highness to-raor- 
row (God willing) cannot stay me from acknow- 
ledging by these few lines how infinitely I am 
bound to your Highness for that your gracious 
disposition towards me, which faileth not to show 
itself upon every occasion, whether accidental or 
begged by me, as this late high favour and grace 
it hath pleased your Highness to do my kinsman 
at my humble suit. I trust to-morrow to let 
your Highness understand such motives of that 
my presumption as shall make it excusable. For 
your Highness shall perceive, I both understand 
with what extraordinary respects suits are to be 
presented to your Highness, and, withal, that 
your goodness doth so temper your greatness as 
it encourageth both me and many others to hope 
that we may taste the fruits of the one by 

* Birph, 4160. 


means of the other. The Almighty make your 
Highness every way such as I^ Mr. Newton, and 
Sir David Murray (the only intercessors I have 
used in my suits, or will in any I shall present 
to your Highness) wish you ! and then shall you 
be even such as you are, and your growth in 
virtue and grace with Gkxl and men shall be 
the only alteration we will pray for. And so in 
all humility I cease. — From London, the 18th of 
October 1605. 

Your Highness' 

Most humble and dutiful, 

Arbella Stuart.* 

To the Prince. 

May it please your Highness, 

I have received your Highness* letter, wherein 
I am let to understand that the Queen's Majesty 
is pleased to command Cutting my servant for the 
King of Denmark, concerning the which your 
Highness requireth my answer to her Majesty, 
the which I have accordingly returned by this 
bearer, referring him to her Majesty's good plea- 
sure and disposition. And although I may have 
some cause to be sorry to have lost the content- 
ment of a good lute, yet must I confess that I 
am right glad to have found any occasion where- 

♦ MS. Harl. 6986, fol. 71. This letter has been already 
printed by Birch, in his Life of Prince Henry, p. 60. But I 
have taken the liberty of introducing it here as a favourable 
specimen of Arabella's correspondence. 


by to express to her Majesty and your Highness 
the humble respect which I owe you, and the 
readiness of my disposition to be conformed to 
your good pleasures; wherein I have placed a 
great part of the satisfaction which ray heart can 
receive. I have, according to your Highness* 
direction, signified unto my uncle and aunt of 
Shrewsbury your Highness' gracious vouchsafing 
to remember them, who, with all duty, present 
their most humble thanks, and say they will ever 
pray for your Highness' most happy prosperity ; 
and yet my uncle saith he canieth the same 
spleen in his heart towards your Highness that 
he hath ever * done. And so praying to the Al- 
mighty for your Highness' felicity, I humbly 
cease. — From Shefiield, the 15th of March 1607. 

Your Highness' 

Most humble and dutiful, 

To the Prince his Highness* 


. [Soliciting the person she writes to, to use his interest with 
Lord Northampton to intercede for her with the King, after her 
marriage with the Earl of Hertford.] 


Though you be almost a stranger to me, but 
only by sight, yet the good opinion I generally 

t MS, Harl. 6986, fol. 78. 


hear to be held of your fvortb, together ynth the 
great interest you have in myliord of North* 
ampton's favor, makes me thus far presume of 
your willingness to do a poor afflictied gentle^ 
woman that good office (if mn6 dther res|iect^ 
yet because I ^m a phristiany as to further me 
with your best endeavours to his L<;»'dship; that 
it will please 'him to help pxe out of this great 
distress and misery^ and regain me his Majesty's 
favor, whijch is my chiefest desire. Wherein his 
Lordship may do a deed acceptable to God an^ 
honorable to himself, and I shall be infinitely 
bound to his Lordship, and beholden to you, who 
now, till I receive some com fort from his Majesty, 
rest the most sorrowful creature living, 

[Ifill ?] Arbella Seymour.! 

[The Gunpowder Plot.] 


* * * For our occurrences here. On 
Wednesday, the 30th of October, the Earl of Cum- 
berland § died ; and it is said that the body of thje 
council is no whit weakened thereby. His wife 
and he were reconciled before his death, who is left 

t MS. Cott. Vesp. F. iii. fol. 35. 

J From a copy by Birch in the Sloane Collection. 

§ George Clifford. 


a lady aMe td' pleasure the communion of saints, 
haying a jointure of £1200 a year, confirmed in 
89 Eliz. by parliament. Upoti his opening, there 
was as much filthy matter in his liver as filled a 
great charger. My Lord of Salisbury is one of his 
executes. His daughter shall have £15,000, and 
be married to my Loi^d of Walden. 

The last of October died the old Lady Cbandos ; 
and it is confidently said that my Lord is to marry 
my Lord Chamberlain's eldest daughter. The 
same day the King arrived at Whitehall. 
' Upon the 1st of November, Monsieur de Beau- 
mont departed towards France, having left behind 
him a reasonable distaste here, but had a very ex- 
traordinary present given him from the King, and 
Queen likewise, and so had his wife. I under3tand 
that the Count de Crumaille, who is to succeed 
him, wUl not be here these six weeks; so a$ for 
this parliament we are like to be without a French 

Here were certain books lately brought out of 
France^ and great search made after them to call 
them all in. And how true I know not, but I am 
let to understand that our ambassador then moved 
the French King for the suppressing of the whole 
press, and received but a very slight answer. It 
continueth a history of some eight years since, 
containing some quires of paper, and written by 
one Dampmartin : you may easily recover one by 
the French ambassador there. 


There is another book, written in Spanish^ much 
in disgrace of the admiral and carriage of our 
countrymen there. Before my coming hither, I 
hear that Madame de Hoboguen was with the 
Queen at Hampton Court, where she did excel- 
lently carry herself to her great commendation. 
I have not yet seen her, but will do with the first 
opportunity. I am and will do her all the honor 
and service I can, purposing when my wife shall 
be come to the town, and settled, solemnly to in- 
vite her. But to tell your Lordship truly, she 
lieth so far off at Stepney, as, this winter weather, 
it IS great toil to go to her. A man must be fain 
to spend a whole day for a compliment, which I 
should hardly do during the parliament, were it 
not that my obligation is so great to my father. 
Monsieur le President, as will leave nothing un- 
performed. Much marvelling, for many respects, 
they do not winter within the City. 

It is said here, that the chaplain which Sir 
Charles Cornwallis carried over with him into 
Spain is turned friar : likewise, that a priest of 
Taxis is converted here ; and assuredly given out 
that Sir Edmund Bainham is turned Capuchin. 
Several parliament men are dead since the last 
session, as Sir Arthur Atye, Sir Edward Stafford, 
Sir Richard Levison, Sir George Harvey, Sir 
Philip Keightley, old Leife of Hastings, Sir Ed- 
ward Lewkenor, Sir Thomas Heskett, attorney of 
the Wards, (in whose room Serjeant Hobart is 


placed,) young Sir Henry Beaumont, &c.; wherein 
your Lordship may note that it hath leightened 
most upon fat men. For lords, I find, none dead 
but the Lord Windsor. 

Here hath been lately kept certain marshal- 
courts by the commissioners, wherein were chiefly 
handled, as I understand, the matter of the Earl 
of Kildare, for the Barony of Ophaley. As also 
the Viscount Montague calleth in question Sir 
Edward Monteagle, for bearing of his coat of arms, 
and quartering of Mountherme, driving it to the 
point of proving no gentleman. But one thing 
seemed very strange unto me, which the lords 
have likewise called before them, that there is one 
Musgrave, one of the Knights of the Bath, and 
hath married my Lord Wharton's daughter, who 
hath caused to be made a great number of glass 
windows to be set up in his house containing 
sundry arms, where he placed for the first coat the 
arms of England, the second the arms of Scotland, 
the third of Edward the Confessor, and the fourth 
his own. I verily believe he will prove another 

In the beginning of this Michaelmas term. Jus- 
tice Gaudy was made Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas. 

We hear that the King of Spain hath been 
lately in Navarre, under colour of coming to be 
crowned ; but when he came to Pampeluna, he 
flayed the governor of the town quick, and put 


to death tw6 hundred inhabitants for practising 
with France; 

On the 5th ctf Novemb^f we begatn our Parliar 
ment, when the King should hare tiyvbe in person, 
but he refrained through d practice but that mofn- 
ing discovered. The plot was to hav^ bldwn up 
the Kirig at such time Its he should Have beeh set 
in his toy al throhe, abcompairied with his ^Idf en> 
nobility, and comihoAers, and assisted , with iaH thib 
bishops, judges, and doctbrs; at on& iriiStant and 
blast to have ruined the wholfe state and kingdom 
of England ; knd for the effecting of. this there 
was placefd under the parliament-house/ whfere the 
King should sit, soriie thirty barrels of jJcfwden 
ivith ^ood store of wbod, fag^oti^y pieces, and barS 
of iron. Hoiv this canie forth is sundry wjays de- 
livered. Sbme say, by a letter sent to the Lord 
Monteagle, wherfein he was warned not to come 
to the parliament the first day ; for/ that the time 
was so wicked as God would take isonde vengeance^ 
which would be in as Short time pdrforrbfed as 
that letter could be burned, \frhich he was prayed 
to do. Such as are apt to interpret all things to 
the worsts will not belieV^ other but that Mbn- 
teagte might in policy cause this letter to be sent; 
fearing the discovery of the letter; the rather; 
that onfe Thomas Ward, a pjrincijial man abbut 
him, is suspected to be accessary to the treason ; 
others otherwise. But hoivsoeVer cettain it is^ 
that iipon a search lately made on Monday night 


ill the Tault under the parliaineht chamber before 
spdken of, one Johnson was found, with one of 
iUb^ close lanterns, preparing the train against 
tlie nfext morrow, who beirig after brought into 
the galleries of the fcotirt; and there demanded if 
he were not sorry fdr his so foul and heinous a 
treason, answered, that he was sorry for nothing; 
but that the dct wis not performed. . Being re- 
plied unto him, that no doiibt there had been a 
nuihber in that place of his own religion, hbw, in 
conscience, he could do them hurt, he answered, 
a few might well perish to have the rest taken 
dway. Others telling him that he should die 
a Wofrse death than he that killed the Prince of 
Orange, he answered; that he should bear it as 
well, arid ofteritiities repeated that he should have 
meritied pardori if He had performed it. Some say 
that he was servant to brie Thomas Percy ; others 
that he i^ a Jei^uit, and had a shirt of haiir ne±t his 
skid. But he was carried to the Tower on Tues- 
day following, whither the lords were ib examine 
him. This Thomas Percy had been a Servant of 
the. Earl of Northumberland's, and j)ut in great 
trust by him concerning his northern business, 
and lately made by him a. pensioner. He pre- 
sently fled, atid proclamations were made pre- 
sently fdr his apprehension. 

Early on the Monday morning, the Earl of Wor- 
cester was sent to E^sex House to signify the 
matter to my Lord of Northumberland, whom he 


found asleep in his bed, and hath done since hi.4 
best endeavour for his apprehension. This Percy 
my Lord of Northumberland confessed had £4000 
of his in his hands. I will judge the best ; but if 
this Earl should be found hereafter any ways 
privy thereto, it cannot be but that Beaumont's 
hand was in the pie.t ♦ ♦ ♦ 

When Johnson was brought to the King's pre- 
sence, the King asked him how he could conspire 
so hideous a treason against his children^ and so 
many innocent souls, which never offended him ? 
He answered that, it was true; but a dangerous 
disease required a desperate remedy. He told 
some of the Scots that his intent was to have blown 
them back again into Scotland. 

We say that Sir Anthony Shirley hath been 
with the Emperor, and is at this time employed 
by him into Spain ; and there is further news, 
that his brother, Robert Shirley, hath been thie 
chief instrument for the Persian to overthrow 
fourscore thousand Turks. 

Since Johnson's being in the Tower he begin- 
neth to speak English ; and yet he was never upon 
the rack, but only by his arms upright. 

On Thursday, the 7th of November, the Earl 
of Northumberland was committed to the custody 


of the Archbishop, who, as I doubt not but you 
already know, is made one of the privy council. 
Some insurrection hath been in Warwickshire, 

f Goodman's Memoirs, p. 102. 


and begun the very same day that the plot should 
have been executed, some Popish and light heads 
thinking to do wonders. The chief of name^ whicli 
I hear of, are such as were swaggerers in Essex's 
action ; as Catesby, and some say Tresham, the 
two Wrights, and one of the Winters; and such 
like. Percy himself was met at Dunstable, it 
should seem, going towards them. If the practice 
had taken effect, the King of Spain's embassador 
and the Archduke's had been blown up ; for their 
coaches were ready at the door to have attended 
on the King. Some say that Northumberland re- 
ceived tlie same letter that Monteagle did, and con- 
cealed it. The Viscount Montacute is committed 
to Sir Thomas Bennet's house, alderman of London. 
Captain Whitelock is committed to the Tower of 
London. Sir Walter Raleigh is much suspected 
to be privy to this action; for Whitelocke had 
had private conference late with him. The pri^ 
soner's right name is held not to be Johnson, but 
Faux. He hath further confessed, that there be 
many gentlemen, which at this time serve the 
Archduke, that have been made privy, that they 
should be prepared for that day for an insurrec- 
tion ; and that he verily thinketh they will come 
shortly over by degrees. 

Many rumours were here concerning Monsieur 
Beaumont. Some give out that he is not passed 
the seas at my writing of this. But 1 am credibly 
let to understand, that he did mightily importune 

vot, n. I 


to pass over, and did take shipping the same Tues- 
day morning, notwithstanding an adverse wind, 
and that he gave to the captain which carried him 
a ring worth some five and twenty crowns, which 
he took in great dudgeon. I hear that that Ger- 
man, which so braved him heretofore in his own 
house» followed him to Canterbury, and there, 
^ la desrobee, affianced himself to his gentlewoman, 
la Hay, about whom the stir was. 

Your lordship must interpret of my letter 
favorably, as written at sundry times ; which I do 
fpr your better information, though it hang as it 
were by points. It is much here observed that 
tJie French King would have no embassador here 
against that day. 

Such as have been curious to search out whether 
ever the like act hath been attempted, can find 
fione come so near unto this, asr a practice about 
nine years since, to blow up the Consistory at 
Jlon^e by one of the house of Este. 
' I pray your lordship let me understand from you 
how Sir Henry Carey is habdled, and how his affairs 
go. I think they were too forward when we were 
there to advance their titles above others. • * * 

I understand that Tyrwhit, which married my 
Lady Bridget, and also Sir Everard Digby, are 
gone to the rebels, who have left Warwickshire 
and are g<»ne into Wc»:cestershire ; but of the 
flying hand and little strength; not daring to come 
into any good town. 

KING JAM£S. 115 

All the King's servants are to take the oath of 

On Friday, the 8th of November, the King^ 
sent forth a proclamation, that whosoever could 
apprehend Thomas Percy,* and bring him alive, 
if he were an offender in this treason in whatso- 
ever degree, he should not only have pardon of 
his life, lands, and goods, but also a reward of 
£1000 value at the least ; and if he be no offender, 
he shall have that or a greater reward. His 
Majesty set forth a proclamation before that, 
wherein he freed his neighbor kings and princes 
from any suspicion he had of their privity; for 
that all the ministers of foreign princes which are 
now here, made earnest suit to be present in the 

* TIm apprehension of Percy was of considerable importanoe, 
particularly for substantiating the guilt or innocence of audi- 
noblemen who were supposed to be privy to the plot. All posi- 
tive proof against the Earl of Northumberland seems to have 
failed by Percy's death. Much curious information, illustrative 
of this letter and of the proceedings against the Popish lords^ 
will be found in a letter of Sir R. Cecil to Sir T. Edmonds, in 
Birch's Hist. View, p. 242. In a subsequent letter, dated 25th 
July, 1611, Cecil states some curious particulars respecting the 
confession of a servant of the Earl's, who had asserted that the 
Earl was privy to the plot ; upon which Northumberland was 
subjected to another examination, in which he confessed that, 
after he was committed to the Tower in 1605, he wrote to his 
brother, Sir Alan Percy, " to take it upon him, that by his 
means Percy was admitted a gentleman-pensioner to his Majesty, 
and suffered to escape the oath." He also admitted that he was 
acquainted with the hiring of the house where the mine was 
made. Ibid.HT. 



place that day. It is said that the rebels came but 
two hours too late to have seized upon the per- 
son of my Lady Elizabeth's grace. 

On the 9th of November the King came to the 
Parliament House, the Queen, his wife, the em- 
bassador of the Infanta, and the King of Spain pre- 
sent. There was solemnly delivered up by the 
Lord Chancellor that part of the instrument of 
the Union, which was to be offered to the con- 
sideration of the next session of parliament, the 
House of Commons being likewise present. The 
King used some speech touching that matter, and 
largely delivered in some points touching the late 
horrible treason, and in the end prorogued the par- 
liament until the 21st of January. Among many 
other aspects one was, that in the mean time many 
examinations might be thoroughly taken, for that 
all the offenders in this treason should be tried by 
the next session of parliament. His Majesty in 
his speech observed one principal point, that most 
of all his best fortunes had happened unto him 
upon the Tuesday ; and particularly he repeated 
his deliverance from (Jowry, and this, in which 
he noted precisely that both fell upon the 5th day 
of the month ; and therefore concluded that he 
made choice that the next sitting of parliament 
begin upon a Tuesday. 

I must confess to your lordship that I was 
not myself present, nor have not been since 
the session began, out of my house, neither 


bad I been at that day's work. But t hope 
my father, Riehardot, will not hold me in sus- 

Tyrwhy t is come to London, Tresham showeth 
himself, and Ward \valketh up and down. John- 
son's name now is turned into Guy Vaux, alias 
Faux. Upon the 10th of November, fresh news 
came that the traitors were overthrown by the 
Sheriff of Worcestershire, that Catesby is slain, 
Percy taken, but sore hurt, at Lyttelton's house, 
in Worcestershire, which they say the sheriff put 
fire to. I understand the sheriflTs name is Welch ; 
so much was signified the same day upon a solemn 
and general thanksgiving by Barlow, Bishop of 
Rochester, as I heard. 

I understand that the French church here at 
London appointed the same day for a general 
thanksgiving, and proclaimed a fast for the Thurs- 
day ensuing. On Friday, the 15th of November, 
the Lord Montacute, and Lord Mordaunt, and 
Tresham were sent to the Tower. It is thought 
the Lord Mordaunt will be found very capital ; 
for that one Keye, the keeper of his house at 
Surrey, was one of the principal plotters of the 
treason. One thing is very worthy of note, that 
as these men would have wrought by powder, so 
by their own powder, which was casually set on 
fire at Lyttelton's house, they were much dis- 
tressed; otherwise it is thought that the sheriff 
had not so easily come by them. Percy is dead. 


who it is thought [of] some particular men could 
have said more than any other.* 

Upon the death of the Earl of Cumberland, 
Grafton and the parks were bestowed upon the 
Duke of LennoXt * * * The Compotation 
house, whereunto all this crew resorted during 
their practice, was the Hart's Honi, in Carter 
Lane. * ♦ ♦ 

November 19th [1605]. 


[Defending himself from the imputation of being concerned in 

the Gunpowder Plot.] 

My good Lord, 

I DO daily find more and more how much I 
am bound to love you ; and having, since yester- 
day, most justly conceived a new affection in that 
degree, though (Gk)d knows) it was not small be- 
fore, I am enforced in these few lines, with tears 
of heart and eyes, for my better ease, to bemoan 
myself unto your lordship, assuring you, in the 
word of no dissembler, that to my knowledge I 
never knew what grief was till now, which as it 
proceedeth not from any guilt, (the which God 
and my soul knows to be far from me,) so doth 
it as little proceed out of any tediousness of im- 
prisonment, or were it death itself, wherein I 
could hope (by Grod's grace) to command myself 

* See the Memoirs, p. 106, 107. t See p. 113, 117. 


as a man ought to do. But they be the depend* 
ences and consequences of this restraint by im« 
putation of that wherein I am most innocent, as 
also in other respects that do torment me more 
than I can express. Wherefore I do most hum- 
bly beseech your lordship, even for the most 
bitter passion of our Lord Jesus, to give me ad- 
vice how, without violation of that which I am 
and hope ever to be in the integrity of faith, I 
may work unto myself, by letter or otherwise, 
the good grace of his Majesty, and the favor of 
my lords of his council. That which I would 
crave, were but that I might be with your lord-^ 
ship in what manner soever, whereunto if your 
lordship might be pleased upon mine humble 
suit to incline, though it cannot be but your 
trouble ; yet shall it not be (I hope) your discom- 
fort, and I am sure it shall not be the least deed of 
charity you may da But if that cannot be, yet 
I would your lordship might but send for me to 
speak of things, which with you I could do confi* 
dently. And if neither the one nor the other may 
be so soon as I could wish, yet I would I might 
hear from your lordship in such time as to your 
lordship may seem convenient. This I write not 
from any mislike of mine usage, either from the 
knight* or his lady, both giving me abundant 
satisfaction in what I can wish. And even thus, 
I humbly commend my desires, and all that may 
concern me, unto your lordship's good favor and 

* Sir Thomas Bennet, see p. 113 


patronage. From Sir Thomas Bennett's house, 
this 8th of November, 1605. 

Your lordship's most loving son-in-law, 

Antony Mountague. 

To the Right Honorable my very good Lord, and 
Father-in-lawi the Earl of Dorset, Lord Trea- 
surer of England, be these delivered. 


My oood Lord, 

Whereas your lordship doth demand of me, 
iipon my duty and allegiance to his majesty, to de-* 
elare whether I had any warning of this horrible in- 
tended treason against bis Majesty, either directly 
or indirectly, whereb}'^ I might be moved to forbear 
coming unto the parliament, I do most unfeign- 
edly protest upon the same allegiance to his Ma- 
jesty, and by the faith I owe unto Grod, that I 
had not at all; only this I did lately call to mind, 
that upon the Tuesday before All Saints' Day, in 
the Savoy, I met Mr. Robert Catesby, with whom 
I had some few words of compliment, and among 
the rest in these words, or the like : " The parlia- 
ment, I think, brings your lordship up now ? " 
Whereunto I answered to this effect, and in these 
words as nigh as I can remember, ** No, surely, but 
it will, on Monday next, unless my lord treasurer 
do obtain me his Majesty's licence to be absent, 
which I ami in some hope of." Then he said to this 
effect, '' I think your lordship takes no great plea- 


sure there," whereunto I assented. And so after a 
word or two of my walks (as I remember) and of 
maintaining them, which (to my knowledge) he 
never saw, I parted from him. The like words 
also I had with others, that were no ways like to 
be interested in this wicked w^ork, whose names 
I cannot remember, they being so many as seemed 
to wonder at my going at that time ; and by all 
likelihood, some of them should seem to be of 
mine uncles and aunts that be about the town, 
and some, others. And whereas your lordship 
doth also command me, in his Majesty's name, to 
^xplnin my meaning of that which I wrote in my 
last letter unto your lordship, that I would your 
lordship might but send for me to speak of 
things, which with you I could do confidently, 
I protest unto your lordship, it was not for any 
thing which I can say in this matter, but partly 
to satisfy you concerning certain words, which I 
conceived my Lord of Salisbury to have spoken, 
that I was head of the Catholics, and so taken ; 
and partly also in regard of such objections as 
your lordship might make against me, either in 
the behalf of these or other the like words; or 
else concerning my future courses, if by his Ma- 
jesty's gracious favor I might be freed from this 
present restraint. Gk>d is my witness that this 
was my meaning in general, rather to talk with 
your lordship confidently of whatsoever the pre- 
sent time should minister occasion to speak of. 


than of any other thing in particular. Thus 
humbly referring this matter and myself unto 
your lordship's good favor, I take my leave of your 
lordship. From Sir Thomas Bennett's house, 
this 12th of Nov. 1605. 

Your lordship's most loving son-in-law, 

Antony Mountague. 


My GOOD Lord, 

Whereas, in my letter written yesternight 
unto your lordship, I advertised you of certain 
speeches had with Mr. Robert Catesby, on Tues- 
day before All Saints' Day, I must crave pardon 
of your lordship for mistaking the day, for it 
must needs have been the Tuesday fortnight be- 
fore All Saints' Day, which was the 15th of 
October; for then I was at the Savoy, and dined 
with mine aunt of Southampton, having formerly 
met him by chance in the way ; and on the next 
Tuesday before, I was not at the Savoy at all. 
But by this mean I did mistake the time, for that 
on both these Tuesdays I was in London, and 
did on either of them take my journey out of 
London, and had such speeches with him, upon a 
day wherein I was to ride out of London. The 
words were to my remembrance such as I set 
down in my former letter, saving that the precise 
day of Monday for my return could not be pre- 
fixed by reason of the distance of time, and that 


I was in hope to have known fais Majesty's plea* 
sure sooner by your lordship's means, whereby if 
I had been to come up at all, I would not have 
deferred my coming until the last day. But that 
very day of Monday, I did name unto somebody 
vqpon the Tuesday before All Saints, and that (as 
I remember) unto my cousin, George Shute the 
younger, who, coming unto me from his father 
for certain evidences, enquired diligently of my 
return, presuming thereupon as necessary upon 
occasion of the parliament. Whereupon I told 
him certainly of Monday, unless your lordship 
should get his Majesty's leave for absenge; so 
much also unto my lady. My grandmother 
Mountague,* with whom I dined that day, I said 
upon the unwillingness I saw in her to my going 
down, because of the speedy return, which she 
thought^ and persuaded me would be too painful 
for me. I thought not of thus much, I assure 
your lordship, until this morning that I was 
ready to rise ; and being up, sent immediately for 
my letter, thinking to have now written it, but 
it was gone. Yesternight, as I was going to bed, 
one of my folks told me, that he heard in the 
house that the miserable fellow, that should have 
been the bloody executioner of this woful 
tragedy, was called Guy Faux; surely, if so 

* Widow of Anthony Brown, the first Viscount, a fine old 
nobleman, much distinguished for his patriotism in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. 


were his name, he should seem to have been my 
servant once, (though sorry I am to think it,) for 
such a one I had even for some four months, 
about the time of my marriage, but was dis- 
missed from me by my lord, upon some dislike 
he had of him ; and discontinued for a year, 
till some six. months after my lord's death, at 
what time he coming to one Spencer, that was, 
as it were, my steward and his kinsman, the same 
Spencer entreated me, that for that instant (being 
9ome few days) he might wait at my table, which 
he did, and departed ; and for that time I never 
had to do with him, nor scarcely thought of him; 
Thus craving pardon of your lordship for the 
error of my former,'and the rudeness of this pre- 
sent letter, I humbly take my leave of your lord- 
ship. From Sir Thomas Bennett's house, this 
Idth of November, 1605. 

Your lordship's most loving son-in-law, 

Antony Mountagub. 


[Miscellaneous News.] 

[Marriage of the Earl and Countess of Essex. Account of a 
mask by Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones.] 

SlR^ January, 1606. 

Ever since your departure I have been very 
unfit to learn any thing, because my bemng 


(which Aristotle calls sensus eruditmimus) hath^ 
by an accidental cold, been almost taken from 
me, which makes me very unsociable and to keep 
within doors; yet not in such a retired fashion, 
but that I have seen both the mask on Sunday 
and the barriers on Monday night. 

The bridegroom* carried himself as gravely 
and gracefully as if he were of his father's age. 
He had greater gifts given him than my Lord of 
Montgomery had, his plate being valued at £3000, 
his jewels, money, and other gifts, at £1000 more. 
But to return to the mask. Both Inigo, Ben,f 
and the actors, men and women, did their parts 
with great commentation. The conceit, or soul 
of the mask, was Hymen bringing in a bride, and 
Juno, Pronuba's priest, a bridegroom, proclaim- 
ing that those two should be sacrificed to nuptial 
union. And here the poet made an apostrophe 
to the union of the kingdoms. But before the 
sacrifice could be performed, Ben Jonson turned 
the globe of the earth, standing behind the altar, 
and within the concave sat the eight men-maskers, 
representing the four humours and the four affec- 
tions, who leaped forth and disturbed the sacri- 

* Robert, Eari of Essex, married, at the age of fourteen, to 
Frances, daughter of Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, she being only 
thirteen. The marriage took place in January 1606, The 
troubles afterwards occasioned by it are very well known. — See 
Goodman, p. 221. 

f Jonson. This mask is printed among his works. 


fice to union. But amidst their fuiy, Reason, 
that sat above them all, crowned with burning 
tapers, came down and silenced them. These 
eight, together with Reason, their moderator, 
mounted above their heads, sat somewhat like the 
ladies in the scallop-shell, the last year. About 
the globe of earth, hovered a middle region of 
clouds, in the centre of which stood a grand con- 
cert of musicians, and upon the canton, or horns, 
sat the ladies, four at one corner and four at ano- 
ther, who descended upon the stage, downright 
perpendicular fashion, like a bucket into a wdl, 
but came gently slipping down. These eight, 
after the sacrifice was ended, represented the 
eight nuptial powers of Juno pronuba^ who came 
down to confirm the union. The men were clad 
in crimson, and the women in white ; they had 
every one a white plume of the richest herns' 
feathers, and were so rich in jewels upon their 
heads, as was most glorious. I think they hired 
and borrowed all the principal jewels and ropes 
of pearl, both in court and city. The Spanish 
embassador seemed but poor to the meanest of 
them. They danced all variety of dances, both 
severally and promiscue ; and then the women 
took in men, as, namely, the prince, Who danced 
with as great perfection and as settled a majesty, 
as could be devised. The Spanish embassador, 
the Archduke's embassador, the Duke, &c. and 
the men, gleaned out of the Queen, the bride, 
and the greatest of the ladies. 


The second night the barriers were as well per- 
formed by fifteen against fifteen, the Duke of 
Lenox being chieftain on the one side, and my 
Lord of Sussex on the other. 
' But to leave these sports, and fall to more 
serious matters; On Friday last, the old Vene- 
tian lieger, Molino, presented to the King and 
Prince a new lieger, Justiniano. I say to the 
Prince, because they delivered a letter from the 
Signory to him as well as to the King. They 
came to the court in thirteen coaches ; they were 
apparalled in black gowns, lined with the richest 
fur of all others, black fox. * ♦ * 

Tui semper, &c. &c * * * 

J. PoRy.f 




[Written upon occasion of his coming into possession of a large 


My sweet life, 

Now I have declared to you my mind for the 
settling of your state, I supposed that that were 

t Cotton ids. Julius C. iii. f. S5. 

I Elisabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir John Spencer, who was 
Lord Mayor of London, in 1594; died in March, 1609*10, worth 
£dOO,000; some, said £800,000, which vast accession of property 
threw Lord Compton at first into a state of distraction. — Win- 


best for me to bethink or consider with myself what 
allowance w^e meetest for me. For considering 
what care I ever had of your estate, and how re- 
spectfully I dealt with those, which both by the 
laws of God, of nature, and civil polity, wit, reli- 

wood, iii. 136 ; where the followiDg remarks occur in a let,ter frcmi 
Beaulieu to Trumbull, dated March, 1 609 : — ^' On Tuesday, the 
funerals of Sir John Spencer were made, where some thousands 
did assist in mourning cloaks or gowns, amongst which there were 
320 poor men, who had every one a basket given them, stored 
with the particular provisions set down in this note inclosed ;* 
but to expound to you the mystical meaning of such an antic 
furniture, I am not so skilful an GSdipus, except it doth design 
the Horn of Abundance, which my Lord Compton hath found 
In that succession. But that poor lord is not like, if Grod doth 
not help him, to carry it away for nothing, or to grow very rich 
thereby, being in great danger to lose his wits for the same ; 
whereof being at the first news, either through the vehement 
apprehension of joy for such a plentiful succession, or of care- 
fulness how to take it up and dispose it, somewhat distracted, 
and afterwards reasonably well restored, he is now of late fallen 
again (but more deeply) into the same frenzy, so that there 
seemeth to be little hope of his recovery. And what shall these 
thousands and millions avail him if he come to lose, if not his soul, 
at least his wits and reason. It is a fair and ample subject for 
a divine to discoorse of riches, and a notable example to the 
world not to woo or trust so much in them* It is given out 
abroad that he hath suppressed a will of the deceased's, where- 
by he did bequeath some £20,000 to his poor kindred, and as 
much in pios tuws ; for the which the people do exclaim that 
this affliction is justly inflicted upon him by the hand of God.*' 

II ' 

* A black gown, four pounds of beef, two loaves of bread, 
a little bottle of wine, a candlestick, a pound of candles, two 
saucers, two spoons, a black pudding, a pair of gloves, a dozen 
of points, two red herrings, six sprats, and two eggs. 


gion^ government, and honesty, you,^ my dear, 
are bound to, I pray and beseech you to grant to 
rhe, your most kind and loving wife, the sum of 
£1600 per anil, quarterly to be paid. 

Also I would, besides that allowance for ray 
apparel, have £600, added yearly (quarterly to bei 
paid) for the performance of charitable works, 
and these things I would not, neither will be ac- 
countable for. 

Also I will have three horses for my own sad- 
dle, that none shall dare to lend or borrow ; none 
lend but I, none borrow but you. 

Also I would have two gentlewomen, lest one 
should be sick or have some other lett. Also be- 
lieve that it is an undecent thing for a gentle- 
woman, to stand mumping alone, when God hath 
blessed their lord and lady with a great estate. 

Also when I ride a hunting, or a hawking, or 
travel from one house to another, I will have 
them attending. So for either of those said wo- 
men, I must and will have for either of them a 

Also I will have six or eight gentlemen ; and 
I will have my two coaches, one lined with vel- 
vet, to myself, with four very fair horses ; and a 
coach for my women, lined with sweet cloth, one 
laced with gold, the other with scarlet, and lined 
with watched lace and silver, with four good horses. 
Also I will have two coachmen, one for my 
own coach, the other for my women. 



Also at any time when I travel, I will be allow- 
ed not only carroches and spare horses for me and 
my women, but I will have such carriages as shall 
be fitting for all, orderly, not posturing my things 
with my women's, nor theirs with chamber-maids, 
nor theirs with wash-maids. 

Also for laundresses, when I travel, I will have 
them sent away before with the carriages to see 
all safe; and the chamber-maids I will have go 
before with the grooms, that the chambers may 
be ready, sweet and clean. 

Also, for that it is undecent to crowd up my^ 
self with my gentleman-usher in my coach, I will 
have him to have a convenient horse, to attend 
me either in city or country. And I must have 
two footmen. And my desire is, that you defray 
all the charges for me. 

And for myself, besides my yearly allowance, 
I would have twenty gowns of apparel, six of 
them excellent good ones, eight of them for the 
country, and six other of them very excellent 
good ones. 

Also I would h^ve to put in my purse, £2000 
and £200 ; and so you to pay my debts. 

Also I would have £6000 to buy me jewels, 
and ^^4000 to buy nie a pearl chain. 

Now, seeing I h^ve been and am so reasonable 
unto you, I pray you to find my childreR apparel 
and their schooling, and all my servants^ men and 
women, their wages. 


Abb r will have all my bouses furnished, and 
all my lodging chambers to be suited with all 
such fumittire as is fit ; as beds, stools, chairs, 
suitable cushions, carpets, silver warming pans, 
cupboards of plate, fair hangings, and such like. 
So for my drawing chamber in all houses, I will 
have them delicately furnished, both with hang- 
ings, couch, canopy, glass, carpet, chair, cusliions, 
and all things thereunto belonging. 

Alfeo my desire is, that you would pay your 
debts, build Ashby House, and purchase lands ; 
and l^d no money, as you love God, to the Lord 
Chambei^in,* which would have all, perhaps 
your life> from you* Remember his son, my 
Lord Walden,'f: what entertainment he gave me 
when you' were at the Tilt-yard. If you were 
dead, he said he would be a husband, a father, a 
brother, and said he would marry me. I protest 
I grieve to see the poor man have so little wit 
and honesty to use his friend so vilely. Also he 
fed me with untruths concerning the CharterJ- 
faouse ; but that to the least he wished me much 
harm: you know him^ God keep you and me 
ftt)m him, and any such as he is. 

So now that I have declared to you what^ I 
would have, and what that is that I would not 
have, I pray, when you be an earl, to allow me 

* Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk^ made Lord Treasurer in 
1603. Of his extravagant habits^ see these memoirs, i. p. 290. 
t Succeeded his father in the earldom, in 1626. 

K 2 


-PIOOO more than now desired, and double at- 

Your loving wife, 

Eliza Compton. r 


[Amusing description of Spain.] 

London, 6th March 1610. . 

Right Honorable, my very good Lord, . 

The time of our departure for Spain drawing 
near, which is assigned about the 20th of March, 
and myself upon the point of taking my leave of 
those to whom for love or respect I owe this duty, 
I thought it fit to begin from your lordship, in 
whose honorable favors I have found the greatest 
place of my poor fortunes. It was my grief to 
be transplanted out of your lordship's house, but 
that there was cause, and little aid, I think, to 
have exchanged Brussels for Madrid. But as m- 
colatus meus in terra ma^a est peregrinatio, so God 
out of his love towards me hath always crossed 
me in that which I most desired, and taken m^ 
from that wherein I most delighted, that this 
often change should put me in mind of iny own 

My opinion of Spain, as also my affection to- 
wards it, is the same that ever it hath been. I 

* Birch, 4176, f. 32. 


hear Catholics lately come from thence to speak 
much good of the country. But when I read 
Clenard's epistle of his journey thither, I am apt 
to believe the contrary ; who having been a pub- 
lic reader at Louvain, as he posted through Bis- 
cay, having broken a little drinking glass, he was 
fain to drink water, like Diogenes, in his hand, 
because all the village was not able to lend him 
another. Near Valladolid he could hardly get 
a faggot of vine branches to warm him in sharp 
weather. His supper at night was indeed, as he 
saith, c(ena dubia^ not as the Latins meant it — a 
plentiful supper, which made the guests in doubt 
•where to feed ; but qitod incertum erat an cogere- 
tur jejunare. His olla was a little poor deal of 
bacon, which he was fain to buy unciatim— by 
ounces. His stomach roaring for want of vic- 
tuals, he was forced to betake himself to roast 
onions, as to his sacra anchora. His inn could 
not afford him either bed or straw, but having 
hired three black Moors, whom he prettily calleth 
Dentonem, Nigrinum, Carbonem^ he slept by hang- 
ing on their shoulders, or by being stayed up 
by them; whilst his muleteer foris delectabatur 
in drato gramineo. This narration 1 first read at 
Brussels with delight, but being now to make 
trial of it, I apprehend it with fear and horror, the 
rather for their sakes amongst us, who having 
been used to much tenderness will find it strange, 
after a tedious and dangerous passage by sea, to 


be entertained in this kingdom of Cabul, a land 
of mountains and deserts. I held it, as it was 
indeed, a pleasant journey when mounted en 
croupe, and trod better provinces under my 
horse's hoof than Spain hath any, and lay every 
night in a beautiful walled town, plentifully and 
daintily feed. Now I am told for certain, that 
my Spanish jennet may be a Biscayan mule, 
which will fling as if with her heels she would 
hit him that rideth on her back, which will ease 
me from one of my pains, that whereas I should 
be in fear of climbing those wearisome diffs and 
mountains, now I shall only be in care where to 
fall soft. Our cities poor hamlets, whose mud- 
wall houses, (as our Philppt was wont to say,) 
like young whelps, see not till nine days after 
they be made, their windows being 3Cored and 
cut out. Our ventas and hostelries without vi&. 
tuals or lodgings, which made Clenard to cry out 
upon them — " O Lusitani, tollite falsa vocabula. 
Vacatur diversorium, ubi nee comedendi mc dormi- 
endi datur facultaB^ 

My good lord, whilst I make myself as merry 
as I can with this my journey into Spsdn, I have 
an inkling of irresolution of leaving the ocean 
to our household, and of Sir John Digby*s and 
my lady's passing through France : and indeed 
there is great reason for it ; for in her safety and 
her young son's, is shipped the greatest stay of 
our present fortunes ; the estate which Sir John 


doth now enjoy by her being set at £12^00 by the 
year ; her son also being a tender child, and the 
last of his name in England, who, if he should 
fail, his fair estate would clear be dissipated. I 
might add also his eldest brother, Sir Richard 
Digby's heir, that is to be Baron of La Paile, in 
Ireland, besides his father's inheritance here in 
England. These considerations make us turn 
sail to coast by France, which puts me in some 
hope of seeing your lordship once again. 


For news, I know youi- lordship hath certain 
advertisements from others. Only thus much is 
evident to mine own faculty. My Lord of Lon- 
don* is lately become Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and it is thought that Dr. King shall succeed 

There is a flying speech here of the death of 
my Lord of York-t Upon the remove of the 
Bishop of GloucesterJ to Worcester, Dr. Tasker 
(who is now printing an answer to Becanus, as 
the Bishop of Ely is against Bellarmine) had 
thought to have succeeded, and had a grant of 
it from the King; but Dr. Tomson, Dean of 
Windsor, hath carried it from him. Dr. Bucke- 

ridge is Lord elect of Rochester. 

» « * * « 

Your Lordship's ever to serve, 

John Sanford. 

* Dr. George Abbot. t Toby Matthews. 

t Dr. Henry Parry. 


. .' . . . 


[Despription of the arrival of the King of Denmark.] 
Sir, July 29, 1614. 

,Mr. Whitwick, at his departure hence, com- 
mended the care of your businesses to me, who 
having this week received and perused your letters 
to him, to see if I might help aught to the satis- 
fying of the contents thereof, I understand thereby 
the great danger, both which you have incurred 
and avoided. I bless Gk>d and congratulate you 
on so happy and miraculous a deliverance; the 
circumstances whereof most worthily lead you to 
a serious contemplation of the Divine Provi-» 
dence. * ♦ * 

Since my last letters there hath nothing occurred 
here worth the writing; only I shall be able to 
relate unto you somewhat more fully the manner 
of the King of Denmark's coming, together with 
all the conceits and opinions of men touching the 
cause thereof. As touching the first it was in this 
sort. When he left home, he pretended an inter- 
view to be had between himself, the Dukes of 
Saxe, Brunswick, and Hulst, at a certain town 
situate upon the confines of Germany, whither he 
must necessarily use the benefit of the sea for the 
transporting of himself. Having, therefore, the 
better to color his design, commanded all his 
train to go before and to attend his arrival at such 
a place, he with three of his council, and half a 


dozen other gentlemen, with as many trumpeters 
and as many of his guards, embarked themselves 
in pretence for Germany, but with an intention for 
England. None of them that were embarked with 
him were privy to his purpose save the three of 
his council and the three masters of the ships^ 
which were the number of the ships that came 
along with him. He landed here at Yarmouth; 
and thence took post-horses here to London, where 
dining at an ordinary inn/near Aldgate, he hired a 
hackney coach, and presently addressed his course 
to the. Queen's court, and entered the presence 
before any person had the least thought of him. 
There Caitlel, the dancer, gave the first occasion 
of discovering him, by saying that that gentleman 
was the likest the King of Denmark that ever he 
saw any in his life, which a Frenchman, one of 
his Majesty's servants, hearing, and viewing his 
countenance well, whom he had seen the last time 
of his being here, grew confident that it was he ; 
and presently ran to carry the news thereof to the 
Queen, who sat then at dinner, privately, in her 
gallery at Somerset House. The Queen at first 
scorned him for his labour, so vain it appeared, 
and thought it some fantastic capricio of a French 
brain. But the King, following close after, and 
begging silence with the beckoning of his hands 
as he entered, came behind her and embraced her 
^re she was aware, and saluting her with a kiss, 
taught her the verity of that which before she be- 


lieved to be a falsehood. Presently she took off 
the best jewel she wore about her, and gave it the 
Frenchman for his tidings, despatched a post to 
bis Migesty, who was then well onward on his 
frogcess^ and then intended the care of his enter- 

The stealth of the journey, -and other circum- 
stances of his arrival, gave subject of fear at the 
first that it was tar some great distress at home, 
whkdi point being since cleared, it is as strongly 
conceited that it is for some notable design abroad, 
and specially with relation to Oermimy. But 
some of the wiser sort think that it is to accom* 
modate some particular differences here ; whereof 
I think fit to give you only this touch, which I 
Mdsh may rest likewise with yourself. 

His entertainment here hath been hunting, 
bear-baiting, running at the ring, and fencing. 
Upon Monday next our King conveys him to 
Rochester, and so back to Gravesend^ when he 
takes shipping the day following with intent of 
returning speedily. 

[Entertaioment of the King of Denmark.^ * 


On Sunday, the King, Queen, and Prince, lying 
the night before in the Bishop's palace at Roches- 
ter, had a Latin sermon in the cathedral church, 

* From Birch's Collection. 

KING JAM£& 189 

(^readied by Dr. Parry, who delivered a good 
matter with so good a grace, as their Majesties 
were very well pleased to hear liim. His text 
was,. Fac judicium et vukbis faciem DominL The 
sennon mided^ they had their barges at Rochester 
Bridge, and &o ran for the space of two miles along 
the galleys, ships, and pinnaces^ viewing than as 
tbey.iay^ till they came against Upnor Castle* 
There they mounted ttie ** Elizabeth James," in 
which their dinner was provided. This ship was 
joined by a faiidge founded upon masts and raOed 
<m each side, being 200 feet long, to the Bear^ 
whidi was fitted in all points for the entertmnment 
of the Danish Lords and others. Between both 
these royal ships lay a hulk, which served for a 
kitchen to both. In the Elizabeth the great cham«* 
ber, bdng part of the upper deck abaft the main 
mast, contained a long table for my Lwd Cham* 
berlain and other of our English Lords. The 
same deck, before the main mast, had a table for 
the ladies. From whence, up a pair of stairs, there 
was a passage unto the orlop, where was a fair 
tent set up, lined and hanged, the inside with 
silks and cloth of gold ; at the upper end whereof, 
under a rich cloth of state, sate the two Kings, the 
Queen, and Prince, at dinner. 

Some time after they had dined they took 
eoaoh at Upnor Castle on the shore, towards 
Gravesend, and having gone some three quarters 
of a mile they made a stand upon a Windmill-hill, 


whence they might perfectly view all the whote 
navy. Then began the gaUeys next the bridge to 
discharge, and after them all the pinnaces and 
ships^ in order as they lay, to the number of 1008 
great shot. This thunder made such music in the 
King of Denmark's ears, as he told the King if he 
had spent half bis kingdom in a banquet, he could 
not have contented him so well ; and further, that 
in requital he gave himself and his heart to do the 
King,'aslohg as.he lived, all friendly offices both 
in word and deed. Whereto the King answered, 
that never any man was to him so welcome as the 
King of Denmark, nor ever should any till he 
came again. 

:: Yesterday, being Monday morning, between 
seven and eight of the clock, the King of Den-^ 
mark returned to his fleet, lying at Gravesend, to 
make all things ready against the King and Queen 
should come aboard. About eleven they ascended 
the Admiral of Denmark, and not above fifty per- 
sons were admitted aboard. At every health, 
there were from the ships of Denmark and the 
forts some three or fourscore great shot discharged, 
and of these thundering volleys tliere were between 
forty and fifty. You would have thought that 
Jupiter had been invited. About four of the 
clock, afternoon, the King of Denmark presented 
to the King a beautiful and well-contrived fire- 
work ; it stood upon a lighter, being in form of a 
square conduit or cubic, with four pillars answer- 


ing the four comers. Upon the top of this cube 
stood a lioti with a chain in his hand, which 
fettered eight capital Vices that sat underneath 
upon the angles and sides of this cube or ara. 
This firework was appropriated to the month of 
July, the lion representing him in the Zodiac, as 
by these verses, written about him in golden letr 
ters, you may well perceive : — 

Ecce Leo, summi genuinus Solis alumnus, 

Jnji.ciens noxiis ferrea vincla malis, 
Te docet injectis Vitium compescere freenis 

Scilicet inde viri mens geuerosa liquet. 

To the Vices in particular were ascribed these 
epigrams : — 

Ora tument, oculique rubent^ prsecordia fervent. 
Hei mihi I dum prseceps in mea damna feror. 

Pectus iners, semperque sequax ignobilis otf, 
Utibilem nulli'me facit esse bono. 

Fama, yaletudo, res et mens conscia recti, 
Ut pereant, * prava Libido facit 

Ut frontem mihi larva tegit, sic subdola mentem 
Lingua, fides verbis ne sit habenda meis. 

Cor mihi fortunis alioruiQ marcet opimis, 
' Exercetque animum debita poena meum. 

Hand, ipsa mihi nota satis sum, meque et mea magni 
Cum stolidis faciam, caetera despicio. 

^ e . 1 J r- 

♦ Bl^k in MS* 


QiudlegeSi quid jura, vetent, nil euro.; nee a^uum 
Quid siet ; arbitrii lex mihi sola placet. 

Pinguis aqualiculns mibi turget, mentis acumen 
Hebet, paupertas dum mea tecta petat. 

This^ firework yeiy methodically, one after 
another, continued burning aiid ciaeking for the 
space of three quarters of an hour; which- being 
consumed^ the kings, with tears, in their eyes, and 
most ardent demonstrations of their mutual affec- 
tions, took their leaves. 

The gifts that the King hath bestowed upon 
the King of Denmark, were a sword and hanger 
valued at £17,000 ; item, a cup of £5000 ; item, 
to the King of Denmark's council, plate to the 
value of £2000; item, to his gentlemen, two 
chains of gold to the same value ; and to the in- 
ferior Danes, £1000 in money. 

The King of Denmark in his gifts hath not 
been inferior, for he hath given in court 30,000 
dollars ; viz, to the household beneath the stairs, 
15,000 dollars; to the officers above the stairs, 
20,000 ; and to the equerry or stabler, 5000 dollars. 
Besides^ to every one of the King's and Queen's 
bedchambers be hath' given jewels of ^eat value. 
On the Queen he hath bestowed' his picture, 
richly set with jewels; and on the Prince, his 
Vice- Admiral, and best.figtiting ship, being with 
all her furnitures not less worth than £25,000, 
and a rapier and banger vidued at 20,000 marks. 


Besides all which, he hath bestowed liberally 
on the nayy, &c. To attend his Majesty on his 
way homeward. Sir Robert Mansell is appointed 
with the Vanguard and the Moon. * * * 

Your most humbly devoted, 

Jo. Port. 


[Overbury,* and the examiiiation of those coDcerned in his death.] 



My Honorable Lord, 

As your lordship was a judge of mine inno- 
cence before, so would I now crave that favor, 
that your lordship would vouchsafe to be a witness 

• * ThiS: year was first certainly revealed and brought to a 
public trial the merciless and inhuman murder of Sir Thomas 
Overbury, Knight, son and heir-apparent of Thomas Overbury, 
Esquir^ one of the ancient Benchers of the Middle Temple, 
poisoned at least two years before in the Tower of London. It 
came first to light by a strange accident of Sir Ralph Win wood. 
Knight, one of the Secretaries of State, his dming with Sir Jervis 
Elvis^ Lieutenant of the said Tower, at a great man*s (the. Earl 
of Scilisbury*s) table, not far from Whitehall. For that great 
man comnaending the same Sir Jervis to. Sir Ralph Wi^wood, 
as a person, in respect of hiS: many good qualities,, very worthy 
of his acqu^ntance, Sir Ralph answered him, that he should 
willingly embra^ his acquaintance, but that he could first wish 
he bad cleared ,bipaiself of a; fo)il suspicion the world generally 

t Btrchf, 416S. 


of the submission both of myself and cause to the 
Queen's mercy: which I desire you rather, be- 
cause as I understand her Majesty is not fully 
satisfied of the integrity of my intent that way : 
and to that purpose, if your lordship will grant 
me access and audience, I shall hold it as a great 
favor, and ever rest. 

Your lordship's to be commanded, 

London, 11th of September. 

conceived of him, touching the death of Sir Thomas Overbury* 
Ai soon as Sir Jervis heard that, being very ambitious of the 
Secretary's friendship, he took occasion to enter into private 
conference with him, and therein to excuse himself to have been 
enforced to connive at the said murther. With much abhorring 
of it, he confessed the whole circumstances of the execution of it 
in general, and the instruments to have been set on work by 
Robert, Earl of Somerset, and his wife. Sir Ralph Win wood 
having gained the true discovery of this bloody practice from 
one of the actors, beyond his expectation, parts from the Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower in a very familiar and friendly manner, as 
if he had received good satisfaction by the excuse he had framed 
for himself ; but soon afterwards acquainted the King's Majesty 
with it. When the Earl afterwards learned, about the beginning 
of his troubles, that Sir Ralph Winwood had been the discoverer 
of his bloody sin, he upbraided him with ingratitude, that having 
been advanced by his only means to the Secretary's place, he 
would now become the instrument of his ruiu. But Sir Ralph 
answered him, that for his Secretary's place he might thank 
seven thousand pounds (if I mistake not the sum a little) which 
he gave him: and as for the business in question, he could 
neither with the safety of his life nor conscience have concealed 
it; or words to that effect. — D*Ewes, MS. Journal. 
. * Of Overbury's restoration to favour, a notice occurs in a 
letter from Sir T. Somerset to Edmondes, 8 Nov. 1611. 



My Lord, 

The King hath told me that he will advise with 
you and some other four or five of the council of 
that fellow.* I can say no more, either to make 
you understand the matter or my mind, than I 
said the other day. Only I recommend to your 
care how public the matter is now both in court 
and city, and how far I have reason in that re- 
spect. I refer the rest to this bearer, and myself 
to your love. 

Anna R.f 



[Execution of Mrs. Turner.— rTrial of Sir J. Elwys. — His Exe- 
cution. — Franklin's Indictment.] 

My dear Friend, 

You must not find it strange that my letters 
come so slowly after yours; mine own private 
oteasionS; and the desire to give you a summary 
of two or three acts of thi3 tragedy at one view, 
have been the meatis to make me thus tardy. 

* Meaning Overbury. 

t Reference has been already made> in Bishop Goodman's 
narrative^ to the hostility which Queen Anne entertained towards 
Overbury. These letters show in a striking way that her hos- 
tility had assumed the character of deep aversion and disgust. 

X Cotton MSS. Titus, B. vii. 



Since I saw you, I saw Mrs. Turner* die. If 
detestation of painted pride, lust, mafice, powder- 
ed hair, yellow bands, and the rest of the ward- 
robe of court vanities; if deep sighs, tears, con- 
fessions, ejaculations of the soul, admonitions of 
all sorts of people to make God and an unspotted 
conscience always our friends ; if the protestation 
of faith and hope to be washed by the same Savior 

* A most pleasing description of ^ Mrs. Turner is given in it 
poem, called Overbury*s Vision, printed about the date of her 

It seemed that she had been some gentle dame, * 
For on each part of her fair body's frame 
Nature such delicacy did bestow^ 
That fairer object of it doth not show ; 
Her crystal eye beneath an ivory brow, 
4)ld 8how what she at first had been*; but ifpw 
The roses on her lovely cheeks were dead; 
The earth's pale colour had all overspread 
Her 'sometitne lively look; and cruel death, 
Coming untimely with his Wintry breath, 
Blasted the fruit which, cherry-like in show. 
Upon her dainty lips did whilom grow. 
O how the cruel cord did misbecome 
Her comely neck ! and yet by law*s jtist doom 
Had been her death. Those locks, like golden thread, 
That used in youth to enshrine her globe-like head. 
Hung careless down ; and that delightful limb, 
^ Hei* sn6^-White hitritile htfnd, ttmt UBed to trhn 
These tresses up, now spitefully did tear 
And rend the same; nor did she no^ fotbear 
To beat that breast bf m6re>than lily white. 
Which sometirtie was the bed of i^W^et delight. 
F'rom those two ^pringd where joy did whilom dwell, 
Griers peaHy drops upon her pale cheek f€lL 

Somers' Tifacts, ti. $31. 


and by the like mercies that Mary Magdalene was, 
be signs and demonstrations of a blessed penitent, 
then I will tell you that this poor broken woman 
went a cruce ad gloriam, and now enjoys the pre-., 
sence of her and our Redeemer. Her body being 
taken down by her brother, one Norton, servant 
to the Prince, was in a coach conveyed to St. 
Martin'« of the Fields, where in the evening of the 
same day she had an honest and' a decent burial. 

Since her death, I was present at the trial of the 
lieutenant, who entered into his answer with so 
^^at art to move affections, and laid his ground^^ 
work with so much show of soundness and 
confidence, binding himself by protestation to 
Cod that he woiild not in the course of his de« 
fence speak a lie to save his life, that all men that 
had brought thither indifferent ears, hath wished 
him innocent, and expected the conclusion should 
have been as they wished. But, after long waste 
of speech, it fared with him as the old Romans 
observed sometimes to happen to those among 
them that acted veHrem comcediam, that did in actu 
ultimo deficere. For an examination of Franklin, 
taken that very morning, being produced, wherein 
he confessed the being at the Countess of Essex's 
chamber with her and Turner, about the J)reparing 
of divers poisons, and a letter from the lieutenant 
being brought to her at that instant, which she 
could not, for the badness of the hand^ well read, he 
was commanded, as better acquainted with his cba- 

L 2 

148l. the court of 

racter, to read the same unto her, wtiich he did ;: 
and thereof he well remembered one chief passage, 
which was, that this scab is like the fox, for the 
^ more he is cursed, the more he thrives. This pas- 
sage being urged, he was stricken as with a thun- 
derbolt, having nothing to reply further, either in 
denial or interpretation. Whereupon there follow-. 
ed the sentence of his death, which he underwent 
the 20th of this present at Tower Hill, being the 
place whereon he had obtained, by his suit to my 
Lord Chief Justice and the rest of the Commis- 
sioners, to suffer, to the end he might avoid the 
ignominy of the common gibbet. 
'.. He came from Newgate, whither, according 
to the custom of prisoners to be executed, h^ 
was first delivered by the sheriff, and on foot 
passed along the high streets to Tower Hill, 
having oh one hand Dr. Felton, and on the 
other Dr. Whiting, who, as his spiritual guides 
and pilots, ceased not continually to strengthen 
him in this tempest, assuring him that he wa$ 
jDow within kenning of that port, where all tran- 
quillity and blessedness attended him. Being 
come to the place, and having ascended the ladder, 
he began a well ordered speech, acknowledging th^ 
justice and roundness that had been used towards 
him in the proceedings, and the gracious favor 
he had received to be allowed that place to finish 
his life upon, whence viewing the stage where 
he acted his sin, he might the mor6 deeply 

KING JAMES. / 149 

imprint the occasions to beget repentance. That 
if any of his friends had been ill satiisfied at the 
confidence and protestation used in the day of 
his trial, they would be pleased to excuse him^ 
as being encouraged thereunto out of a per- 
suasion of his innocence ; for he had usually in 
his prayers besought of God pardon of other sins^ 
but not of this touching Overbury's death, never 
thinking the concealing of a sin to have been a sin* 
But, since his condemnation, those holy men 
(meaning the Doctors, his confessors,) had made 
him see this fearful error and the ugly face of 
his sin, which was great and bloody ; for that 
when it was in his power to have hindered the 
proceedings of the poisoners, he suffered them 
to go on to the murthering of an honest gentle^ 
man, and one that had commended himself to 
his trust, whereby he became guilty, though no 
tetor, not only of his blood, but was in some 
sort as a cause, ^ine qua non^ of their blood that 
were dead for the fact before him, and of the 
effusion of theirs to follow, which were many.. He 
added, that worldly respects had been the beget- 
ters of this sin in him, and that he had notes and 
instructions from time to time from the Earl of 
^Northampton and Sir Thomas Monson for the 
usage of his prisoner, of whom, as of all other 
persons and circumstances belonging to that sub^ 
ject, he had the Sunday before given a full and 
triie confession to my Lord Chief Justice. That 


he had taken the seals of the precious body and' 
blood of Christ upon it, as a sign of the truth of 
bis confession ; and , would now with his own 
blood, though the same was 'most baise and im- 
pure, and unworthy to have mention after the 
other, witness that he had delivered all the truth 
that was within his knbwledge. He passed from 
hence to recite the infinite mercies of God, that 
had not taken him away by any sudden judg- 
ment, either by water, by shooting the bridge, or 
by walking in the streets, or by an ordinary visit- 
ation in his bed ; by either of which if he had 
died, :he thought lie had departed in a fearfid 
estate, not having been possessed of the knerw- 
ledge nor of the contriHon due for such a heinoQB 
sin. He professed his true and unfeigned sorrow 
for it, with assured hope that he was bound up 
in the bundle of the living ; and that the blessed 
angels were now ahout him, to carry his soul 
within a few minutes unto those eternal man- 
sions, where he should see his Saviour face to 
face. Then he made a most fervent and devout 
prayer. After he exhorted all that saw him to 
take heed of looseness of life and hypocrisy, tell- 
ing them that his youth had been riotous and 
wasteful, repeating two judgments wherein he 
saw God had found him in this very business; 
the one for having wished, upon a time when 
he had lost much by gaming, that God would 
give him grace lo forbear, it, and that if he 


eve* played again hanging might be his end# 
"Which,-' 45aid he, ♦•is now come upon rae ; fdr/ 
allured by company, it was not long after th^ 
I broke this vow and wish. The hext was .his 
excessive pride in the faculty of his pen, where- 
in Northampton and others of able judgments 
bad gtven him much commendation, as having 
mtyre ableness than other qmb. And now ihe 
found that his own hand- writing pr6ved a sn^ie 
to take his life; for he ^said, he thought, op 
bis conscience, if it had not been for t£at letter 
mentioned in Franklin's confession, he liad not 
now lost his life ; protesting that he could iiot 
yet bring to mind why he writ any such letter 
to the countess. He told the people that he 
knew what infamy suoh a kind of death had, 
Ivhieh be was then presently >to undergo; but 
the manner of 4t presented itself td his conside- 
ration as a physical potion come to the hand of 
the patient, which do swallow it down, not fasten- 
ing upon the color or bitterness, but upon the 
end to which it delivers <him. And so, having 
covered his face, he f.made another prayer ; ^hd 
opening his face a little agdin, he bade them all 
farewell, and to pray at that instant for him. 
Then covering himself again, calling upon tbe 
name of Grod, with more than manly courage^ 
with the touch of the executioner he went down 
from the ladder. 

Thus have you a mangled relation of some 


of the observable passages in thesd tw5 aets^ 
which you must take in good part/ being scribe 
bled in great haste. 

The next that follows upon the stage is Franks 
lyn, who was yesterday arraigned at Westminster, 
and sentenced to die at Tyburn. On Thursday 
next. Sir Thomas Monson cx)mes to the bar ; the 
bill of his indictment was found by the grand 
inquest to be billa vera on Thursday last. It is 
generally said that the Lord of Somerset shall 
Gome to his trial on the 5th of December. He still 
seems not to be shaken with these storms, mak- 
ing great protestations to the lieutenant present 
what he will do when he shall return to his wonted 
station and brightness. If this constancy and 
carelessness be of innocency, I should admire him 
as a man that hath his mind of an admirable 
building; but if it proceed from insensibleness, 
I will pity him as more wretched than those 
that have been found nocent: nihil miserius est 
homine non seipsum miserante. I have sent you 
two letters of the countess, urged at Turner's ar- 
raignment ; you will see by them how abusively 
her lust wronged those great judgments that 
spake for her separation from that noble Essex, 
upon whom they practised magiam makficam, to 
restrain him, impotens esset ad coeundum. If Cor- 
nelius AgrippiEi were again to compile his book 
De Veneftciis, I doubt not but he might have 
from her magicians such arcana to increase and 
recommend it, that the Bohemian ladies would 


more value him than to suffer him, as they did, 
to die like a poor beggarly knave. These flashes 
of poetry inclosed, when you shall have tran- 
scribed, I pray return them to me, and let it be 
with the first. Sir William Monson hath been 
lately sent for to appear here, but cannot be 
found. Sir Robert Cotton, the antiquary, hath 
withdrawn himself, et in angulis latet. Jewels of 
the Lord of Somerset, to the value of £60,000# 
were lately surprised, that had been committed 
to Cotton's trust. 

The Earl of Northampton's name was much 
used at the arraignment of the lieutenant; his 
letters to Somerset were read, touching the mar-^ 
riage of his lordship with that virtuous lady his 
kinswoman. It would . turn chaste blood into 
VTBter to hear the unclean and unchaste phrases 
that were contained in them. But olebat Gor^^ 
gonius hircum. 

Vale ex anima, et ama tuissimum, 

J. Castle. 

28th November 1615. 




[Execution of Sir J. Elwys, — Indictment of Sir Thomas Mon- 
son. — ^The Countess of Somerset] 


I HAVB received yours, written at your landing 
at Dunkirk, and I doubt not by that you have 

154 THE COUttT OF 

beard that Gerv^ase banged upon 
Tower Hill, accusing there openly the Earl of 
Northampton and Sir Thomas Monson for drawl- 
ing him to this villany, which brought bim to 
that shaoieful end. He confessed thatvhe dkd 
justly fw the iact»^.wd tionimend^d the justice .of 
the King md Sts^e. He bath impeached many, 
te. be^said, for the clearing of his cojdacience : some 
ai3e w {the Tower, smne in the city,jSome in the 
eountiy. Believe jne, sir, the Lords Commis- 
sioners are perplexed, as not yet jsoeing the brim 
or ihottom of this business. 

Upon Thursday last Sir Thomas Monson wa» 
iadicted ?as : necessary to the death of 4>verbury, 
and tvpon Tdanrsday neatt he BhaU be ai^raign^ 
at Guildhall )of London. There are. other .per- 
aoEts .'detected .to have a finger in this poisoning 
business ; three executed already ; then the lEaecl 
and his lady, Monson, Franklin, Savory, Home, 
Margaret, Stephen, and. J^onaon's^ man. 

The Earl seems little to care for this aspersion, 
and shows no manner of change in his counte- 
nance, which is strange, seeing that by mani- 
fest proofs it is otherwise, which was delivered 
in public courts ; but he knoweth not what is said 
or done >abrpftd, b^iijg a elosepp^ner. 

I hear the Lieutenant of the Tower hath now 
commission .to jacquaiut .bim with the arraign- 
ments and executions past, and with the di^eo- 
yexyioA iiis casket, nufaer^n; strange letters appear 


touching this business in hand, and others also, 
as is supposed. 

The Lady Somerset's furthest Tedsbriing is 
three weeks before Christmas at least, which is 
now at hand. She is very pensive and silent, 
and much grieved. It is thought she is come 
to the knowledge of the proceedings dbroad by 
some of her servants that attend her. 

We hope, upon the King's return, fhiat my 
Lord of Pembroke shall be Lord Chanibeiflain. 

We hear, that in February next the purpose 
of calling a parliament doth hold. 

It is said that the Lord Deputy of Ireland 
makes means to l^ve that govemnient^ and that 
he shall come over. 

By passengers which yesterday arrived here 
JFrom London, I understand that on Monday 
last Franklin was executed, and that yesterday 
Sir Thomas Monson was to be arraigned, and 
will undoubtedly pass the same passage which 
his other wicked companions have gone before 
him. There is an eye cairt upon some Others, 
the best of his own tribe also. You may easSly 
guess ^whom I mean. The next who will play 
their part in this tragedy, will be the 'Earl and 'his 
lady, and then undoubtedly we shdl be able to 
see into the bottom of this and their dther wicked 

* From the MSS. of Sir R. Winwood. Transcribed by Dr. Biroh* 





[Sir Thomas Monson's arraignment.] 

• » 

. On Monday last Sir Thomas Monson was com- 
mitted to the Tower, for business of a higher 
nature than the' death of Sir Thomas Overbury* 
My Lord Chief Justice said, that God had dis- 
covered a practice for which the whole state was 
bound to give God great thanks, which should 
be discovered in due time. It is thought that 
upon Tuesday next Sir Thomas Monson will be 
called again, and then we shall understand what 
this great business is. Sir Thomas, when he 
came thia first time to his arraignment, desired 
that my Lord Treasurer might not be far off 
from the place; whereof when my Lord Trea- 
surer had knowledge given him, which was done 
by my Lord Chief Justice, he wrote a letter to 
my said Lord Chief Justice, by which he said 
he could not tell why Sir Thomas Monson re- 
quired his presence ; for he could neither accuse 
him, nor would he excuse him, but he hoped he 
would acquit himself to be an honest man. 
, Again, when Sir Thomas Monson's indictment 
was read unto him at the bar, he said he did 
put himself upon his country, but therewithal! 
used such protestations and obtestations of his 
innocency, as made all the hearers wonderfully 


amazed. Whereupon my Lord Chief Justice,* ob- 
serving that the people were something staggered 
thereat, said, turning himself to Sir Thomas Mon- 
son, " It appeareth to be true now, what I have 
long since heard of you, Sir Thomas, which is, 
that you are indeed a very atheist, for here you 
shame my Christianity, the proofs being so plain 
which are to be produced against you." The 
Queen's attorney told him, that if he did not prove 
him to be as guilty of the death of Sir Thomas 
Overbury as Weston was, who was hanged already, 
he would never be seen to speak at any bar more. 
But my Lord Chief Justice broke off all other 
matters, saying, as before, "We have greater 
things against you. Sir Thomas, than this; an4 
therefore I will adjourn the business till another 
time, and send you to the Tower," The whiclv 
being done, the court broke up for that time.f 


[Miscellaneous News.J 



[Desires him to assist in raising a loan for the King, upon the 

Parliament refusing it.] 

Mx VERY GOOD Lord, June 1614. 

I DOUBT not but you have heard what was the 

* Lord Chief Justice Coke; this is quite in keeping with his 
character. t From the Sloane collection* 


issue of this late parliament, and bow, by the 
harsh courses of some men, his Majesty received 
no kind of satisfaction in that great cause where^ 
fore be called them, that is to say, for the sup- 
plying of bis necessities. This event producing a 
great damp on all sides, it pleased God to put 
into the mind of my lords the Bishops, after the 
expiring of the convocation, to think upon some 
eours^ how they might, in some measure, testify 
their duty unto their sovereign by some free will 

The matter whereupon they resolved was, that 
feTCTy bishop should voluntarily send unto the 
King the best piece of plate which he had ; and if 
bis Majesty should be pleased to accept of this, 
then we promised to move the civilians, and 
others of the abler sort of the clergy, according 
to their proportion to do the like. In brief, his 
Majesty graciously accepted it, conceiving that 
it would produce that effect whereat we princi- 
pally aimed, that this our example would bring 
on the lords and others of the temporalty to do 
the like. And, verily, Gk)d blessed our intend- 
ments, for his Highness immediately making it 
known in the court, the lords of the council and 
the rest of the nobility presently took it up, and 
not only themselves do perform the same, but 
sent forthwith to the Judges, to the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen, together with other persons of 
special note, so that I trust the harvest will be 

KING JAM£S« 1:59 

great tfarougfiout the better sort of the wh<^ 
khigdom. We of the bishops that were here 
presently sent in our gifts, myself leading the 
way ; and some of our company, not haying 
any piece of plate sufficient to express their zeal 
to this service, sent in some one of smaller wortl^ 
but filled with gold, so that it made a present of 
resteonaUe value. The desire of us all is, that 
your lordship will bear a part in this work, and 
that ydti will move the clergy in your diocese 
to send in such a yohintary gratification, where^ 
tinted those which were here in convocation al*- 
reddy prepared, out of this ground, that if the 
parliament had obtained the expected success, 
they might well have conceived that they shouM 
have granted no less than three or four subsidies. 
Our meaning in this is, that no poor man should 
be grated on, but that it should come freely 
from the purses of those who are of ability, and 
shall part with that which is of ornament and 
luxury, rather than of necessity ; and where 
men are unwilling to part with their plate, they 
may send in some convenient sum of money 
as a redemption for the same. I pray your lord- 
ship, with all diligence and dexterity, to set your- 
self to this work, wherein I trust all good men 
vnll concur with alacrity ; for it is a shame unto 
our whole nation that so good and gracious a 
King should be driven to necessity, when wej 
his people, do live in plenty. And I know it 


was a singular comfort unto his Majesty, that^ 
when some have been unrespective of him, there 
were not wanting others which remembered their 
duty, and that so opportunely. So ceasing to be 
any way further troublesome unto your lordship^ 
with my hearty commendations, 

I rest your so very loving brother, 

G. Cant* : 

Lambeth, the • . . of June 1614» 

I entreat your lordship to send me word what 
you do herein, and, when you shall Qonvey it up, 
to send me a note of all the parties, and of the 
proportion of their gifts, that I may make up a 
]book of all that is bestowed throughout the whole 

To the Right Reverend Father in God, my ^ood 
Lord and Brother, the Lord Bishop of Nor- 
wich, give these. 


[Upon bis rise at Court.] 

My George, 

Your letter came to me divers days after the 
writing of it ; but, upon the first sight, I saw 
the gentleman had run into that error where- 
into some other besides himself have lately fallen ; 
and that is, to think that any layman might be 
capable of the mastership of Mr. Sutton's Hos- 

* Dr. George Abbot. + Tan. Ixxiv. p. 51. In Tanner's hand. 


pital. I asked him gently, whether he did use 
to preach every Sunday or not. He told me no. 
But, said I, that place requireth such a one. He 
was hardly at first persuaded thereunto, till I was 
forced to in treat him to believe me. At last he 
saw his error, and there an end. And now, my 
Gteorge, because out of your kind affection to- 
wards me, you style me your father, I will from 
this day forward repute and esteem you for my 
son, and so hereafter know yourself to be. And 
in token thereof I do now give you my blessing 
again, and charge you, as my son, daily to serve 
Grod ; to be diligent and pleasing to your master, 
and to be wary that, at no man*s instance, you 
press him with many suits, because they are not 
your friends who urge those things upon you, 
but have private ends of their own, which are not 
fit for you. So, praying God to bless you, I rest 

Your very loving father, 

G. Cant.* 

Lambeth, Dec. 10, 1615. 
To my very loving son, Sir George Viller, Knight, 
and Gentleman of his Majesty's Bed-chamber. 


[Being out of favour he desires to be present at the Prince's 


Right Honorable my singular good Lord, 

Where in my last letters I gave your lordship 
humble thanks, that, by your honorable means, 

* Tanner, Ixxiv. p. 80. Orig. 
VOL. 11. M 


his Majesty had vouchsafed to have me heard, I 
take God to witness my meaning was to hear me, 
(according to tny humble petition exhibited to 
his Majesty by Sir Walter Aston,) to answer to 
such suggestions as should be made against me. 
And by Sir Walter Aston I received this royal 
answer, that his Majesty would still be a just 
King, and would have me heard before any pro- 
ceedings were had against me, which have been 
no small comfort to my heavy heart. For the 
matter of his Majesty's service, I humbly desire 
either to attend myself on his Majesty to impart 
the same, or that I may deliver the particulars 
thereof to your lordship (I having already touch- 
ed the general,) that you may acquaint his Ma- 
jesty therewith. 

His Majesty's commandment, delivered to me 
by my Lord Chancellor before this last term, 
war-, that I should not sit in the King's Bench 
before his Majesty had considered of the excep- 
tions to my book of reports; where, amongst 
500 cases and more, published in an eleven several 
volumes, five single questions were made to five 
particular points in certain cases : whereunto, 
within four days, I have given particular answers 
in writing, and showed my reasons. But my 
Lord Chancellor, when he received mine answers, 
said, that he was not to dispute with me. So as 
I, hearing neither reason nor authority against me, 
but a bare question propounded to me, and of 


some things that have been published seven years 
past, 1 could not receive any satisfaction from 
them, that was not admitted to have any con- 
ference with them. And I, knowing the since- 
rity of his Majesty's justice, (for the which he is 
the most renowned King in the Christian world,) 
did ever persuade myself that they which had 
informed against me should not be my judges, 
and therefore his Majesty was pleased to vouch- 
safe the hearing of it himself. 

And seeing I was commanded, in his Majesty's 
name, not to sit in, the King's Bench until his 
Majesty had considered of the exceptions to my 
reports; and Mr. Attorney added, that in all 
other things I must exercise and execute my 
office, I thought it good to acquaint your lord- 
ship therewith, to the end you may be pleased to 
make what use thereof you in your wisdom shall 
think fit ; assuring your lordship, that never any 
one book was written of any human learning, 
that was not in some part or other subject to 

A commandment hath been given to the 
judges in general to attend this day at the most 
noble and hopeful Prince's creation ; and albeit 
I am restrained only from sitting in the King's 
Bench, and in all other things at liberty; and 
though it should be a comfort of comforts to me 
to see my gracious great master and this joyful 
creation, yet, fearing to offend his Majesty in any 

M 2 


thing, I will not presume to do that which I most 
desire before I know (as in all other things I will) 
his Majesty's pleasure therein. And shall ever 

At your lordship's command and service, 

Edward Goke.* 

4th November 1616. 

To the Right Hon. his singular good Lord, the Lord 
Viscount Villiers, Master of his Majesty's horse. 


[The abuses in the King's revenues.] 

Right Honorable my most honored Lord, 

This morning the Commissioners for the Navy- 
wrote a postscript in Sir Thomas Smythe's letter 
to Mr. Secretary Nanton, about Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh's ship, which we estimated at seven or eight 
thousand pounds, being the value, as we have laid 
grounds, to build and rig his Majesty's ships here- 
after. But according as his Highness hath hi- 
therto paid, it might well be estimated at double 
that sum ; and therefore your lordship may be 
pleased to move his Majesty to reserve it for 
himself, (for a better cannot be built,) and to 
satisfy Sir William St. John by some other suit. 

We spend our time wholly about the navy, 
and now take comfort in our work, finding it 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiv. 83. 


falls out far beyond our hopes, for the service 
of his Majesty and his kingdoms ; and do rest 
in assurances, by the continuance of your lord- 
ship's favor towards us, (to the King,) to effect that 
work which hath been so often attempted in 
vain, both in his Majesty's time and the late 

I. will not trouble your lordship with the abuses 
which we every day discover, being such as you 
will hardly believe ; as that when ships were 
to be brought up to WooUich or Debtford to 
be repaired, it had been better for his Majesty 
to have given them away at Chatham, and £300 
or £400 in money, to any that would have taken 
them. The like for the trees felled out of his 
Majesty's woods, which have cost more for car- 
riage than his Highness might have bought the 
timber, and had it laid free in his yard. We 
have at this instant an offer made us to serve 
his Majesty with timber, and to lay it, free of 
all cTiarge, where we will appoint, for the same 
price his Majesty hath formerly paid for carriage; 
but we will make no such ill match for his High- 
ness, and then your lordship may imagine how 
the King hath been dealt with. I humbly pray 
your lordship to inform his Majesty how we pro- 
ceed, which will be most pleasing, as I hope. 

We have taken an exact survey of his Majes- 
ty's navy, as well of the hulls as of the rigging, 
(which we find in no commendable estate,) and 


yet hath stood his Majesty in an excessive charge, 
not less (for aught we can yet perceive) than near 
fifty thousand pounds yearly. 

We have divided the ships that are repairable 
from those that are wholly decayed and fit for 
fire-wood, of which sort there are one fourth 
part of his Majesty's navy. 

For those ships that are fit to be repaired we 
have set down every defect very particularly, 
with the charge they will stand his Majesty in 
to make them ready for service upon all occasions. 

We have set down the true causes of the de- 
cay of his Majesty's navy, and of the excessive 
charge, with the remedy for both. The last part 
I know will please the King. 

We have laid a foundation to bring the King's 
navy into as glorious an estate, both for strength 
and honor, as ever it was, by repairing two ships 
yearly, and building two ships new yearly, till the 
navy be complete; and do hope it shall not 
stand the King in (and had almost written) above 
the half the money it doth now, which your 
lordship will say were a stranger piece of service. 

But that which shall crown this work I will 
acquaint your lordship with at my coming to 
court, being a conceipt of my own how to keep 
the navy in that good order and at that charge 
we shall settle it, for without that, all the rest 
will not be much worth, and shall also let your 
honor see there is now a means for his Majesty 


to do it, which none of his predecessors had. So 
that I hope your lordship will be pleased to be 
of my opinion, that God reserved this great work 
for his Majesty's time, and hath raised your lord- 
ship to be the honorable mean and instrument 
to his Highness in it. 

For the propositions I made concerning the 
Hollander, I will bring them with me in writing 
upcm Sunday next, (at which time I will wait 
upon your lordship,) and I will then give his 
Majesty an account of the examination made by 
Mn Secretary Locke, (by his Highness' appointr 
ment,) of him that cozened his Majesty in the 
first trial made about the alum, which we find 
foul (for I was this day present at his examina- 
tion). I will then give his Highness an account 
(^ all other his commands ; and therefore will 
be no furth^ troublesome to your lordship, but 
humbly take leave and ever rest. 

Your lordship's faithfullest servant and lover, 

September 3d, 1618. 

To the Right Honorable and singular good Lord^ 
My Lord the Mar(][uis of Buckingham. 

♦ Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxir. 170. On all subjects connected 
.with th^ different departments of finance. Lord Cranfeild's cor- 
respondence furnishes great information. Very many of his 
letters are preserved in the Bodleian Library and in the British 
Museum; and it is somewhat remarkable that they should 
have attracted so little attention. 



[Various news of the day. — A Frenchman makes an attempt on 
the King's life.— Account of a duel between Sir H. Rich and 
Sir Edward Villiers. — Stuckley's complaint to King James, 
and the King's characteristic reply.] 


I SIGNIFIED in some of my former letters^ the 
Duke de Rohan was expected here embassador, 
but acquainted you not with the particular circum- 
stances, because I could not build any sure ground 
upon the author of my intelligence, who yet, 
even at first, delivered me what I understand to 
be certain now, that Mr. Wake, in his passage from 
Turin to England, took Paris in his way, where 
being arrived, and public notice taken of him 
as a minister of state for the King of England, 
two persons of quality came to visit him, per- 
suading him to go and kiss the French King's 
hand. He excused it by telling them that he 
was not ignorant of the disgusts that had hap- 
pened between the two kings, and that he thought 
it not safe for him to adventure upon such an 
act without warrant from his master. They in- 
treated him that he would not depart the town 
till he heard from them, which he promised. 
The day following the Duke of Rohan came 
imto him, and sought to prevail with him in that 
wherein the two former were refused; but his 
answer was still suitable to that before. He con- 

♦ From a copy by Dr. Birch in the Sloane collection. 


eluded his visit, as did the other, that he would 
not leave the city till he understood further. 
The next morning came a messenger to him from 
the King, with this errand, that he desired him 
to commend him to the King, his brother, and 
tell him, that ere long he would send the Duke 
of Kohan in an extraordinary embassage to him 
to give him satisfaction, and if that would not 
suffice, he would come himself. And the Secre- 
tary of State is there committed under pretence 
of having proceeded in some of these late busi- 
nesses without commission from his master. 
There hath been lately presented to his Majes- 
ty a book of no small contentment, which Was 
printed at Toledo cum privilegio, and written 
by commandment of the King of Spain,, wherein 
the Pope's encroachments upon princes is largely 
opposed, and the temporalities of Kings against 
all the Pope's usurpation notably defended. 

A certain Frenchman having heretofore pre- 
sented something to his Majesty in writing, and 
being rewarded according to the quality of his 
desert, though not to his content, used some 
threatening speeches, as that it had been better 
for his Majesty to have rewarded him more 
liberally, for which insolency of his he was 
banished. This man these holidays had placed 
himself behind a door, where the King was to 
pass from the guard-chamber to the chapel ; and 
Jbeing descried by Dr. Bowles, one of his Majesty's 


chaplains, who knew him, and what had formerly 
passed upon him, was, upon his discovery, pre- 
sently apprehended. Being searched, there was 
found in his pocket a long knife and thirty twen* 
ty-shilling pieces. This, with his former poverty, 
made the jealousy the greater. He was com- 
mitted close prisoner, and upon the aforesaid pre- 
sumption, men apprehend a treacherous intent- 

The voice holds strong for Sir Henry Gary's 
being made Master of the Wards, who shall 
withal receive an addition of honor, and be made 
a baron. But that rumour of Sir Edward \^lliers 
succeeding him grows faint; some think upon 
a hope himself hath of compassing yet his former 
design of being Deputy of Ireland; others say 
upon the earnest suit that Sir Henry Gary makes 
to hold both places, which the King inclines to 
grant, out of a secret intention (as is thought) 
of restoring the disposition of that place to Sir 
Henry Wotton, who is to come home from Ve- 
nice, and is to be here this next spring. This 
I conceive to be not improbable. 

My Lord Digby's employment into Spain is 
like to be defied till towards August, when he 
is to go in quality of embassador extraordinary. 
Sir Walter Aston shall be dispatched away as 
lieger this spring, whereof I long since gave you 
notice ; but then it was only in deliberation, now 
it grows to execution. 

I think I advertised you the last week of the 


match that is likely to be concluded between the 
Marquis of Hamilton for his son, and my Lady 
Bedford for her niece, Mrs. Chichester. The 
Countess, they say, is content to pass over pre- 
sently all the land of my Lord Harrington unto 
him, reserving only to herself a state for life. 

Sir Thomas Lake's business it is thought will 
receive more favorable issue than was imagined. 
The Marquis* was, within these few days, at his 
bouse to visit him, whereupon men form and 
build conjectures. 

My Lord Scrope's patent is now drawing for 
the presidentship of York. He is to make up 
the sum already tendered to my Lord Sheffield, 
£4500, and £1500 is to be given elsewhere by 
way of gratuity. *My Lord Sheffield, at the re- 
signing up of his interest, had this further testi- 
mony of the King's favor, that at his request 
his Majesty was content to knight every one of 
the council at York, before not knighted, which 
were divers, and there became a further profit 
to his loi^dship. 

There hath been lately a great quarrel here at 
court, betwixt Sir Harry Rich f and Sir Edward 
Villiers,:!; upon this ground and in this manner. 

* The Marquis of Buckingham. 

t Made Knight of the Bath at the creation of Henry Prince 
of Wales, afterwards advanced to the titles of Lord Kensington 
and Earl of Holland. He was beheaded, March 9, 1649. 

t Brother to the Marquis of Buckingham. 


Sir Henry Rich discerning a change in the Mar- 
quis's behaviour towards him, conceived presently 
some ill offices to have been done by some, and 
addressed himself to Sir Edward Villiers by way 
of friendship, that if he were privy to any such 
matter, he might know his accuser and come 
unto his purgation ; and pressing the point very 
far. Sir Edward asked him what he would say if 
he brought him the man to his face to justify what 
had been reported to my lord ; the other replied, 
he would esteem it a special favor and courtesy. 
"To-morrow," replied Sir Edward, "I will so 
order it, that you shall here speak with him," 
being then at court. Sir Henry Rich returned 
answer, " that would be no fit place, and would 
more willingly meet him somewhere else." In 
fine. Sir Edward Villiers told him, himself was 
the man. " I hope," said the other, " you will 
do me reason." Thus a challenge was made and 
accepted, and two seconds appointed; Mr. 
Charles Rich for his brother, and Sir Epsley* 
to the contrary. To the field they went, or 
rather went onwards to the field, for they had 
not appointed any set place, but rode out all to- 
gether, and could not agree upon the choice. 
The report is, that Sir Henry Rich instanced in 
divers, but they pleased not ; and having found 
one at length to both their humors, a new dif- 
ference arose between the seconds ; for Mr. 
Rich was fresh come out of France, and would 

♦ Sir Allen Epsley ? 


needs observe the French custom of fighting 
with the other second. Epsley told him, he had 
no quarrel against him, and could not resolve to 
fight. So whilst these things were disputing. 
Maxwell,* who was sent after them, comes in and 
brings them all back ; and I do not hear whether ,^ 
the controversy be determined. I need not give 
caveat to reserve the particular relation of this 
quarrel to yourself ; your wisdom will judge it 

I shall conclude with my Lord Admiral's'f en- 
tertainment of Stuckeley, who, being Vice Admi- 
ral of the western ports, and pretending to come 
and give an account to his lordship of his office, 
came and placed himself in the dining chamber, 
there expecting till his lordship passed ; who 
taking no notice of him, he stepped to him, ac- 
quainting him with the occasion of his coming. 
" What," said my lord, " thou base fellow, thou 
who art reputed the scorn and contempt of men, 
how darest thou offer thyself into my presence ? 
Were it not in my own house, I would cudgel 
thee with my staff, for presuming to be so saucy.*' 
Stuckeley made his complaint unto the King, 
whose answer was, " What wouldest thou have 
me do? Wouldest thou have me hang him? 
Of my soul, if I should hang all that speak ill of 
thee, all the trees of the country would not suf- 

* Usher of the Black Rod. 

t Charles Howard^ Earl of Nottingham. 


fice, 80 great is the number." This I have at the 
third hand» Sir Oliver Cromwell being the original 
reporter. But this likewise I commend to your 
secresy, because I know not to what censure the^ 
divulging even of such things as these may be 
subject. And thus, with the tender of my ever 
bounden duty, I most humbly kiss your hands, 
and rest 

Your most humbly devoted servant, 

Thomas Lorkin. 
My Lady Grantham mends, God be thanked. 

London, Jan. 5, 1618-9. 



[Stukeley arraigned for clipping coin. — The burning of 


* * * The treaty yet holdeth with the 
states, and it's hoped they shall be dismissed 
with content to themselves and us. There hath 
been long speech (and good probabilities) of my 
Lord Chief Justice Mountague his being Lord 
Treasurer; but now they say (how truly time 
will show) that the Earl of Pembroke shall carry 
it, and that the patent is now in drawing, and 
that the Viscount Doncaster shall be Lord Cham- 
berlain. You have heard of Sir Lionel Cranfeild's 
being Master of the Wards, and Sir Robert Field- 


ing to succeed him in the Mastership of the 
Wardrobes. I give but a touch of these things, 
because you cannot want better intelligence of 
them by others. But it was reported yesterday 
for certain, that Sir Lewis Stukeley should this 
first day of the term be arraigned at the King's 
Bench bar for clipping of gold, though I hear 
no more of it ; but he is in prison, and must come 
to it. Sir Walter Raleigh's blood crieth for ven- 
geance, both against him and Manwairing, the 
Frenchman, his other accuser, who is fled for 
being Stukeley's consort in clipping. The Vice 
Chancellor of Cambridge is sick, and not like to 
escape, but it's like Dr. Gosling shall be his suc- 
cessor ; but he and the fellows hath of late been 
branded with popery, thereby to debar him, in- 
somuch as Dr. Binge is a suitor for the master- 
ship, and likewise Dr. Goad's friends for him, 
who are both uncapable by statute ; but I hear 
for certain that the fellows of Pembroke Hall 
stand close for Dr. Goad, objecting arminianism 
and other matters against the sub-almoner, whom 
my Lord Elect of Wintonf standeth for all he 
can. * * * * 

You have heard of the dismal accident at 
Whitehall, the burning of the banqueting house, 
and, which is far greater loss, all the records in 
the Signet Ofiice, and signatures from the be- 
ginning of the reign of Henry VIIL till now, 
together with all the books and acts of the coun- 

t Bishop Andrews. 


cil, are consumed with fire. And I heard it this 
day reported, that the city hath offered his Ma- 
jesty to rebuild it, and that his Majesty in lieu 
thereof will give unto the city the liberties of 
the White and Black Friars, and Great St. Bar- 
tholomews. You hear also of my Lord of Suffolk 
and his Countess, that they are to appear in the 
Star Chamber on Wednesday next, (which is the 
first Star Chamber day,) whereupon it is expected 
that they shall be censured for matters of high 
consequence. Also, it is certainly reported, that 
his Majesty will be in person at Star Chamber 
three or four days this term, upon occasion of 
the Countess of Exeter's case and Sir Thomas 
Lake's ; and it is thought also for the censuring 
of Peter Vanlore, Cuffeete (?) and other foreigners 

in the court for transportation of our nionies. 

« « « 

Your worship's assuredly at command, 

Thomas Welles.* 

Jan. 23, 1618. 

To the Right Worshipful Mr. Dr. Ward, Master of 
Sidney College in Cambridge, Archdeacon of 
Taunton, and one of his Majesty's chaplains and 
agent at the Synod at Dort 

Sir, Feb. 16, 1618-9. 

Since my last letter an express courier hath 
arrived here from our agent at Madrid, that brings 

• Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiv. 237. 


none of the most pleasing news, I conceive ; for 
that my Lord Digby in charactering the letters, 
which were written in ciphers, was observed to 
be extraordinarily sad and melancholy. But 
these things, whatsoever they be, are as yet a hid 
mystery. That which was not covered under 
cyphers imported, as I hear, a declaration from 
Mr. Cottington, in the King of Spain's name, 
that these preparations of his have no manner 
of reference to our quarters, with protestation 
only for Algiers. His Majesty, I hear, applaud- 
ing that design of his, replies, that he will put 
his navy in a readiness likewise, to assist and 
second so brave an enterprise; and to-morrow 
my Lord Admiral goes to Chatham, &c. to view 
the navy and to give order accordingly. My 
Lord Sheffield! is appointed to be Vice-admiral 
of the fleet, if the matter come over to execu- 
tion. And some say my Lord of Southampton 
shall command our land forces. His Majesty 
hath written to the knights of the shire and 
justices of peace in these quarters ; the one 
to provide that the ♦ * * soldiers be dili- 
gently trained, all others mustered, and ♦ ♦ ♦ 
likewise, and to have special care that men and 
munition be in a readiness; the other to give 
order that the beacons be diligently watched, with 
fire ever ready at hand to give the alarm, which 

f £dmund Sheffield, afterwards created Earl of Mulgrave. 


may serve as a commentary to the former flourish, 
that all shows be for aid and assistance. 

Upon Saturday last, likewise, his Majesty gave 
strait command in the Star-chamber^ that none 
might be suffered to be of the commission for the 
peace whose wife was a recusant, and that a heed- 
ful eye should be had to the andamento of all the 
Papists in the land. 

That which makes the jealousy the stronger is, 
the choice the King of Spain hath made of so 
many English commanders : the Earl of Argyle, 
who was every day expected at Madrid when the 
courier parted ; Neville, who pretends to be Eail 
of Westmoreland ; Tyrone's son ; and Sir Robert 
Dudley, who is now in the Archduke's court. 
Though, if it be fit for me to deliver my foolish 
fancy, I cannot but think the Venetian hath far 
more reason to apprehend than we ; upon these 
motives. First, for that there is great preparation 
of galleys and galleons, which are not so proper 
for our seas ; secondly, because the rendezvous 
is appointed at Barcelona, where the King of 
Spain may fittest embark his land forces, and set 
them ashore at Genoa, and afterwards make 
forward for the Gulf; and, thirdly and lastly, 
because by this means the Spaniard shall be able 
d'une pierrefaire deux coups, -^avenge himself upon 
the Venetian for maintaining the Savoyard 
against him, and be ready to succour the de- 
clining state of the House of Austria, with 


others of the Popish faction in Germany, whither 
haply his first intention led him. Yet it is wis- 
dom, when every man has his sword drawn, not 
to keep it in his sheath. Diffidence is the mo- 
ther of prudence. 

The great cause is now censured, differently 
according to the tripartite nature thereof, but 
all against Sir Thomas Lake. For in the first 
cause, Sir Thomas Lake, the father, was plaintiff; 
and Luke Hutton, defendant. Here Sir Thomas 
Lake is fined £200 to the King ; damage to the 
defendant, £50 more. In the second cause, the 
Lady of Exeter is plaintiff; Sir Thomas Lake, 
the lady his wife, the Lady Roos,* Sir Arthur 
Lake, Sarah Swarton, are defendants. The two 
former fined at £5000 apiece ; the third, at 10,000 
marks ; the fifth, at £500. Sir Arthur was re- 
puted generally in the conscience of the court 
guilty, but for want of direct proof not censured. 
Sir Thomas Lake further condemned in damages 
to the Countess, £3000. In the third cause, 
young Sir Thomas Lake, plaintiff; the Countess 
of Exeter, Elizabeth Gresham, her chamber-maid, 
George Williams, defendants. The plaintiff here 
fined to the King at 500 marks ; to the Countess, 
£1000 ; to Gresham, £lOO ; to Williams, £200 ; 
the total sum of all being £22,331 6s. 8d. To 
this was added a further censure of imprisonment 

in the Tower, upon their own charges, to Sir 


* She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Lake. 

N 2 


Thomas Lake, his lady, and the Lady Roos, 
during the King's pleasure ; and a public recog- 
nition of their offence, for a reparation of honor 
to the Countess in the most ample manner his 
Majesty should devise. Sarah Swarton judged 
to the Fleet ; from thence to be whippied to West- 
minster, and after from the same place to Cheap- 
side ; there to be branded with F.A., signifying 
false accusation, one letter on either cheek ; to 
return back again to the Fleet, there to remain 
till they be weary of her ; and then to be sent to 
Bridewell, there to spend and end her days. To 
this censure the court jointly concurred ; the Lord 
Digby only excepted, who extenuated Sir Thomas 
Lake's offence, and mitigated his fine. And to 
make the justice of the court more clear in favor 
of the Countess, the King, after the censure pro- 
nounced, delivered in the open court how, when 
he first took examination thereof from the Lady 
Roos, he asked her whether she would depose 
upon her oath what she had affirmed ; who pre- 
tended, yes. But when his Majesty commanded 
the Bible to be brought, and tendered it, she 
started back and refused to take it ; whereupon 
his Majesty dismissed her and sent for her father, 
bade him be advised what he did, and how far he 
listened to his daughter's speeches, for that she 
refused to make good her accusations upon her 
oath. Sir Thomas went home, dealt with his 
daughter in private, writes a letter with his own 


hand to the King, importing that his daughter 
was resolved to take her oath, sent his daugh- 
ter with the letter ; but when his Majesty, press- 
ing it upon her conscience, tendered her her oath, 
she started back as before, and refused a second 
time, — an evident argument of a guilty conscience. 
The old serpent, her mother, had beguiled her : 
she was Eve, who, being beguiled, seduced her 
father Adam, and with what fruit the world was 
now witness. This was his Majesty's comparison. 

Each man's particular speech I leave to other 
relations. The Bishop of London's,-}- Secretary 
Naunton's, and Sir Fulke Greville's, carried away 
the prize from the rest. Sir Edward Coke voted 
first, and what censure he set down the others 

Manoury, the French apothecary who joined 
with Stukeley in the accusation of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, is taken at Plymouth for clipping of 
gold, as was his companion. ♦ ♦ * His ex- 
amination was sent up hither to the King, where- 
in he * * * (as I hear from Sir Robert 
Winde, cup-bearer, I think, to his Majesty, who 
saith he read the examination,) that his accusa- 
tion against Raleigh was false, and that he was 
won thereto by the practice and importunity 
of Stukeley, and now acknowledges this his pre- 
sent miserable condition to be a judgment of God 
upon him for that. 

t Dr. John King. 


From Sir Thomas Grantham I hear, that, to 
induce my Lady Hatton to settle tlie better of 
her land upon Sir John Villiers, there is offer 
made to make her a countess, and by her pro- 
curement the Lord Denbigh a privy coun- 

I shall conclude my letter with an accident that 
happened to the Venetian Embassador at Madrid 
upon Shrove-Tuesday last, after their account. 
You know the liberty, or rather licentiousness, of 
that time in those parts. The Embassador was 
newly arrived, and had not yet had audience, when 
one of his people, in imitation of what he saw others 
do, cast some filth upon a Spaniard ; who, not 
brooking the jest, drew, and so did the other like* 
wise ; and their drawing occasioned divers others 
to do the same likewise, so as four or five were 
slain upon the place, Spaniards and Venetians. 

The oflScers, observing a time when the Vene- 
tian Embassador was abroad, brake open his 
house, seized upon all the servants of his they 
found, committed them to prison ; and in these 
terms the courier left them. 

And here it will be time' to leave troubling 

you : most humbly therefore kissing your hand, 

I rest 

Your, &c. &c. 

* Birch, 4.176. 




[Exhorting him to study the book which the King had dedi- 
cated to him.] 

My dear AND LOVING SoN, 

This holy time of Lent gives me occasion of 
preparation against Easter, and of meditating 

* The best comment upon this letter is the character of the 
lady herself, drawn by Bishop Hacket, who knew her well. 
Perhaps it is somewhat severe, as it was written upon occasion 
of her turning Papist. " She was mother to the great favorite ; 
but in religion became a step-mother. She doted upon him 
extremely, as the glory of her womb ; yet by turning her coat 
so wantonly, when the eyes of all the kingdom were upon her 
family, she could not have wrought him a worse turn, if she 
had studied a mischief against him. Many marvelled what 
rumbled in her conscience at that time ; for^ from a maid to an 
old madam, she had not every one*s good word for practice of 
piety. And ^he suffered censure to the last, that she left the 
company of Sir Thomas Compton her husband. It hath been 
so with many others. But why should a libertine, that cares 
not to live after the way of the Gospel, pretend to seek satisfac- 
tion more than ordinary about the true doctrine of the Gospel ? 
They that have beams in their ov/n eyes, unsanctified manners 
beyond the most, why should they cavil at moats in the eye of 
the reformed religion? Arthur Wilson complains that the 
Countess of Buckingham was the cynosura that all the Papists 
steered by ; I believe that it was above her ability to bear 
the weight of that metaphor. The common jealousy was, that 
the Duke would be ring-streaked with spots of Popery by re- 
sorting to his mother's trough." — Life of Archbishop Williams, 
i. p. 171, 


upon his Majesty's last work, wherein you have 
the honor of dedication, the most gracious and 
most worthy favor that ever servant received 
from his master. Now, in reading of it, I find 
myself much touched in that you are no scholar, 
I having had the care left me by the unfortunate 
loss of your dear father. But when I consider 
the greatness of God's mercy towards widows 
and orphans, I am astonished ; having so many 
examples both of prophets and other holy men 
that comfort weak women that mean well to their 
children, both in raising them to life when they 
were dead, and sending food, being ready to 
famish. I must apply these blessings to you, 
my beloved son, and your mother, that, having 
had a desire to breed you well, may find how God 
accepts desires for deeds done, and may see and 
behold with reverence the marvellous goodness 
of our great God, who hath sent us a prophet, — 
nay, more than a prophet, — a King, to repair 
the wants in me, and to raise you to life that 
were half-dead ; for he that is ignorant in mat- 
ters of salvation is more than half-dead. I pray 
God give as great a blessing to these our master's 
labors, as our Saviour had in choosing unlearned 
men to be his apostles ; and, no doubt, if you study 
those lessons and meditations with all your heart, 
you shall be his disciple, who hath taken so much 
pains in repairing both our wants, that we may 
pray and serve him truly on earth, and have the 

KING JAMES. . 185 

joy of seeing him in heaven : which everlasting 
happiness God make us worthy to enjoy ! 
Your most loving affectionate mother, 


February ^4, 1618. 


(^Miscellaneous News.] 



I DOUBT not but you have heard fully of the 
at[tainder] of the Lady of Exeter, and how the 
accusers are con[demned] for fines and damages 
at £22,000, besides charges of their suits. Sarah 
Swarton, her punishment is yet forborne, though 
she were brought to the court. She hath been 
divers times examined: at the first she was stiff; 
but at last, as it is said, she confessed the plot, 
charging the two ladies with it. It is said that 
she and Kath. Maynard have confessed other 
foul matter ; so that it seems the business is not 
yet ended. Sir Thomas, his wife and daughter, 
are still close prisoners, severally, in the Tower. 
There is talk here that the Red-shanks of Ar- 
gyle's country, who is at Brussels, are passed 
over into the north of Ireland ;-[ and that Tyrone's 
son, Dongannon, who is a colonel over 1200 brave 
Irish, is ready in the Low Countries ; so that 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiv. 243. t See p. 178. 


it may be doubted there is trouble intended also 
that way. In France there are stirrings ; the old 
Duke of Epemon» with 800 horse, carried the 
Queen-mother from Bloys, whither she was con- 
fined, to Engoleme in Poictow. The . Duke of 
Guise arms strongly ; it is thought he is con- 
federate with Epemon. There are few nobles 
at the <;ourt there. The marriage between the 
King's sister and the Duke of Savoy's son is con- 
cluded. My Lord of Doncaster, about the mid- 
west of March, goes embassador for Bohemia 
about those businesses. With these news I end 
in haste ; remembering my last service to you 
and my lady, as being obliged to be always. 

Yours to do you service, 

Richard TRYM.f 

St. Bartholomew's, 26 Feb. 1618. 
To the Right Worshipful Sir Rob. Crane, Kt. at Chilton. 


[Of the sickness of the Queen. — Burning of Whitehall. — 

Stukely's imprisonment.] 

* ♦ * I HAVE not, sir, any occurrents here 
to advertise you, other than that the King and 
Prince since Christmas have been at Newmarket, 
at Candlemas to return* The Queen, God be 
thanked! is upon a very good way of recovery, 
as her doctors well hope : her doctors are May- 

t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiv. 245. 


arde,* Atkins, and Turner, which Sir Walter 
Raweley, ere his death, recommended to her as 
being the chief, knowing his secrets and medica^ 
ments of physics. She yet is at Hampton Court, 
but hoped she will be here at Shrove-tide.f I 
know you, being Master of Sidney College, do 
wish a happy increase to that name ; therefore 
write you that much joy is at Baynard*s Castle 
by iny Lord Lyle's^: having a son, a brave boy, 
the Sunday morning after Twelfth-day. Only 
yesterday grief is, in that it is perceived my Lady 
Lyle is sick with the small-pox ; till then very 
happily brought abed and well, but God will 
undoubtedly recover her to health. That sick- 
ness is here very common amongst great ladies 
as inferior ones ; my Lady Haddington dying 
thereof, who died wonderful religious and most 
well prepared for heaven. 

I doubt not but you heard of the great mischance 
by fire at Whitehall ten days past, which burnt all 
the Banqueting-house, and was feared the whole 
house of Whitehall would also have been consum* 
ed ; but that my Lord Chamberlain and his bro- 
ther being present, whose industry, pains, and 
great providence, all the time, through the abund- 

* Mayerne ? 

f She died, however, about this time of a dropsy, at Hamp- 
ton Court. See also p. 195. 

I Robert Sydney, afterwards Earl of Leicester. The son 
here mentioned was probably the celebrated Algernon Sydney. 


ance of water brought and pulling down of some 
places, God be thanked ! prevented any more hurt. 
The fire arising by the neglect and heedlessness of 
two men that were appointed to sweep the room ; 
and, having candles, firing some of the oily clothes 
of the devices of the mask, (which the King had 
commanded should all remain to be again at 
Shrove-tide,) that fire inflaming suddenly about 
and to the roof, which the two men not able to 
quench [it], and fearing to be known that they 
did it, shut the doors, parting away without 
speaking thereof, till at last perceived by others, 
when too late and irrecoverable. The two, since 
confessing the truth, are put to prison. The King 
hath given order the mask at Shrove-tide. shall 
be . in the great hall. The . maskers were the 
Prince, the Marquis Buckingham, the Earl Mon- 
gomerie, the Captain of the guards, and a brother 
of his. Sir Thomas Howarde, one Meynarde, 
Abercromye, Mootie (?), and some others, to 
twelve. Sir Lewes Steukeley this fourteen days 
hath been in the Gate-house for clipping gold, 
and it is thought generally shall die ; men say 
[it] to be a judgment of God for Sir Walter 
Rawley's blood. 

I have not known any mean to thank you for 
the good welcome I received at Dort, than thus 
with tediousness to show my love, for which I 
desire to be excused. Amidst your weightier 
affairs, I pray you please to have my service re- 


roembered to Mr. Dr. Davenett and Mr. Belle- 
quanco,f and to tell him Sir Williann Anstruther 
took his remembrance very kindly, and is very 
glad of his health, being one whom Sir William 
much respects. Even so, with my best wishes, 
♦ * * I always rest 

Your most assured affectionate friend, 

Gerarde Herbert.;]; 

London, 21 Junii Vet. 1619. 
To my much respected friend Mr. Dr. Ward Sic. at Dort. 


[Miscellaneous News. J 



[On his running away with the Earl's daughter.§] 

My Lord, 

I confess I took no great council in this busi- 
ness, for nature taught me that I was to advise 
my daughter to avoid the occasion of ill, as con- 
fidently as I assure myself she is of ill ; and^ for 
your offers, I confess I had noble offers from you, 

f Dr. Davenant, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, and Dr. 
Balcanqual, who was hunted down by the Puritans in the great 
rebellion. They were employed as English agents at the Synod 
of Dort. t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiv. 288. 

§ The Marquis of Buckingham married Katharine Manners, 
the Earl of Rutland's only child, 16th May 1620. 


and I expect real performance, which I hope in 
the end will bring comfort to us both. I deny 
not, had I seen any spark of affection in a daugh- 
ter towards me, but that those words your lord^ 
ship used might have moved me (and I cannot 
think but she had some counsel) ; but when I 
valued the one with the other, say that your lord- 
ship^s affection might have altered, I was resolved 
this was the better course for my daughter's 
honor, which although she deserves not so great 
, a care from a father whom she so little esteems, 
yet I must preserve her honor if it were with 
hazard of my life. And for calling our honors in 
question, pardon me, my lord, that cannot be any 
fault of mine; for you would have me think 
that a contract, which if you will make it to, 
be it as secret as you will, this matter is at an 
end ; therefore the fault is only your lordship's 
if the world talk of us both. The issue I require, 
which your lordship desires to know, is, that I 
may by some course be assured she is yours, and 
then you shall find me tractable to deal like a 
loving father ; although she is not worthy in re- 
spect of her neglect to me, yet it being once 
done, her love and due respects to your lordship 
shall make me forget that which I confess I now 
am too sensible of; and I hope your lordship 
will not guess nor imagine of me other than as 
of one that, if it be not your fault, you have as 
great an interest in as in any man, and she shall 


not make her yours sooner than I will receive 
her again. To conclude, my lord, this is my 
resolution : if . my conscience may not be fully 
satisfied she is yours, take your own courses ; I 
must take mine, and I hope I shall arm my-self 
with patience, and not with rage. Your lordship 
^hall ever find I will be as careful of your honor 
as I must be tender of mine own ; and this is my 
resolution. Wishing to your lordship as much 
happiness with my daughter as your heart can 
desire, so I rest 

Your lordship's servant, 

F. Rutland.* 



My Lord, 

Your mistaking in your fashion of dealing with 
a free and honest heart, together with your fro- 
ward carriage towards your own daughter, en- 
forced me the other day to post to Hampton 
Court, and there cast myself at his Majesty's 
feet, confessing freely unto him all that ever hath 
passed in privacy between your lordship and me 
concerning your daughter's marriage, lest other- 
wise, by this your public miscarriage of the busi- 
ness, it might by other means to my disadvantage 
'a come to his knowledge. And now that I 
have obtained my master's pardon for this my 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixv. 290. 


first fault, by concealing and going further in 
any thing than his Majesty was acquainted with, 
I can delay no longer of declaring unto you how 
unkindly I take your harsh usage of me and your 
own daughter, which hath wrought this effect 
in me ; that, since you esteem so little of my 
friendship and her honor, I must now, contrary 
to my former resolution, leave off the pursuit of 
that alliance any more, putting it in your free 
choice to bestow her elsewhere to your best com- 
fort ; for, whose fortune it shall ever be to have 
her, I will constantly profess that she never re- 
ceived any blemish in her honor but that which 
came by your own tongue. It is true, I never 
thought before to have seen the time that I 
should need to come within the compass of the 
law by stealing of a wife against the consent of 
the parents ; considering of the favor that it 
pleaseth his Majesty, though undeservedly, to 
bestow upon me. So, leaving this tp you and 
your wife's censure, I rest 

Your lordship's servant, 

G. Buckingham.* 

* Harl. 1581, p. 134. Wilson, whose testimony is suspi- 
cious in everything which concerns Buckingham, both from 
his narrow puritanical bigotry and zealous partisanship of the 
Earl of Essex, gives the following account of this afiair. 

" The Earl of Rutland, of a noble family, had but one daugh- 
ter to be the mistress of his great fortune ; and he [Buckingham] 
tempts her, carries her to his lodgings in Whitehall, keeps her 
there for some time, and then returns her back again to her 



[Miscellaneous news.] 

Mr. Attorney,* whose office is to bring others 
into the Star Chamber, is now to be brought him* 
self, to the wonder and astonishment of the world. 

My Lord of Suffolk is in very hard case, and 
would have been in far worse, if, as your great 
tenant here told me the other day, things which 
of late have been discovered had been known 
before, which he sayeth are many degrees fouler 
and greater than those which were censured. 
He could have then been but undone, and so he 
is now; but perhaps he hath escaped cheaper 
in reputation. There is one Mr. Aldred (some- 
times secretary to* the Lord Evers) committed 
for writing to my Lord Buckingham a dehorta- 
tive letter against the match with Spain, which 
they say is more sufficiently than discreetly 

father. The stout old Earl sent him this threatening message ; 
that he was too much of a gentleman to suffer such an indignity y and if 
he did not marry his daughter to repair her honor ^ no greatness should 
protect him from his justice, Buckingham, that perhaps made it 
his design to get the father's good will this way, (being the 
greatest match in the kingdom,) had no reason to mislike the 
union ; therefore he quickly salved the wound, before it grew to 
a quarrel ; and if this marriage stopped the current of his sins, 
he had the less to answer^for." — James t. p. 149. 

More than one error has accidentally, or intentionally, crept 
into this writer's history, who, notwithstanding his Puritanism, 
had a sweet tooth for Court gossip and scandal. 

* Sir Henry Yelverton. 



penned. And yet I cannot see with what judg- 
ment it can be written, when he shewed to have 
none in the writing. I am now both weary and 
sleepy ; but it is because my matter is all spent, 
and not my affection, sir, to do you further service^ 
which still increaseth with doing. 

Your true lover and servant, 

Robert Woodward.* 
Pray, sir, commend me affectionately to good 
Mistress Windebanke. 

Gardner's Lane, the ISth June 1620. 

To my very worthy and most respect 'ftiend, 
Mr. Francis Windebanke, at Haine's Hill. 



[News of the day.] 

Good Mr. Dr. Ward, 

How much am I beholden to you, that amongst 
all that throng of business you could find time 
to send me so full and so welcome a letter. I 
am glad yet to hear that you look towards an 
end of those affairs which are now tedious, but 
had like to have been infinite. We heard news 
of differences betwixt you; belike the end is 
peace. I shall long for your return, that I may 
be sated with a full relation. I was gone a day's 
journey towards Worcester, when my weak body 

* Tan. Ixiii. 290. Orig. Hoi. 


turned me back, as not yet abiding any motion. 
The last week was not without much fear and 
grief here for his Majesty's dangerous unhealth ; 
our God be praised the worst is passed over, and 
his recovery proceeds with happy expedition ; yet 
is he still at Roystpn, and will be for more days 
than I think he would* 

The rumors of the Spanish fleet* had so possess* 
ed our people, that the beacons on Sussex side 
were (as I hear) on a fire, upon a view of some 
number of Hollanders. Dover was wiser, and 
stayed the false alarum. 

My Lord of Warwick is dead.f My Lord of 
Doncaster will shortly see you in his way to 
Germany, whither he goes embassador. Dr. Dun J 
goes his chaplain. 

The Queen's solemn funeral is appointed April 
29th ; all our court is turned black. 

Mr. Jeffry is so well approved here, that here 
he settles with my lord. 

That which you write of £12 received after 
my departure needs your further comment. That 
there should be a proportionable deduction for 
those public rooms is good reason ; whereof yet I 
had (you know) too little use. 

Remember my service to my Lord B. and to 
Sir John Berck, with my true love to all the 

• See p. 177. t Robert Rich, the second EarL 

X The celebrated Dr. Donne. His biographer^ Isaac Walton, 
has alluded to this journey. 

o 2 


rest of your worthy colleagues, to whom I wish 
a speedy, and safe, and successful return. 

With all this curious tendaure and length of 
time, I can hardly yet recollect myself, so deep- 
rooted was my Hollandish distemper. Let me 
charge you also to rememher me in all kind 
respects to our worthy president, to the assessors 
and scribes, to Mr, Dr. Mart Gregor, to Mr. 
Simon Schott of Middleburgh, to Mr. Dan. 

My prayers shall be for a comfortable and hap- 
py dismission of your so reverend and famous 
an assembly. Farewell. From 

Your loving brother and colleague, 

Waltham, March SO, sty. vet. JoSEPH Hall.* 

To my Right Worshipful and dear friend, Mr. Dr. Ward, 
one of the English Divines at Dort. 



Now after all this business in which you have 
had too much glory, cast your eyes upon the 

* Tan. Ixxiv. p. 154. Orig. HoL 

t This letter was written on occasion of the trial mentioned 
in the Memoirs, p. 192. See also the previous letters, p. 179, 
&c. One can hardly resist the impression of Lady Lake's be- 
ing innocent ; and that the fall of Sir Thomas and his family 
was, as Goodman states, owing to political more than to any 
other reasons. 


134th psalm ; there you shall find what God is — 
no place nor thought hid from him ; he can look 
where men's judgments cannot look to, and his 
records must remain upon the file for ever. His 
lawyers will not receive bribes, nor be corrupted ; 
these exhibits cannot be stolen id boxes. To 
conclude for this time, I wish my submission 
could make you an innocent woman, and wish 
you as white as a swan ; but it must be your 
own submission unto God, and many prayers, 
and tears, and afflictions, which seeing you have 
not outwardly, examine your heart, and think on 
times past, and remember what I have written 
you heretofore. The same I do now again, for 
I yet nothing doubt, but that although the Lord 
Roos was sent away and is dead, yet truth lives^ 
and God's glory will appear in his good time. 
And if you flatter yourself other, it will fail 
you ; and this business will never have end till 
you and I meet in the presence of the King's 
majesty, which hath been often my humble suit, 
although I cannot yet obtain it ; yet I hope, ere 
you and I part this world, I shall. If not, I 
will have that testimony as shall make all the 
world to see that I die Grod's servant. To whose 
justice I commend myself. 

9th November 1620. MarY LakE.* 

To the Countess of Exeter. 

* Harl. 4762. p. 36- Orig. Hoi. 



[Conspiracy against the King's life.] 

Christ's College, Cambridge, 
Sir, Feb. 17, 1620-1. 

I WROTE in my last that the States* Em- 
bassadors required public audience according as 
their commission was. I hear since, that it was 
to the body of the kingdom assembled in par- 
liament, where they have delivered their mes- 
sage, &c. 

They say also, that the King sent for the 
lovi^er house to Whitehall and made another 
speech unto them. 

The act of parliament against the Papists, 
the execution whereof was referred, as you heard, 
to the committees to advise of, was, as I hear, 
made 18th Eliz. : that no Papist, during parlia- 
ment time, should come within ten miles of the 
city. I am told, moreover, that it was agreed 
that the subsidies and grievances should pass to- 
gether. And that there should already pass two 
subsidies and a fifteenth, upon two conditions, 
which his Majesty hearing of, should say, he was 
sure one of the conditions would be against the 
Papists ; but let them do with them as they 

One Worseley, a mad fellow, a Catholic, who 
some six years since would have stabbed my Lord 
of Canterbui'y in his gallery, and had done it. 


had not his secretary come in by chance, and was 
some years in prison for it, and afterwards ba- 
nished, but now of late come home again, — this 
fellow, on Candlemas Day at night, sent a letter 
from the Blue Boar within Aldgate to Sir John 
Lentrope's lodgings in Holborn ; the pretence, 
because in his examination being asked what 
friends he had, he had named Sir John Lentrope, 
which Sir John took very ill, it being nothing 
so, but only he was somewhat of kindred to Ga, 
Lentrope, his cousin's wife. Within this letter 
were enclosed two others, in one whereof was a 
most bitter invective against the Archbishop; 
in the other, a horrible treason against the King, 
not fit to be related. Sir John went presently 
to the Earl of Southampton and shewed it him ; 
and his eldest son coming home upon Tuesday, 
by chance, understood that this Worsley was 
then in his cousin Lentrope's, the Catholic's house, 
and went presently with his brother, who told 
me this, and apprehended him. 

Dr. Usher,* whom you hear should preach 
before the lower house, is an Irishman, whom 
the King hath but [just] made Bishop,! ^ wonder- 
ful antiquary, a great scholar, and a man esteemed 
of great integrity and devotion. I am told that 
he was appointed by the parliament to preach, 
and, some say, his text given him, or theme intir 

* The celebrated Archbishop Usher, 
t Of Meath in Ireland. 


mated, by them. Howsoever, he preached riot 
then, but both his preachuig and the communion 
were, by order from the King, put off till the 
Sunday after, (to-morrow,) and the place to be 
Westminster. In the mean time it was on foot 
for the Dean of Westminster, Dr. Williams,* 
to preach, and not Usher ; but with much ado, 
they say. Usher still continues, and is expected 
to-morrow, though the Dean was so discontent, 
that he denied, as some say, to permit the com- 
munion in Westminster ; but I suppose he will be 
otherwise advised. Methinks, if Usher preaches, 
when I consider all circumstances, it should pro* 
duce some novelty. 

I am told that there was^ not long since, (I 
suppose about New Year's tide,) a play before his 
Majesty, wherein there was a Puritan brought 
up, having long ass's ears, who should speak 
after this manner : " Is it now a time to give 
gifts and to make merry ? &c. This should be a 
time of fasting and prayer, when the Church of 
God is in so great aflfliction in Bohemia and Ger- 
many, and other places, and not of masking and 
music," &c. I will not believe this was enter- 
tained with applause, and yet I am told so. 

It is strange to hear how contrarily men of 
the same affections and desires are carried since 
the beginning of the parliament. Some full of 
hope and some as big with fear, even concerning 

* Afterwards Archbishop of York. 


tb^ same matters. But God will dispose of all 
things as it seems good to him. 

I was told yesterday, that the Bishop of Dur- 
ham had been quoted in some men's speeches in 
the Lower House, by the name of that irreverent 

I suppose you have heard that Sir Thomas 
Beaumont, one of the Knights for Leicestershire, 
is put out of the House, and some others also, 
I know not whether for some default in this 
election, or some other cause. But there is great 
question about Sir Henry Gary, chosen for Hert- 
fordshire, whom the King hath since made a 
Viscount in Scotland ; viz. Viscount Falkland. 
Whereupon is controverted, whether he should 
be of the Upper House or Lower House, or nei- 

* Dr. Neile. An excellent man, though much hated by the 
Lower House and the Puritan party, which chiefly composed it, 
because of his adherence to what they called Arminian tenets. 
A very pleasing anecdote is mentioned of him when Archbishop 
of York, in a MS. in the Harleian collection, No. 1581, f. 181. 
It occurs in a letter of J. Pory to Sir Thomas Puckering, dated 
Sept. 20, 1632. "One writ to me from Cambridge two things 
in commendation of the present Bishop of York. First, that 
being by his coachman hurried apace through a town where 
were many poor people, as if he had meant to save his master's 
purse harmless, he called him knave for his labor, and made 
him stand still till such time as he had, with his own hand, 
distributed to them all. Secondly, that being advertised by 
some of his officers how he might levy a tenth upon his clergy, 
as well as his late predecessor had done, he answered, he would 
in no case attempt any such matter, for he was come to benefit, 
and not to charge his clergy.'* 


then Some say, they shall choose again in Hert- 
fordshire ; and others, that the House will bind 
him to continue amongst the Commons, as he 
was elected, which it seems he is unwilling unto. 

♦ « « « 4k * 

Yours to command, 

Joseph Mead. 


[State of the Revenue.] 

Right noble and my most honored Lord, 

According to his Majesty's command, I have 
ispoken with the Lord Dockwraye. I will not 
trouble your lordship with our discourse ; but we 
have concluded that for the present he shall have 
only £2000 (to make up the eight which he hath 
already received) ten, and that shall serve the 

t Cranfeild's correspondence is by no means scanty, but yet 
is of too official a nature to please the genera] reader. I could 
not, however, wholly omit the letters of one who makes so 
great a figure in the memoirs of Bishop Goodman, and who was 
certainly one of the best ministers about the Court* It was his 
fate to ofiend both the Court and the Puritans, — to please, in 
fact, neither parties ; and if he was called the Indians' black 
Deity by King James in derision, he was called by the Puritans 
the Devil's treasurer in sober earnest. 

Wilson gives an account of a sermon preached before the 
King, not long before the date of this letter^ in which the 


present turn with content. After our conclu- 
sion we both attended the Lord Treasurer, whom 
we acquainted with wliat we had resolved; 
whereupon his lordship promised present pay- 
ment of that sum, so that business is for this 
instant settled. But I pray your lordship to 
give me leave to remember you, that this is but 
a reprieve, — no full discharge; for at Michael- 
mas next there will be two whole years unpaid, 
which is 40,000 pounds. So that my humble 
advice is, your lordship will be pleased to move 
the King to resolve what his Highness will 
do about that kingdom. Upon my life, it will 
be no hard matter to discharge that arrear, to 
ease his Majesty of the £20,000 annual charge 
wherewith his estate is now charged, and to set- 
tle that kingdom in much more security than 
it is at present. For the doing of which I will 
be prepared to make an overture to your lord- 

preacher took for his text these words : — " And the devil tak- 
ing Jesus to the top of a mountain^ showed him all the 
kingdoms of the world," &c. From this he took occasion to 
show that the devil was a great monarch, with many officers 
under him. When he came to describe the devil's treasurer, 
his exactions and gripings, h6 fixed his eyes full upon Cran- 
feild, and, pointing at him with his hand, said with an emphasis, 
That man — that man that makes himself rich and his master poor, 
he is a Jit treasurer for the devil. Poor Cranfeild sat with his 
hat pulled down over his eyes^ afraid to look up lest he should 
find all men's eyes fixed upon him ; whilst the King, who sat 
just over him, enjoyed his confusion, " smiling at the quaint 
satire so handsomely colored over." — Wilson, p. 152, 


ship to offer to his Majesty against his Teturi> 
from the progress. 

Yesterday the council met, and I took the 
opportunity to set that on foot which the King 
and the Prince, in the presence of your lordship> 
resolved, which was the sending of some prin^ 
cipal and select commissioners into Ireland. I 
moved it upon this occasion. Sir Francis Blun- 
dell was then to have received directions for the 
release of covenants broken by some undertakers 
£ibout the planting of one-fourth part Irish, whereas 
they should have planted English, upon an offer 
of doubling the rent. I must confess I liked 
not the motion, it being, as I conceive, a step to 
overthrow the King's glorious work of settling 
that kingdom. For the motive to induce his 
Majesty to show that grace, it was the doubling 
the rent, which was contemptible not only in 
regard of the sum, for his Majesty in all his 
plantations there hath been pleased never to re- 
gard profit, but the safety and welfare of his 
people; the rent reserved not deserving that 
name, it being so small, that it is rather an ac- 
knowledgment than a rent. 

I should make my letter too long if I should 
write your lordship what passed at the board 
upon this subject ; I shall humbly acquaint your 
lordship therewith when I have the happiness 
to see you next. In the meantime, your lord- 
ship may be pleased to . understand the Lords 


thought fit to forbear to do any thing about Sir 
F. Blundell's motion, and to move his Majesty, 
when they next attend his Highness, to send 
over into Ireland commissioners of understanding 
and value, the best could be chosen in this king- 
dom, which is a good preparation to that the 
King intends, and will be much better the Lords 
should propose it to the King, than if his Majesty 
had moved it to them. What the commissioners 
shall do will be fit to be resolved on at his Ma- 
jesty's return. In the meantime I will prepare 
for your lordship what I conceive fit for the 
furthering of that service. 

The King's rent of £15,500 per annum for 
tobacco is in danger to be lost, or at best to de- 
cline much ; and all the money spent about the 
plantations of Virginia and Burmothas will be 
lost if there be not some present course taken 
to restrain the planting of tobacco here in Eng- 
land. I have met divers time with the Lord 
Treasurer about it, who desires it may rather be 
the act of the whole board than his ; and there- 
fore your lordship may be pleased to move the 
King to give present order the council may meet, 
and resolve what is fit to be done, it being now 
no time to lose or impair so great a revenue. 

Four of his Majesty's ships are daily expected. 
At their arrival, if there be not money prepared 
ready to discharge the men, it will stand his Ma- 
jesty in above £200 every day charge, beside the 


dishoncM* and further inconvenience that may fot^ 
low. Your lordship^ being Lord Admiral, will 
suffer much in it. Wherefore you may be pleas- 
ed to give present order by command from his 
Majesty, who is first to be moved, my Lord 
Treasurer to provide that money be ready for 
the discharge of the men presently- upon their 
arrival. The sum will be about thirteen thou- 
sand pounds. 

I have herewith sent your lordship my grant 
for the manor of Cranfeild, to get his Majesty's 
signature, which I humbly pray your lordship 
to despatch for me. I hope his Majesty, by your 
noble mediation, bestows it upon me to more 
willingness than I beg it, which I protest before 
God is not for the value, but the name^ and that 
it may remain to my house as a mark of his Ma* 
jesty's favor and goodness towards me. 

Your good sister the Lady Fielding, whom 
the good air of Chelsea has much comforted, 
remembers her love and service to your lordship ; 
the like doth my wife and her mother, who praye 
for you and the long continuance of your pros- 
perity, as they have good cause. As for myself, 
my debt is so great to your lordship, that what- 
soever I have shall be ever at your command. 
And I will always rest 

Your lordship's 
FaithfuUest servant and kinsman, 



For* Sir Richard Buckler's (?) son and grand- 
child there is nothing as yet done, nor shall be 
until I first acquaint your lordship and receive 
your command.* 

Chelsey, the 28th of July 1621. 


[State of the Revenue.] 


This bearer, Sir William Kussell, hath lately 
done his Majesty good service by lending money 
towards the discharge of the ships that come 
from Argier, whereof I pray your lordship to 
take notice and to thank him. 

The more I look into the King's estate the 
greater cause I have to be troubled, considering 
the work I have to do, which is not to reform 
one particular, as in the household, navy, ward- 
robe, &c. ; but every particular, as well of his Ma- 
jesty's receipts as payments, hath been carried 
with so much disadvantage to the King, as until 
your lordship see it you will not believe any men 
should be so careless and unfaithful. 

I have heard his Majesty is now granting a 
pension. I pray your lordship to consider how 
impossible it is for me to do service if any such 

* Grig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. p. 56. 


thing be done, and withal whether it wera not 
unjust to stop pensions already granted, and at 
the same instant to grant new, and what a life 
I should have with those whose pensions are 
stayed, for whom I have now a good answer; 
viz. the King must and shall be first served. I 
pray your lordship not only to stay the granting 
any new, but to move his Majesty not to suffer 
any old to be exchanged or altered from one life 
to another; and then, I dare assure your lord- 
ship, within these few months they will not be 
worth two years' purchase. 

1 shall not desire to live if I do not the work ; 
and therefore, good my lord, be constant your- 
self, and be the happy means to hold the King so. 
It is my gratitude to his Majesty and your lord- 
ship that hath engaged me ; otherwise there is no- 
thing upon this earth could have tempted me to 
have quit the happy estate I was in within these 
fourteen days, to enter into a business so full of 
continual vexation and trouble. 

I have called some men to account who have 
not accounted these seven years. I doubt some 
will make their addresses to his Majesty or your 
lordship ; I pray let their answer be, his Majesty 
hath referred the trust of ordering his estate to 

I shall shortly call for an account out of the 
Isle of Wight. I think out of moneys owing by 
some rich lords to pay some of his Majesty's poor 

KING JAMES. . 209 

Servants. 1 will spare no person, nor forbear any 
course that is just and honorable to make our 
great and gracious master to subsist of his own. 
The pains an^ envy shall be mine, the honor and 
thanks your lordship's. Wherefore be constant 
to him that loves and honors you, and will ever 

Your lordship's 

Faithful servant and kinsman, 

Chelsey, 12 Oct. 1621. 

To my much honored Lord the Lord Marquis of 
Buckingham, Lord High Admiral of England. 

[Upon the House of Commons proving refractory.] 


The lower house this day has been a little un- 
ruly, but I hope it will turn to the best, for be- 
fore they rose they began to be ashamed of it ; 
yet I could wish that the King would send down 
a commission here, (that if need were,) such sedi- 
tious fellows might be made an example to others 
by Monday next, and till then I would let them 
alone ; it will be seen whether they mean to do 
good or to persist in their follies, so that the King 
needs to be patient but a little while. I have 

* Orig, Hoi. Tan, Ixxiii. p. 66. 


spoken with so many of the council as the King 
trusts most, and they [are] all of this mind ; only 
the sending of authority to set seditious fellows 
fast is of my adding. I defy thee \n heing more 
mine than I am 

Thy constant loving friend, 

Charles P.* 

Friday, 3d November 1621. 

[Upon the Bame subject and the state of the Revenue.] 

Most noble Lord, 

Mr. Chancellor Tbeing sent down to the King 
by the House of Commons, hath saved me the 
pains of writing the proceedings in Parliament 
in that house, with my opinion ; he being best 
able to inform you of all the passages there, and 
how that which hath lately been handled in that 
house, viz. concerning the Prince's marriage, and 
war and peace, was occasioned, and thereupon the 
petition (which is his errand) framed. I have 
likewise delivered him my opinion, unto whose 
report I refer myself, submitting all to your bet- 
ter judgment. 

For the proceedings in the upper house, they are 
very respective and fair. Some few attempts have 

• Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiiii 68. 


been made about privilege and papers taken from 
Selden, thereby, as I conceive, to have called in 
question the Earl of Southampton's restraint 
But those affected to those courses are so few, 
und the house in general so well affected to the 
King and his service, as I make no doubt but his 
Majesty will receive no discontentment in our 
house, but all satisfaction ; which God grant ! 

That which I am principally to take care of, 
is to get money, to see nothing passeth to th6 
prejudice of his Majesty's revenue and estate, 
nor to impeach his power royal, wherein I will 
not fail in my duty, whatsoever I shall in power. 

I have agreed with the farmers of tobacco for 
this year for £8000, and have told them to bring 
in but threescore thousand weight; and have' 
left the Virginia and Bowrmoothes free to bring 
in without restraint, and his Majesty to have the 
benefit of the impost. This is £2000 more than 
could be gotten by the Lords at Hampton Court 
Besides, by restraining them to 60,000 weight 
the kingdom will be empty of Spanish tobacco 
at Michaelmas next, by which means I hope to 
double the revenue I have let it for this year. 
Besides, the great clamor in parliament of £1S0,000 
per annum spent in Spanish tobacco, is now satis* 
fled, because this 60,000 weight will cost but 
seven thousand pounds; and the Virginia and 
Bowrmoothes Company have no cause to com- 
plain^ there being no restraint, but they left to 
free trade. p 2 


I made this known to both the houses the first' 
day of the parliament ; and withal added, that 
his Majesty^ for the general good of the king-* 
dom, to preserve the treasure, and for the enlarge- 
ment of the trade of Virginia, &c. had, even ill 
this time of his extreme necessity, been pleased 
to lose seven thousand five hundred pounds per 
annum in that farm of tobacco. 

I have likewise made a bargain for the great 
£EU'm and silk farm, if his Majesty shall be pleased 
to approve it. The term I have agreed for is 
seven years, with a proviso, if his Majesty shall 
think fit at the end of three years to give them 
notice of his pleasure and a year's warning, they 
are to quit it ; and they have the like freedom. 
This I did take care of, because all trades at pre- 
sent being sick, occasioned by the general wars 
in Christendom, I conceive it cannot be worse, 
but hope of much better ; which if it shall please 
Gk)d to send, then his Majesty hath the advan- 
tage, after three or four years, to increase his 
revenue upon this farm. The price I have agreed 
for is one hundred and threescore thousand 
pounds per annum, which is an improvement 
of four thousand pounds per annum more than 
ever was given, and more than the Lords could 
get at Hampton Court; which is better than 
letting it for ten thousand pounds less, as the 
King was made believe he must have done. 
I have driven the bargain so hard for the King, 


but I assui^e myself I have lost the two thousand 
pounds which my predecessors, the Lord Trea- 
surers, had yearly given them at new year's 
tide. If I had, instead of improving it £4000 
per annum,' abated £10,000 per annum, (as was 
intended,) it would have been a good new year's 
gift to the Treasurer, but your lordship may 
perceive with what great loss and disadvantage 
to the King. 

The farmers pretend his Majesty was content- 
ed to give them a covenant, (in case there should 
be a great plague, they should then be but ac- 
countants ;) but I would not yield to it, because 
it was new ; besides, it being a matter of grace, 
I have left it to the King's pleasure, (as all things 
of that nature should be,) that, if his Highness 
be pleased to do it, he may have the thanks. 

The Hollanders are arrived after their long de- 
lay. It will advance that service much to choose 
good commissioners, and the advancing that ser- 
vice will put life into trade. The merchants 
have been with me, desiring me to further their 
desire, which is, to have the same commissioners 
[as] were last. I pray your lordship I may know 
the King's pleasure, and see the names of those 
his Majesty intends to make before he signify 
his pleasure. It shall not be prejudicial, but ad- 
vance his Majesty's service, for it will be good 
for the King that his Treasurer have power and 
credit in the city. 


I have paid the Duke of Howlsten* his thred 
thousand pounds in full, according to the King's 
command, which I am not to dispute, but obey ; 
yet I could have wished it forborne in this time 
of extreme necessity, and it might have been 
done with his Majesty's honor, considering his 
foreign occasions not unknown to the Duke of 
Holsten himself. 

I have paid the posts three thousand pounds 
in part; to the forts and castles, six thousand 
pounds in part; to his Majesty's foreign em^ 
bassadors and agents, six thousand pounds in 
part, not reckoning my Lord Digby (for him J 
mu9t take care beside) ; to the Warden, &c. 
of the Tower, and his Majesty's guard, to clear 
them, about three thousand pounds ; to gun*^ 
founders, to poor shipwrights, to gunners, to 
armorers, for munition, and to other mechanics, 
about five thousand pounds; to all his Majes- 
ty's servants, their ordinary wages and pensions ; 
and all this with his Majesty's own, without bor^ 
rowing, anticipating, or paying interest; which 
may seem strange, considering the state his Ma*- 
jesty was in at Hampton Court, and that damnable 
overture made to pawn his jewels for his remove. 

When I have the honor to see your lordship, 
I will then let you know how 1 have done all 
this, which I pray believe hath been by honor- 
able and just ways ; and so much I beseech your 

* Holstein. 


k»*dship on my behalf to assure the Eang. And 
withal^ if Gk)d bless me^ and his Majesty, the 
Prince, and your lordship continue constant, and 
will back me, I will perfect the work, and the 
King shall live with honor upon his own, in 
despite of all the world. As for myself, fdthough 
I have been all my life an active man, yet I 
never knew care and pains indeed till now. I 
protest to your lordship, myself and Sir Robert 
Pye was upon Sunday until one of the dock 
at midnight conjuring about the King's estate ; 
I having no time in the day by reason of 
my ccHitinual attendance in parliament, and to 
answer pressing, unreasonable, and importunate 
suitors. And yet, to recreate myself, I have 
lately seen two plays at Whitehall. 

I have taken order for the payment of the thirty 
thousand pounds, in Amsterdam, to Sir Dudly 
Carleton, for the use of the Prince Palatine ; and 
in such specie, that whereas heretofore the army 
had for ten thousand pounds sterling but one 
hundred thousand florins, they shall now have for 
ten thousand pounds sterling two hundred thou* 
sand florins, which is double as much. 

I have the rather written now to your lord- 
ship thus largely and particularly of his Majesty's 
aflairs^ to give him some content, for I fear the 
petition from the House of Commons will give 
him little. 

Now I have given your lordship an account 


about his Majesty's affairs, and what my care 
hath been about them, I pray your lordship to 
believe I have not been idle to perfect that 
which concerns my Lord Fielding* and his lady ; 
and although I have not gone so swift as their 
desires, it hath not been out of a desire to delay 
that which I know you have so great a desire 
to have despatched, nor for want of affection to 
them, but so to order and settle it as may 
stand with your lordship's and my duty to the 
King, and with our honors and our safeties, if 
hereafter it should be called in question, and 
yet with that benefit and security to my Lord 
Fielding as if it had been done at Michaelmas. 
The warrant I have sent you herewith for his 
Majesty to sign, which I pray be a mean his 
Majesty may read all over in presence of Mr, 
Parker and my Itord of Holdemess ; and now, 
Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer is there, sig- 
nify to him that he hath read it, and is pleased 
it should be so. For I being now trusted with 
his Majesty's estate in this great place, and this 
in one part concerning myself, and in another 
part my Lord Fielding, who is so near your 
lordship and me by marriage, and I having offend- 
ed so many for the King's service, it behoves 
me not only not to give a ground, but not* so 
much as a color of a ground, for those I have 
made my enemies to work upon, that may any 

* William Fielding, Lord Fielding, afterwards Earl of Denbiglft 

•» KING JAMES, ' 217 

way charge me in point of faithfulness or duty 
to his Majesty ; for I am resolved to pursue 
the course I have begun, which is not to make 
a fortune myself, but humbly leave it to the 
King to make mfe one, which is a new way of 
thriving at court. The reasons [wherefore] I 
have made the six thousand pounds to be paid me 
by my Lord Fielding, for money paid fcHnierly 
by his Majesty's directions, are these : — 

First, because in this time of want the King 
shall not suffer by an opinion of giving, and it is 
true upon the ground, for I paid six thousand 
pounds to Sir Henry Mildmay by the King's 
knowledge and order, as your lordship knows. 
Secondly, because my Lord Fielding's grant shall 
commence at Michaelmas last, and his account 
carried from that time. Lastly, his Majesty shall 
be at no further charge for this year than if I 
had kept the wardrobe ; and yet my Lord Field- 
ing will have full as much as the King or your 
lordship intends him. By this the King and 
your lordship may see how things were carried 
in this office in former times, what service I have 
done to reduce it, what I have parted with, and 
how faithfully I have dealt with the King from 
time to time to acquaint him with my gains, 
which I might have concealed and kept. But 1 
am better satisfied with this course. 

For the three thousand pounds mentioned as 
paid to my Lord of Doncaster, I paid so much to 
my lord in part of a privy seal, and he received all 


his money with interest out of the exchequer; 
and in all the grants formerly made me about 
the savmg in the wardrobe, this three thousand 
pounds is mentioned as part. And in regard there 
is in this warrant six thousand pounds mentioned 
to be given me for money disbursed by his Ma^ 
. jesty's order, lest it might be conceived that three 
thousand pounds was part, I thought it fit to ex- 
plain it to avoid question, it .being no charge to 
his Majesty, nor loss to my Lord of Doncaster, 
he being to repay me that which he received 
twice, and which his Majesty had given me. For 
your own private I forgot not, but am in foiw 
wardness. And so I rest 

Your lordship's 
Faithfullest servant and kinsman, 


Cbelsey, 4th December 1621. 


[Account of Archbishop Spalato's return to Rome.] 

Good Mr. Archdeacon, 

I GLADLY hear of yours and for yours at any 
time, as one whom I remember in my prayers as 
a worthy ornament of this church and instrument 

* Orig. HoL Tan. Ixxiii. p. 73. 


of God's glory. I have received information of 
the Archbishop of Spalato's success, answerable to 
the success which wise men, that know the deal- 
ing of the Court of Rome, looked for. But he, 
though otherwise not ignorant of them, would 
not suspect, so confident was he of the Pope's 
good will to him, upon letters received, and 
Gundamar's artificial persuasions. They have 
provided that we shall have no advantage of his 
writing, because they have got him to be his 
own corrector ; but what plunges of melan- 
choly the private consideration of his retracta- 
tion, I am persuaded against his conscience, may 
put him to, time will show. Either his conscience 
is seared, or he will be uncomfortably sensible of 
so foul a fact ; and his writings being not bare 
assertions, but strengthened with good proofs, 
will not easily be avoided — no, though he 
should retract sentence after sentence, except 
he can also answer his own reasons in many 
material points, though there be in his books 
many things I did never like ; and his late 
writings deal more tenderly with the Church 
of Rome, that he might have place for recon-r 
ciliation, which he did premeditate. * * * 

This 9th June [1622.]t 

f See the Memoirs, p. 352. 



[Upon his release from imprisonment — His Instauratio Magna 

and other writings.] 

May it please your sacred Majesty^ 

I ACKNOWLEDGE mysclf ill all hambleness infi- 
nitely bounden to your Majesty's grace and good- 
ness, for that, at the intercession of my noble and 
constant friend my Lord Marquis, your Majesty 
hath been pleased to grant me that which the 
civilians say is res inestimabilis^ — my liberty ; so 
that now, whenever God calleth me, I shall not 
die a prisoner. Nay, further, your Majesty hath 
vouchsafed to cast a second and iterate aspect of 
your eye of compassion upon me, in referring the 
consideration of my broken estate to my good 
lord the Lord Treasurer; which as it is a sin- 
gular bounty in your Majesty, so I have yet so 
much left of a late commissioner of your treasure, 
as I would be sorry to sue for any thing that 
might seem immodest. 

These your Majesty's great benefits in casting 
your bread upon the waters, (as the Scripture 
saith,) because my thanks cannot any ways be suf- 
ficient to attain, I have raised your progenitor of 
famous memory, (and now I hope of more famous 
memory than before,) King Henry the Seventh, 
to give your Majesty thanks for me. Which 
work, most humbly kissing your Majesty's hands, 
I do present. And because in the beginning of 
my trouble, when in the midst of the tempest 


I had a kenning of the harbour, which I hope 
now by your Majesty's favor I am entering into, 
I made tender to your Majesty of two works, 
an History of England, and a Digest of your 
Laws, as I have (by a figure of pars pro toto) 
performed the one, so I have herewith sent your 
Majesty, by way of an epistle, a new offer of the 
other. But my desire is further, if it stand with 
your Majesty's good pleasure^ since now my study 
is my exchange, and my pen my factor for the 
use of my talent, that your Majesty (who is 
a great master in these things) would be pleased 
to appoint me some task to write, and that I 
shall take for an oracle. 

And because my Instauration (which I esteem 
my great work, and do still go on with in si- 
lence,) was dedicated to your Majesty, and this 
History of King Henry the Seventh to your lively 
and excellent image the Prince, if now your 
Majesty will be pleased to give me a theme to 
dedicate to my Lord of Buckingham, whom I 
have so much reason to honor, I should with 
more alacrity embrace your Majesty's direction 
than mine own choice. Your Majesty will par- 
don me for troubling you thus long. God ever- 
more preserve and prosper you. 

Your Majesty's poor beadsman most devoted, 

Gorhamb. 20th March 1621. F. St. Alban.* 

(Inscribed) To the King's most excellent Majesty. 

* This and the two following letters are from the Tan. MSS. 
Ixxiv. p. 906 et seq* 




[On the same occasion.] 


These many and real favors which I have 
lately received from your good lordship in procur- 
ing my liberty, and a reference of the considera*- 
tions of my release, are such as I now find, that, in 
building upon your lordship's, noble nature and 
friendship, I have built upon the rock where 
neither winds or rains can cause overthrow* 
I humbly pray your lordship to accept from me 
such thanks as ought to come from him whom 
you have much comforted in fortune, and much 
more comforted in shewing your love and affec- 
tion to him. Of which also I have heard by my 
Lord of Faulkland, Sir Edward Sackville, Mr. 
Matthew, and otherwise. 

I have written, as my duty was, to his Majes- 
ty, thanks touching the same, by the letter I 
here put into your noble hands. 

I have made also in that letter an offer to his 
Majesty of my service for bringing into better 
order and frame the laws of England. The de- 
clarations whereof I have left with Sir Edward 
Sackville, because it were no good manners to 
cloy his Majesty, at this time of triumph and 
recreation, with a business of this nature* So as 
your lordship may be pleased to call for it to Sir 


Edward Sackville, when you tbink the time 

I am bold likewise to present your lordship 
with a book of my History of King Henry the 
Seventh. And now that in summer was twelve- 
month I dedicated a book to his Majesty^ and 
this last summer this book to the Prince, your 
lordship's turn is next, and this summer that 
comes, (if I live to it,) I shall be yours* I have 
desired his Majesty to appoint me the task, 
otherwise I shall use mine own choice for 
this, as the best retribution I can make to your 
lordship. God prosper you the next. 
Your lordship's 
Most obliged friend and faithful servant, 

F. St. Alban. 

Gorhamb. this 20th of March 1621. 

(Inscribed) To the Right Honorable his very good 
Lordship, the Lord Marquis of Buckingham, High 
Admiral of England. 


[Expresses his anxiety to be taken into i&vor and to return to 

public life.] 

Excellent Lord, 

Though I have troabled your Ibrdship with 
many letters, of tener than I think I should, (save 
that affection keepeth no account,) yet upon 
the repair of Mr. Matthew, a gentteman so much 
your lordship's servant, and to me another my- 
self, as your lordship, best knoweth^ you would 


not have thought me a man alive, except! had 
put a letter into his hand, and withal, by so 
faithful and approved a mean, commended my 
fortunes afresh unto your lordship. 

My lord, to speak my heart to your lordship, 
I never felt my misfortunes so much as now; 
not for that part which may concern myself, 
who profit, I thank God for it, both in patience 
and in settling mhie own courses ; but when I 
look abroad and see the times so stirring, and so 
much dissimulation, falsehood, baseness, and en- 
vy in the world, and so many idle clocks going 
in men's heads, then it grieveth me much that 
I am not sometimes at your lordship's elbow, 
that I might give you some of the fruits of the 
careful advice, modest liberty, and true in- 
formation of a friend that loveth your lordship 
as I do. For though your lordship's fortunes 
be above the thunders and storms of inferior 
regions, yet, nevertheless, to hear the wind, and 
not to feel it, will make one sleep the better. 

My good lord, somewhat I have, and much 
have 1 read, so that few things which concern 
states or greatness leave new cases unto me; 
and therefore I hope I may be no unprofita- 
ble servant to your lordship. 1 remember the 
King was wont to make a character of me, far 
above my worth, that I was not made for small 
matters ; and your lordship would sometimes 
bring me from his Majesty that Latin sentence. 


De minimis nan curat fctr; and it halh sb fallen 
out, that since my retiring times have been ful- 
ler of great matters than before ; wherein, per- 
haps, if I had continued near his Majesty, he 
might have found more use of my services if 
my gift lay that way. But that is but a faint 
imagination of mine. True it is, that as I do 
not aspire to use my talent in the King's great 
affairs, yet for that which may concern your lord^ 
ship and your fortune, no man living shall give you 
a better [proof] of faith, industry, affection, than 
I shall. I must conclude with that which gave 
me occasion of this letter, which was Mr. Matthew's 
employment to your lordship in these parts; 
whereas 1 am verily persuaded your lordship 
shall find him a wise and able gentleman, and 
one that will lend his knowledge of the world 
(which is great) to serve his Majesty and the 
Prince, and in especial your lordship. So I rest 

Your lordship's 
Most obliged and faithful servant, 

Gray's Inn, F. St. AlbaN. 

This 18th of April 1623, 



[Upon his disgrace.] 

It may please your Lordship, 

I HAVE here presumed to implore your lordship'$ 
noble favor for the timely presenting of this inclos- 



ed to his Majesty,* and your own seconding of 
their contents^ which no man can do so well, and I 
yet believe no man will so willingly as your lord- 
ship, notwithstanding all the artifices that have 
been deyised and practised to avert your lordship's 
favor from me, as well as his sacred Majesty's, 
which design of theirs I can justly challenge it 
to have proceeded of bitter malice to me, and of 
not much more love to your own person. 

I am now fallen into the times of trial to try 
my true friends, (whereof this world hath so 
few,) and mine own heart, whether it can trust 
where it hath been and is true, whether it can 
[be] patient and brook checks from those royal 
hands which heretofore it hath kissed with un-> 
speakable comforts. My sweet lord, I most 
humbly thank you for your care of me, intimated 
by Mr. Packer touching the parliament house ; 
in which, though 1 have not yet refused to 
serve, because I should so have made myself 
uncapable to answer the obligation I have to 
do. his Majesty service there when he shall be 
pleased to accept thereof, yet do I not hold my- 
self bound to admit of their choice that elected 
me, being now none of that body, till I shall 
receive assurance of his Majesty's gracious ap- 
probation. I have entreated some of my friends 
to oppose that motion, if any such should be 
made, for my calling thither, and am resolved 
they shall send me to what prison they will, yea, 

* See the following letter. 


and pull me in pieces too^ before I will be fetched 
out of my house with my own consent^ till my 
sovereign dear master shall enlarge me, who hath 
confined me thither ; for whose blessed estate, 
honor, and prosperity Grod best knows [that] I 
am infinitely more careful than for any thing that 
can befal my resolved self in this life* 

Your lordship's most devoted 
And obliged humble servant to death, 

[1622.] Robert Naunton.* 


[Upoii his disgrace.] 


As, upon the first signification of your Majes- 
ty*s grievous displeasure, I began with all duti^ 
ful humility to implore your Majesty's gracious 
interpretation of my unhappy errors by my let* 
ters then written to my Lord Admiral, (which 
I make no doubt but his lordship hath commu- 
nicated them to your Majesty,) so I must still, 
wh'ile I have a being, most humbly research arid 
seek the same by making appeal, from the mis-' 
constructioned glosses of them that love me not 
for my devotedness to your Majesty^s true ser- 
vice, to that high altar of your Majesty's ow;n 
purest understanding and admired wisdom, and 
that of your no less renowned sweetness of na- 
ture, clemency, and bonte. 

♦ Orig Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 97. 

Q 2 


I cannot express the grief my soul hath suf- 
fered, to think 1 should be charged to have 
presumed of myself to treat in a matter of so 
transcendent a nature and importance with so 
base a person, and to have set a price of that 
precious jewel which is so far beyond valuation ; 
and that I should be so injuriously traduced to 
your Majesty to be a Puritan, whose irregular 
scruples and fond opinions, God and the world 
knows, that from my first exercises in schools, 
I have heartily opposed. They may as well 
pretend any other thing what they will against 
me. God turn their hearts, and set them as sin- 
cerely to zeal your Majesty's honor and service 
as He best knows that my poor true heart hath 
done, doth, and shall. 

Sir, grief and anguish of spirit permit me now 
to write no more to your Majesty in my own 
case ; against whom I am not complexionated to 
lift up the least thought, no, not in mine own 
defence, nor to put on any other armour prater 
preces et lacrymas^ which God above sees, and I 
hope will hear, and inspire your Majesty to con- 
ceive yet better of me, though all the world 
abandon me, that will live and die, your Majestys 
most faithful and obedient subject and servant, 

* Robert Naunton.* 

To his Sacred Majesty. [1622.] 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. liii. 290.^ — This year Secretary NauDton 
was suspended from his secretary's place for treating with the 



My best and sweetest Lord, 

By that large letter by which your lordship: 
hath vouchsafed to give me, your servant, so many 
good and weighty instructions, I make myself 
believe that you esteem me, and think me good 
for something, for otherwise 1 assure myself you# 
lordship hath somewhat else to do than to write 
to me. Your lordship hath furnished me with 

FreDch ambassador about a match between Prince Charles 
and the Princess Henrietta, the French King's daughter. His 
disgrace is noticed in D*£wes* MS. Journal, erroneously as 
usual. "About the 20th day of this month, (January 1622,) 
was Sir Robert Naunton, that had been formerly University- 
orator in Cambridge, and was now one of the Secretaries of 
State, confined to his house for giving some sharp answers to 
the Count of Gondomer, the subtle Spanish Embassador, be- 
ing in discourse with him, and afterwards refusing to submit 
unto him.'* p. 54. 

* This letter is presented to the reader for no other purpose 
than as a specimen of the correspondence of a political intri-^ 
gante of no mean notoriety in her days. She appears to have 
been as much an aspirant for the favors of Gondomar as of 
Buckingham, if the following characteristic anecdote respecting 
her, which has been preserved by Wilson, may be trusted. The 
Spaniard lived at Ely House in Holborn^ and his passage to 
court was ordinarily through Drury Lane, Covent Garden be- 
ing then an enclosed field. At that period the principal gentry 
lived in Drury Lane and the Strand ; and the ladies, who knew 
his times, watched to see him pass in his litter, to pay their 


one reason for his Majesty's supply ; namely, the 
distress and want of his children. Of which 
reason, in my poor particular, I am most sensible, 
and shall not certainly forget to make use of 
that, my lord, especially to my friends, the fa- 
thers of the Lower House. And from the other 
i^son of the Turk, and the misery he may bring 
upon them, except his Majesty may make a gene« 
r^ happy peace, although I am not well acquaint- 
ed with the story or country of that mighty 
^tetitate, yet I will be so bold as to draw this 
courage from that reason, that I will make some 
of them, unless they yield to do their best in 
this business, wish themselves in Turkey, rather 
than to endure my pressures and importunities ; 
and so, my noble lord, presenting your lordship a 
taste of my forward disposition to do my patron 

respects to him from their balconies, " One day/' continues 
the historian, *^ passing by the Lady Jacob's house in Drury 
Lane, she exposing herself for a salutation, he was QOt wanting 
to her, but she moved nothing but her mouth, gaping wide open 
upon him. He wondered at the lady's incivility, but thought 
it might haply be a yawning fit took her that time ; for trial 
whereof the next day he finds her in the same place, and his 
courtesies were again accosted with no better expressions than 
an extended mouth. Whereupon he sent a gentleman to her, 
to let her know that the ladies of England were more gracious 
to him than to encounter his respects with such affronts. She 
answered, it was true that he had purchased some of their favors 
at a dear rate, and she had a mouth to be stopped as well as others. 
Gondomar, finding the cause of the emotion of her mouth, sent 
her a present as an antidote, which cured her of that distem- 
per." — History of Great Britain, p. 146. 


and his great master my best and humblest ser^^- 
vice, (which, since I had the honor to speak with 
your lordship, hath been, and while 1 can possi- 
bly stay here shall be, my greatest business and 
only employment,) in all humility, with infinite 
thanks, both for your lordship's goodness and 
good Opinion, take my leave and kiss your lord* 
ship's hands; and not having my writing hand 
so well disposed as that I can command it 
much, I will for this time retire into my closet, 
and pray that your lordship may evermore ha^se 
all your heart's desires, and I ever see your lord- 
ship still at the helm, where you are now fixed 
again, and the idle murmur that was vanished 
to nothing* 

Your lordship's most humble 

And most willing servant, 

Mary Jacob * 

From my houne in Drury Lane, 
This 28th of April 1621. 


[Desires to be excused from coming forward to justify his ac- 
cusation of tlie Earl of Oxford and others.] 

My noble Lord^ 

I NEVER had good fortune so much on my side 
as to purchase envy^ nor I hope shall know so 
bad as to beget contempt. More than I ever had 
at stake is in your lordship's hands (my reputa- 

* Grig. Hoi. Harl. 1581, p. 240. 


tion). Sir Jo. Hipsly did tender that to me, from 
your lordship, would blast it for ever: to pro- 
duce Haly for what he told me of the tears of 
the people, and to accuse my Lord of Oxford* 
for his unreverent hopes of the King's death ;, 
in drink and discontent it fell from him. Firsts 
it was my folly to entrust things of this nature 
to my I^d. Gresly, and hers to Sir Jo. Hipsely^ 
for which I had ever made myself a stranger 
^o her, but her reason that things might go on 
without me to his Majesty's danger satisfied me : 
otherwise I had attended all practices till they 
had ripened ready for action ; and if I found my 
error, that my zeal had misguided me, I would 
not have burthened myself to load hi§ Majesty's 
breast with unfit cares. But -what I have said, 
if a fruitless sacrifice of my honor (as you pleased 
to call it, when you swore to preserve it as your 
own life,) must be delivered up to his Majesty's 
service, with my soul and life I will justify all. 

* The substance of this letter is explained by a quotation 
from Hacket*s Life of Bishop Williams, i. 70. 

<' It was in April the year following, (that is, 1622 f) that the 
Earl of Oxford was sent to the Tower, betrayed by a false 
brother, for rash words which heat of wine cast up at a merry 
meeting. His lordship's enemies were great and many, whom 
he had provoked.'' Oxford had been a man of no reputation 
in his youth ; but being very debauched and riotous, and with- 
out means for his extravagance, he. maintained himself by sor- 
did and unworthy ways. When he grew older, he became, to- 
gether with the Earl of Essex and Lord Say, one of the popular 
party in the House of Commons. See also Sanderson's Jas. 
L p. 523. ■ , , 

KING JAMES. • 233 

But I believe his Majesty's service will extremely 
suffer whe.n the lameness of one accuser shall 
draw on his Majesty's anger or justice. Time 
and patience must disclose these ambiguous 
things, if there be more than light and braui- 
sick conceptions. For myself, I write this to 
your lordship, that in messages I may not be 
tnistaken. Wheil 1 consider what religion and 
duty calls ine to, I shall freely expose niyself, 
when I weakly forfeit not reputation, and this 
way 1 shall be a companion only for slaves; 
Therefore, when I shall be thus commanded,— I 
must befreewith your lordship,—! forfeit what is 
above his Majesty's reward or your friendship: 
and I will sooner starve than taste of his bounty 
for this act, or be seen where any thing ever 
heard* of Sir J. W. His Majesty shall lose as 
faithful a subject as any, and you never find so 
true a lover and servant to you ; for, next to 
his Majesty and his, I was, ever since your first 
favor, as I am how, ^ ,, 

Only your lordship's creature and servant, 

J. Wentworth.'I' 

To the Duke of Buckingham. 

* So in the MS. Something is wanting, 
t Orig. Hoi. Tanner's MSS. Ixxiii. p. 42, 



[Moves the Spanish match.] 


If your Majesty wUl say that the Count of 
Gondomar is a worthy man^ and an humble and 
faithful servant of his Majesty the Sang of Great 
Britain, believe it» for it is true ; and how wicked 
and unworthy should I be if such were not the 
case. For neither is the Marquis of Buckingham 
so much obliged to your Majesty as he has de- 
served, and he well deserves for his good services 
the favors which he receives from your Majesty, 
besides being an Englishman and a good English- 
man ; but that a Spaniard has been and should be 
counsellor, not only of your Council of State, but 
also of the Privy Council, that surpasses not only 
all the deserts, but also all the services that I have 


Si Vre. M** voudroit dire que le Comte de Gondomar est un 
homme de bien, et un humble et fidele serviteur de la M*« du 
Roy de la Grande Bretagne, croyes cela, car il est vray. Et 
combien mauuais et meschant serois-ie si cela ne seroit pas 
ainsyl Car ny le Marquis de Buckingham n'est pas tant 
oblig^ h V. M^ d'aultant qu'il a merit6, et merite bien auec ses 
bonnes seruices les fauueurs qu'il receue de V. M*« et il est 
Anglois encore, et un bon Anglois: mais qu'un Espagnol ait 
este et solt conseiller non seulement de Vre. Conseil d'£stat> 
mais du Cabinet Interieur, cela surpasse non seulemtnt tons 
}es merites, mais aussy toutes les services que je vous ay pen 


C O L' >? T ۥ O >.^ pi O Ml fi. W 

•■*', .■^■:-/yi,,.rt^. ''/'.-/i,-/ /r^,^,rt4lf./^.^' 


been able to render. In fine, Sire, I will say no 
more of this afikir, but will be cautious and 
speak with more gravity, since I represent the 
lady who truly deserves to be aspired to and 
sought after, because of the happiness and con- 
solation which the possession of her will give. 
And with all seriousness, I will discover to you 
the great desire of the 'King, my master, not 
only for the conclusion of this business, but 
also that it should be concluded with all bre- 
vity, and that the points touching to religion 
give so much satisfaction to the Pope, that he 
may not only grant us the dispensation we de- 
sire, but that he may be obliged to grant it. 
And I assure you, that here we are disposing 
and facilitating all in the best possible way, for 
Mons. Don Baltazar de Zuniga has undertaken 
the hegociation of this affair with particular and 

rendre. £n fin, Sire, je ne veux dire plus touchant cesta 
affaire, mais je me veux tnesurer, et parler auec plus de grauite, 
puis que je represeute la Dame, laquelle en verity merite d'estire 
pretendue et cherch^, ii cause du contentement et consolation 
qu'elle en donnera possedee. Et auec toute ma grauite je tous 
descubriray de par le Roy mon maistre un desire tresgrand non 
seulement de la conclusion de ceste affaire, mais encore qu'elle 
soit acheu6e auec toute briefuete, et que les choses qu'appar- 
tiennent a la religion donnent telle satisfaction au Pape qu'il 
puisse non seulement nous octroyer la dispensation que nous 
desirons, mais qu'il soit oblig6 a I'octroyer. Et je yous asseure 
que de par icy on va disposant et facilitant tout en la meilleure 
fa^on qu'il sera possible, car Mons*" Don Baltazar de Zuniga a 


great affection. And since it' chiefly depends 
upon your Majesty and his highness the Prince^ 
(God preserve him,) one cannot doubt of the 
brief conclusion of it ; and in case there should 
be any cause to doubt, I will declare at once, and 
will say with reason, that the fault of it will fall 
upon your Majesty and his Highness; for the 
rest, I refer to that which my Lord Digby will 
write to you, who, in truth, proceeds here with 
great care and prudence. 

The heats of this year have been extraordi^ 
narily violent here, and since the 21st of June^ 
the day that we landed from our vessel in Gali-* 
cia, even to the present time, I have seen no rain. 
But I have always seen plenty of melons and 
grapes, which I should have been happy to have 
been able to send you. 

prins* fort particuli^rement et auec une ires grande affection 
ceste negociation k sa charge ; et puis qu'elle depend princi- 
(>allement de V. M'^ et de son Altesse le Prince, (Dieu Ic^ 
garde !) on ne pent doubter de la bonne et briefue conclusion 
d'icelle ; et en cas qu'il ait occasion de doubter aucunement, je 
me declaire asteur, et je diray auec ra'ison, que la faulte en 
tombera sur V. M^ et son Altesse. En tout le rest je tne 
remets a ce que my Lord Digby vous escrira, lequel en verity 
procede icy auec grand soing et prudence. 
- Les chaleurs de ceste annee ont est6 icy extraordinairement 
violentes, et depuis le 21 de Juin, le jour que nous sommea 
sortis du nauire en Galicia, iusques au present, je n'ay pas veu 
de la pluye : 'mais tousjours j*ay veu aucuns melons et raisins, 
lesquels je serois bien aise de vous pouuoir enuoyer. 

• Pris. 


The two camels, with the ass, and she-ass 
sufficiently large for breeding, I will give to my 
Lord Digby, who will send them to your Ma- 
jesty to be put in the park at Theobald's. And 
I entreat you, siiice my Lord Digby and Mons. 
Walter Ashton are the embassadors of Spain^ 
and Count of Gondomar of England, that your 
Majesty would give to him your commands, 
and not to them, in every thing that pertains to 
your service and pleasure ; for I am sure that 
they do not surpass me in the good wish and 
desire that I have to render you all service and 
obedience. May Almighty God preserve to your 

Les deux chameaux et Tasne et I'asnesse grandes a proposi 
pour la race et generation je les bailletay a my Lord Digby, 
qui les enuoyera a V, M** pour les mettre dans le pare de Theo- 
balls.* £t ie vous supplie, puis que my Lord Digby et Mons'' 
Walter Ashton sont ambassadenrs d'Espagne, et le Comte de. 
Gondomar celuy d'Angleterre, que V, M*® luy vueille com- 
mander, et non pas a eux, tout eel a qu'appartiendra k vre. 
seruice et contentement. Car je m'asseure qu'iis ne me sur<» 
passent en la bonne volonte et desir qjie j'ay de vous rendre, 
tout seruice et obeissance. Dieu tout puissant vueille garder 

* James had a great passion for collecting rare and curious 
animals, and the most usual and acceptable presents from 
such as wished to pay court to him were of this kind. When 
Buckingham went into Spain, he sent him many presents of this 
kind ; and Sir Henry Ellis, in his collection of Original Letters, 
has published a very characteristic postscript, written by the. 
Duke upon one of these occasions. See also Dalrym pie's Me- 
morials, i. 71. Some filthy imaginations have given a sinister 
interpretation to this letter. - 


Majesty as many happy years as we desire and 
have need of! From your Majesty's 

Very humble and obedient servant 

Madrid^ this 19th of September 162^. 

. In my life I have done nothing unwillingly in 
your Majesty's service, except the writing in French. 

Signed, C* de Gondomar, 


[On the same subject] 

Mr GOOD Lord, 

I MAY say to your Excellency with great sin-, 
cerity, that I write to you at all times and at all 
hours with the willingness and remembrance of 
a cordial love and respect which I feel and owe 
to your Excellency ; and God knows the plea- 

■■yw^^' t T» 

V. M^ plusieurs heureuses anm^s comme nous desirons et 
auons besoing ! 

Madrid, ce 10 de Sept. 1622. De V. M** ♦ 

Tres humble et obeissant seruiteur, 
En mia hida he hecho ninguna cosa de mala boluntad en aerbtcio 
de V, Mag. sino cs i^scriuir en Franges. 

S'e* CM de Gondomar.\ 


Mi buen Senor, en toute verit6 je peux dire a V. E. que ie 
V0U9 escris tons les jours et toutes les heures auec la volont6 et 
memoir d'un cordial amour et respect que je port et doy a Vre. 
Ex. et Dieu S9ait le contentement que i' aurois de nous pour- 

* This is a monogram in the original, apparently for the 
word Signi. 

t Orig. Tan, Ixxiii. 160. The lines in italics are in Gondo- 
mar*s hand. 


sure it would give me to walk with you in the 
open gallery which leads from your Excellency's 
chamber to the palace on the Thames, for there 
are subjects which are more fit for personal com*- 
munication tha? to be entrusted to writing, and 
especially in the French language. What I may 
say and do say in every language is, that the 
King, my master, desires the marriage of his 
sister with the Prince of Wales with a steady 
and constant resolve; and that on all sides, 
the doubts proposed by the Pope should be faci- 
litated and satisfied, and that all should be finish«- 
ed by the post. Indeed, in the short time that 
has elapsed since my arrival here, it has been im- 
possible to do more, and much has been done. 
And thus I trust in God we shall soon see each 
other here in this country, and embrace each 
other according to the Agreement, and together 

mener yn peu ensemble en la gallerie ouuerte des la chambre 
de V. £. iusques au Palais sur le Tamisis ; car il y a des choseg 
qui sont plus apropos pour la communication personnelle que 
pour les fier par escrit et especiallement en la langue Fran9oi8e« 
Ce que je peux dire et je dis en tons langages est que le Roy 
mon maistre auec une firme et constants resolution desire le 
marriage de sa soeur auec le Prince de Wales, et que de ceste 
cost6 la et de ceste cy soient facilities et satisfaites les doubtes 
que le Pape a propos6, et que tout soit acheue par la poste* 
Et en ce peu de temps depuis que ie suis arriue icy, il a est6 
impossible de fair plus, et beaucoup a este fait. Et ainsy 
j'espere en Dieu que nous nous verrons bien tost en ces pais 
icy, et embrasserons I'vn Taultre, selon I'accorde et retournQrons 


joyfully return to Great Britain. 'All the rest 
I entrust to Mr. Cottington, who is to depart 
next week, (if it please God,) and by him Mons; 
le Comte de Olivares and Mons. Don Balthazar 
de Zuniga will reply to the favor bf your letters; 
which they have estimated as they should do^ 
So I will pot trouble your Excellency any more 
to-day, but will only beg you to kiss the hands 
most affectionately on my part, and on the part 
of the Countess my wife, of Madame la C6m-» 
tesse, your mother, and Madame la Marquise,; 
and little Mary Villiers. May God give het 
many brothers, and preserve her father as many- 
happy years as I desire! 
. From your Excellency's very humble 

and very affectionate servant. 

Madrid, September 10, 1622. 

ensemble et alegrement a la Grande Bretaghe.* Tout le rest 
je remets k Mons** Cottington qui s'en ira, s'il plaist a Dieu, la 
semaine prochaine, et par luy Mons*" le Comte de Oliuares et 
Mons*' Don Baltazar de Zuniga responderont a la faueur qu'ilz 
ont receue par vos lettres, les quelles ilz ont estim6 com me il 
est just. Et ainsy je ne veux pas empecher V. K plus aujour- 
dhuy ; seulement je vous supplie de baiser les mains tresaf- 
fectueusement de ma part et de par la Contesse ma femme a 
Madame la Contesse vre. mere, et a Madame la Marquisse, et 
a la petite Mary Villiers ; Dieu la vueiile donner beaucoup des 

* Howell refers to Gondomar's earnest desire to negociate 
this match, in his amusing letters, p. 116, 119. 


In my room I have the portrait of the Marquis 
of Buckingham, my good lord and true friend, and 
all the world says that he has the countenance of 
a good fellow, — 

Signed, C*** de Gondomar, 


[Thanking him for interfering in his behalf*] 

My best Lord, 

I MUST begin still with my intirest thank- 
fulness to your lordship for your so noble and 
kindly acceptance of those hasty lines which I 
returned your lordship by my Lord of Carlisle ; 
whereof his lordship hath since assured me, to my 
great comfort, that I stand upright in your lord- 
ship's true construction and understanding. I 
was not a little grieved to apprehend by that 
troubled style of your own noble heart and hand, 
how much you suffered in so apologizing for 
yourself and me to Sir E. Conwey ; who can not, 

freres, et garder son pere tantes et tant heureuses ann6es comnie 

je desire ! Madrid, ce 10 Sept. 1622. 

De V. K 

Treshumble et tresaffection^ seraiteur, — 

J* ay en ma chambre le pourtraict de el Marq* de Buckingham nti 

good lord and true/rind^ y todo et mundo dige que il a le uisage de 

hombre de bieUf-^ 

S*e C^ de Gondomar,* 

*■ Orig. Tan. Ixxiii. 162. In Gondomar's hand. 


in the worthiness of his own mind, but acknow- 
ledge your honorable care of him, and withall 
admit of my so true allegations so nearly touch- 
ing me for the present. Now, that his Majesty 
hath been so pleased to relieve your lordship in 
this interim, by assuming your promise to Sir 
Ed. Conwey upon himself, and making it his 
own, I cannot but receive so much the more 
contentment, in that I presume your lordship rests 
so honorably disengaged, and he so thoroughly 
well satisfied thereby. Myself do still remain 
under a far more awful and anxious apprehen- 
sion of losing my wife and her fruit, (whereof 
I see by this danger she still oontinueth in, not- 
withstanding your lordship's so nobly compas- 
sionate respiting of me, I should, without it, 
have been out of doubt ere now,) than I ought 
to be of parting from any place which his Majesty 
shall not deem me worthy of. But I find that my 
Lord of Carlisle his noble protestations and as- 
surances of your lordship's faithful affection, in- 
tentions; and promises to us, have wrought better 
and more with her, for her support and conten- 
tation than any other means I know could have 
done ; whereunto, next after God, I must owe 
iny enjoying of her in this good temper she hath 
been in ever since, which I must esteem good, 
and very good in comparison of what I was to 
have expected from her otherwise, if his lord- 
ship's so hearty and earnest discourse had not 


taken a deeper impression with her than she 
made show of for the present while he was with 

I most humbly thank your lordship for your 
so seasonable assuring me the reservation of my 
lodgings in Whitehall, which I hear many would 
fain be tampering with, to strip me at once out 
of all the hope and hold I shall have left in their 
eyes of any relation to his Majesty's future 

I am constrained once more to entreat your 
lordship .to procure me the payment of my ar- 
rears for my diet, which are still behind hand 
for ten months ; it may please your lordship to 
signify his Majesty's gracious pleasure therdij 
by your letter to Mr. Cofferer. It hath been all 
the services that two of my men have done this 
long while to attend him and his under clerks ; 
but they have much ado to get good words and 
fair promises from some of them. If I get them 
not in whiles the seals are with me, what shall 
I hope for after they shall be taken from me, 
but that they will make it a desperate debt to 
me ? though his Majesty hath, by your lordship's 
means, most graciously allowed it me and them 
for it. If your lordship knew how much wrong- 
ed and despised I have found myself in this^ 
and many other like reckonings, since the deda- 
ration of his Majesty's disfavor, you would com- 
passionate my so many patiences, as I doubt not 

R 2 


but you do, and pardon these necessitated com- 
plaints and forced importunities of 
Your lordship's most 

Devoted and obliged humble servant, 

Robert Naunton.* 

Charin Crosse, 4*" 9bris 1622. 

lV> the Right Honorable my singular good Lord, 
the Lord Marquis Buckingham, Lord High 
. Admiral of England, &c. 


[Upon altering the coinage.] f 

May it please your Lordship, 

I HAVE returned to Mr. . Secretary Calvert the 
several certificates of the officers of the Mint, 
the Spanish merchants and goldsmiths^ as I w^as 
commanded by the order of the Lords of his 
Majesty's most honorable Privy Council In 
them all I find a concurrence in these things: 
That there is a necessity of some present remedy 
to be applied to the consumption we are fallen 
into for want of money, which is the very life- 
blood of trade. That this cannot be done but by 
bringing in of money from foreign parts; and by 
preserving our own money here, being brought in. 
That Spain is the fountain from whose mines 
all our silver and the silver of all Europe flows ; 

^ Orig. Tan. Ixxiii. 215. t See the Memoirs, p. 171. 


thflrt the Spanish coin equalleth and somewhat 
exeeedeth ours in fineness. That, in true value, 
the Spanish rial, holding his weight, equalleth 
4s. 8d. of English money commonly cuiTent; 
it weigheth not above 4s. 7d. of new money 
unworn ; it weigheth at least 4s. 9d. of the older 
money worn, for the medium is 4s. 8d. 

This value' would bring in plenty; for, although 
the merchant can make more of it in Holland 
and some other parts, yet it is with hazard and 
giving of credit, and they had rather prefer a 
more certain though somewhat a less gain.. But 
to keep our money yet left, and what shall be 
brought in hereafter, cannot probably be done 
so well as by the goldsmiths' proposition ex- 
pressed in the last words of their answer ; which 
is, as Queen Elizabeth, out of a necessity of 
state, from sixty pieces or shillings, cut a pound 
weight of silver into sixty-two pieces; so the 
King, out of the like and a greater necessity, 
should cut it into sixty-five pieces, which would 
raise the ounce of silver from 5s. 2d. to 5s. 4d., 
and make the Spanish rial at the Mint worth 
4s. 8d. the coinage paid. 

The great objection against this is, that the 
King and divers landlords, should thus lose a part 
of their revenue. Happily it may be true in 
some sense; but, being rightly understood, I 
think it would not be so. For consider it, I pray 
you, amongst ourselves at home, and it will be 


one in substance what the value of the moftey 
^hold^ so as it answered the ordinary valuation 
between man and man. Again, consider it as it 
hath relation to our trade with other nations, 
and it will much advantage us that it correspond 
with their coins, else it will all run where the 
descent draweth it. But let it be admitted that 
it wbuld diminish every man's revenue, (iFor so 
much,) the proportion would be but from 5s. 2d. 
to 6s. 4d. which is one part in thirty-two* Let 
every man examine truly his revenue as the case 
now standeth with us, and will be every day 
woiise, if the drain of [our] money be not stop- 
ped. Whosoever shall now let his land for an im-^. 
proved rent, must abate a fifth part, and yet shall 
hwdly have his rent wdl paid in money for the 
other four parts. I am sorry 1 have thus long 
troubled your lordship, but it is only my desire 
to do his Majesty the best service I can, and to 
give to your lordship the best account I can of 
my poor endeavors, which have made me to 
make this adventure, for which I humbly crave 
your lordship's patience and pardon. God is wit- 
ness I have herein no private respect whatsoever. 

Your lordship's most bounden and 

Most faithfully devoted to serve you, 

3i8t August 1622. Ro. Heath.* 

To the Right Honorable the Lord Marquis Buckingham, 
Lord High Admiral of England. 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 145. 




My daer Lord B. 

I AM glaid to haeir that your litill saruan 
James* and his father's cuming is aceptabell to 
you. I uold not haue thocht of his returning 
any whair whyll you uaer thair, bot for faer you 
shud be cruded & uexed with oni sair (?) stuf, 
and I uold be sorie to ad to your curabir ; uich 
if you fynd he uill not do, I shall be glaid he 
got your blessing once a day, as the graetest 
hapines he can houp for. That litter uich was 
sent me to deliuer to the King, I brunt befoir 
himself after his Ma**^ had red it & red it again 
uith much joy to fynd so good neuis ; the rest 
that you haue wrytin ar in my Lo. of Anan's 
custodie, who is a uerie saif man, and I must 
say a zelous seruan of yours. I pray Gk)d the 
King philosofi nothing to my praiudice upon 
the resunis why this paper was brunt ; bot my 
comfort is, I shall be gilti of nothing may iustly 
displaes him ; and it is a cordiall to me to be 
set a work in any thing may concern you. For 
thi Kingis sincer fauour to you, alt bo I kno 
what I can say can ad nothing to your belif, it 
is so publikly reall that your freindis haith iust 

* His son, afterwards Duke of Hamilton, who made so great 
a Bgure in the reign of Ch&rles I. His memoirs have been 
written by Bishop Burnet. 


cans of extrem comfort of it in your abcence. 
For my pairt^ I am extremly comforted with the 
iustice that fame dois, you ar diligent and dex- 
trous in puting bisines to a poynt, uich in my 
poor opinioun is wysly done; for besydis that 
^"esolutioun is on of the strongest pillers that 
holdis up a staet^ in your ouin pryuat it is not 
saif that thingis shud lingir; for uhat concernis 
you and youris at the present is to much lyk a 
clok with many uhillis, uhair if hot on pin faill 
all is in disorder. To this purpois I remember 
the saying of a uys old seman^ that if the nether 
uaer neuer so fair it uas good to haist to land, 
l>ecaus a storm micht cum : do thairfoir thois 
thingis sounest may maik you faeris fouest, sence 
the studie of preseruatioun is as naturall and 
nesisar as that of the eleuation. And beliue, I 
beceich you, tho in your good I had not so graet 
a pryuat interes, my loue uold maik me do thois 
thingis becumis 

Your faithful! onalterabil seruan, 


* Orig. Hoi. Harl. 1581. f. 1.— The Marquis died in 1624. 
His son married the Duke of Buckingham's niece, the Earl 
of Denbigh's daughter. Wilson, and other of the Common- 
wealth writers, in order to blacken Buckingham's character, 
have represented him as a great enemy to the Duke. The 
very contrary appears from all his correspondence. 

I should not have printed this letter here, (which was evi- 
dently written at the end of the year 1622 or in 1623,) but 
for the statements made in the subsequent letter. Perhaps no 



[Sir E. Porter's accident in his embassy to the Queen of Bohe- 
mia. — Anecdote of James I.]] 

Christ's Coll. Oct. 19, 1622. 

Sir Endymion Porter, the messenger into 
Spain, bath had such a mischance since he went 
as will disenable him for his employment. Most 
say that the manner of it was by reason that the 
ship he went in was gravelled near to Calais; 
and so, being in danger, to save himself he leaped 
out of the ship into the boat, but, falling upon 
the side thereof; brake one of his ribs ; and his 
man leaping after him fell much shorter, and so 
was drowned. Others say that, in the tempest, 
the ship wherein he was fell foul with another 
in company, in such sort that it was in danger, 
being the smaller, to be lost. Whereupon, when 
the ships were driven together, he, throwing him- 

reign in Engh'sh history presents such a tissue of contradictions 
as that of James I. ; — that is^ if we would attempt to reconcile 
the printed accounts with written documents preserved in our 
different public depositaries. And what is the reason ? The 
substratum of all hitherto published histories of James, have 
been the libels of Wilson and Weldon, et id genus omne, which 
appeared long after this King's decease, at a time when there 
was a premium for libelling monarchy : both were posthumous 
publications, stolen from their respective possessors, garbled and 
altered by the publishers. ^' Both/' as Sanderson expresses it, 
" born from the dead, and mere abortions ; but, like lions' whelps, 
licked over by laborious penmen." Yet their trail is visible even 
in the pages of our most respectable historians. 


self with all his might into the greater, fell so 
that he brake his shoulder, beside other hurt ; 
but his man, following, catehed only hold upon 
the ship-side, where he hung till, the ships fall- 
ing together, he was crushed in pieces between 
them, and fell dead into the sea. The Roman 
augurs would have taken this for an ominous 
sign of the success of the business. 

Since this news came to court, Mr. Cottington 
is employed to Spain, who came but lately from 

To tell you how the Prince, before his father 
came down, besought him upon his knees, and 
with tears, to take pity upon his poor and dis- 
tressed sister,* her husband and children, and to 
suffer himself no longer to be abused with treaties; 
desiring him, that since himself was old, and unfit 
now for actions of war, that he would give him 
ieave to raise a royal army, and to be the leader 
thereof himself; not doubting but to find the 
subjects ready ; and that his Majesty should 
answer, he would hear once more forth of Spain 
first; and then, if he had not satisfaction, he 
would give him and the state leave to do what 
they would: — to tell you, I say, of these and 
such like, I shall not need, knowing that they 
use to fly about the country, and you may know 
the truth as soon as I ; for I think the event 

* Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia. 


must make it appear, before it will be credible ; 
and yet it is affirmed the Prince said so ; but I 
know not whether to do so.* 

It was talked also, that the King the last week 
on hunting, both the Marquises being with him, 
and not above one or two of the huntsmen or 
any thing else near him, should suddenly, stand- 
ing still and pausing awhile, tell them that he was 
shamefully abused^ and they were the causes 
thereof; as having made him believe that all 
would be well by treaty, till now his son had 
lost all his inheritance. " You, my lords," quoth 
he, " have much abused me." To which they 
replied nothing. This our Cambridge men 
brought from Royston on Sunday. I leave you 
to judge of the probability, especially seeing that 
one of them, the Marquis Hamilton, is no way 
guilty in this kind, being known and taken by 
all to be of the contrary faction ; unless you 
would think that the King included them both, 
that he might charge Buckingham directly. But 
these are all vulgar reports, and therefore sus- 
picious either of falsehood or corruptian.-f 

* This is confirmed by the anecdote mentioned in Goodman^ 
p. 312. But Mead^ who was inclined to Puritanism, would of 
course doubt it. It was the badge of that tribe to scatter 
calumny on the Prince and Buckingham. 

f Sloane MSS. 4176. 




[Readiness of the Spanish Court to proceed with the match.] 


By my Lord Digby's own letter, as also by 
those which his lordship sends from this King to 
his Majesty and to the Prince, you will perceive 
what declaration he hath gotten touching this 
King's intention for proceeding in the match; 
which, in my opinion, is as much as his lordship 
could expect in this short time of his being here. 
For considering the King is pleased to declare 
that he will name commissioners, of which one 
Conde chief shall be the Conde of Gondomer, 
his coming must necessarily be stayed for ; but 
long it cannot be, seeing he landed but fifteen 
days since, and is commanded to make all haste 
hither. Mr. Gage writes from Rome, so doth 
the Friar, that a late letter, come thither from 
this King, hath put the business in such term as 
they were hourly expecting the Friar's despatch ; 
and I can assure you that here they speak loud 
when any danger is mentioned of the Pope's 
denial. My Lord Digby hastens the business 
bravely, and seecns very impatient of any delay 
at all. I hope I myself shall be the next messen- 
ger, and so this needs be no longer. My servants 
[and] my stuff are gone to St. Gehan, there to 


be embarked ; and, on the arrival of the Conde of 
Gondomer, I shall have leave to be gone. And 
thus, with the remembrance of my service, and 
hearty prayers for you and yours, I rest. . 

Your cousin and servant, 

Fra. Cottington.* 

Mad. 7th July 1622. 

Endorsed — ^To Mr. Secretary Calvert. 


[Giving account of their journey.] and gossope, 

Wee are sure, before this, you haue longd to 
haue some news from your boys ; but before this 
time wee haue not bine able to send you it, and 
wee doe it with this confidence, that you will 
be as glad to reede it as wee to right, th ... it be 
now our best intertainement. And that [wee] 
may giue the perfectter account, wee will beg[in] 
this where my last ended, which was at • . . First 
about fine or six a clocke on Wensday morn[ing,] 
wee w[ent to] say, the first that fell sicke was your 
[son,] and he that continued it longest was [my]- 
selfe. In six owers wee gott ouer [with as] fare 
a passage as euer men had: we all [got] so per- 
fectlye well, when wee but saw [land] that wee 
resolued to spend the rest of [the] day in rideing 

• Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. ISO. 


post; and lay at Mont[reuil] three post of a' Bui- 
lougne* The next [day] wee lay at Breteur, a 
leven post far[ther ;] and the next to Paris, being 
Friday, [This day,] being Saterday, wee rest at 
Paris, though [there] be no greate need of it ; 
yet I had fore f [alls] by the way without anie 
hareme. Your sonnes horses stoumbles as fast as 
anie [man's ;] but he is so much more stronger 
before then h[e was,] he houlds them vpby maine 
strenkth of ma[nhood &] cries still On, on, on. 
This day we [went,] he and I alone, to a peri- 
wicke mak[er,] where wee disgised oure selues 
so artefic[ially] that wee aduentured to see the 
Kinge. [The] means how wee did compas 
it w[as this. WeJ addressed oure selues to the 
King's gouerner. Monsieur du Proes, and he 
courtiouslie caried us where wee saw him oure 
filL Then wee desierd Monsieur du Proes to 
make vs acquainted with his sonne, becaus wee 
would torouble the ould man no longer, which 
hee did ; and then wee saw the Qweene mother 
at diner. This euening his sonne hath promised 
vs to see the yonge Qweene, with her sister and 
little Mounsieur. I ame sure now you fere we 
shall be discouerd ; but doe not fright your selfe, 
for I warrant you the contrarie ; and, findeing 
this might bee done with saftie, we had a greate 
tickling to ad it to the historie of oure aduen* 
tures. To[morrow,] which will be Sonday, wee 
will be, God willing, vp so erlie, that wee make 


no question but to reach Orleans ; and so, euerie 
day after, wee meane to be gaineing [sujmthing 
till we reach Madride. I haue nothinge more to 
say, but to recommend my pour little wife and 
daughter to your care, [and] that you will bestow 
your blessing upon 

Your humble and obedient* 

Sone and seruant,* 

Your humble slaue and doge, 



[Of the trouble he has had in selecting the Prince's servants 
who were to follow him, and some grants made to the Duke.] 

My sweete Botes, 

Yesterdaye I wrotte an ansowre to yaire 
letres by yong Bowie, quhome I sent, because 
I knowe he will be quikkelie with you ; and my 
babie maye ather make use of his seruice thaire, 
or, quhen he hath use to make a quikke dispatche, 
I knowe none can carie it swifelier then he : and 
this daye I writte these by Andeuer, quho goes 
by lande, because he sayes he is not able to goe 
by sea. But the imperfect note that my babie 

* These three lines in the Prince's hand. 

t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 229. The margin and other parts 
of this letter are gone. The words in brackets I have supptied 
by conjecture 


left under bis hande of his seruawnts that showlde 
follow him, hath putte rae to a greate deale of 
paine, for ye left some necessarie seruants out, 
in the opinion of all youre principall officers j 
& quhen as I was forced to adde those, then 
euerie man ronne upon me for his freende, so as 
I was torne in peecis amongst thaime ; but now, 
ather this bearer, or Sir Robert Carre, will bring 
you the note of your seruants that are to goe. 
And now, Steenie, according to my promes, I 
tooke a full accounte of your affaires yesterdaye 
from Fotherdie. To be shorte, he hath promeised 
to loose no tyme, both anent the three forrests 
& Sedgmoore, in quhiche last I haue obtained 
a sentence in the ende of this last terme ; but 
he is of that mynde to make money of thaime 
all for payment of youre debtis and buyeing of 
more londe for you neere Bewlie. I haue laitlie 
sygned dy vers quillets of londe for you, in ex- 
chainge for quhiche he sayes ye shall ressave 
eighteen thowsande powndis in money. He will 
reduce the charges of youre table to my allow- 
ance till your returne; & he is now gone to 
dispatche Kitt's bussienesse with the Lorde The- 
sawraire, & to thinke upon a course for paying 
the Lorde President of his tenn thowsande 
powndis. I haue commawndit him to come 
boldlie to me quhenever he hath occasion for 
any of youre bussienessis, for I haue taken the 
chairge of thame upon me. I haue no more to 


saye, but that I weare Steenie's picture in a 
blew ribbon under my wastcoate, nexte my hairte. 
And so God blesse you both« & sende you a 
ioyefuU & happie returne. James R.* 

From Newmarkett, the last of Pebruarie. 


[Is resolved to bid farewell to peace in Christendom, if things 

mend not.] 


This is now the fyfte letre I haue written unto 
you, quhiche I sende by a couple of youre owin 
familie, my Steenie, quho are neuer asundef. 
The Emperoure hath now spewed the uttermost 
of his unquenshable malice against my unfortu- 
nate isonne in lawe, by geuing awaye the electo- 
rate to that false & unnatural Due of Bauiere^t 
thogh but during the Duic's life, & with a 
clawse of reseruation of my grandchildren's & 
other kinsmen's haereditarie tytles, ather by waye 
of amicable treattie, or by plea in the Electorall 
Courte ; but if my babie*s credit in Spaine mende 

* Orig. HoL Harl. 6987, No. 8. 

t This transfer of the electorate to the " unnatural Due of 
Bauiere/' is noticed by Howell. ** The old Duke of Bavaria's 
uncle," he observes, in a letter to his father,. ^' is chosen Elector 
and Arch-sewer of the Romans in his (the Prince Palsgrave's) 
place ; but, as they say, in an imperfect diet, and with this pro- 
viso, that the transferring of this election upon the Bavarian 
shall not prejudice the next heir." — Letters, p. 91. 



not these things, I will bidde fair well: to peace 

in Christendome^ during oure tymes at least. I 

haue ^euen now made choyce of the ie wells that 

I ame to sende you, quhairof my babie is to pre- 

sente some to his mistresse, & some of the best 

he is to weare himselfe, & the nexte best he 

will lende to my bastarde bratte to weare ; but 

of this I will wrytte more particulairlie with 

Compton, quho is to carrie thaime. Some also I 

will sende of a meaner value, to saue my babie's 

chairges in presents that he must giue thaire. 

Ai?4 so God, blesse my boyes, & sende you a 

^appie ioumey, (for I hoape ye are by this tyme 

at the furthest,) and a ioiefull, happie, & con^ 

fortable returne to youre deare dade & trew 


James R.* 

• From Newmarkett, the 1 1 of Marche. 



[After his departure into Spain.] 


My dearly beloved Son, 

You may well imagine how many passions did 
strive in my weak heart upon the news of your 
departure. You must give me leave as a mother 
to grieve sometimes for your absence, and to fear, 
out of the apprehension of dangers which mi^ht 

• Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 237. 


happen to you. Yet God, I thank him, hath 
given me power to overcome these ;; especially 
hy consideration of the joy which I may justly 
take whensoever you do service to his Majesty, 
and chiefly now in waiting upon our Prince, 
whom God preserve ! When I truly think of 
this, I can well forbear those comforts which I 
take in seeing you and hearing from you, and 
wish with all my heart that you may not leave 
your master till you hav« brought. him back safe 
into England, which is. the most earnest scope 
of my daily, though unworthy, prayers* I have 
sent you some verses of the Prince's journey ; I 
think you will know the father. You see your 
best kinsman doth not forget you : and so, pray*- 
ing our Lord Jesqs Christ to send you a happy 
journey and a prosperous return, I rest 
Your most d9ectionate 

Loving mother till, death, 

<3oodby, M. BUCKINGHAM.* 

This 14th of March 1622. 

To the Right Honorable the Lord Marquis 
Buckingham^ my dear Son. 

The copie of his Majesty's letter to the Kinge of Spayne, sent 
by my Lord of Buckingham^ as it is retorned in print out 
of Spayne. 

"I have sent you my son, a prince sworn 
King of Scotland ; jou may do with his person 

* Orig. Hoi. Harl. 6987. f. 25. 

S 2 


what you please, the like with rayself and my 
kingdom ; they are all at your service. So Gk)d 
keep you !" 

The Prince's answer to the Pope's Nuncio that brought him the 

" I kiss his Holiness' feet for the favor and 
honor he doth me, so much the more esteemed 
by how much the less deserved of me hitherto; 
and his Holiness shall see what I do hereafter, 
and I think my father will do the like, so that 
his Holiness shall not repent him of what he 
hath done."* 




Since the much regretted absence of your Ex- 
cellency, every one has been as it were over- 
whelmed, especially those who have the greatest 
interest in you, as your incomparable Penelope, 


Depuis Tapsence tant regrett6e de la presence de vos" Exc* 
un chasqu'un a este comme espouvant^, principalement ceux 
lesquels pluspres y ont de Tinterest, comme vostre incompara- 
ble Penelope, laquelle toutefois en c6ste mer d'ennuys a des- 

* Tan. Ixxiii. 236. 

t He was a kind of factotum to the Duke. A detailed, but 
somewhat spiteful, account of him is given by Walpole in his 
History of Painting. 


who constantly, in this sea of trouble, has de-^ 
monstrated the greatness of her constancy, com* 
forting herself with the hope of seeing her sun 
return above this horizon, beautiful and shining 
as it set. They, whom good fortune has ranged 
under the laws and service of your Excellency — ^ 
these. Monsieur, day and night pray to God for 
your very happy return, even to my little George, 
your slave, who day and night prays for his good 
Lord Buckingham. The kindness which your 
Excellency shows me, his poor father, places him 
under a great obligation, and makes it appear 
in my case, that if the presence of your Excel- 
lency is to me a Paradise upon earth, your ab- 
sence is to me a limbo of misery, if there be one* 
The hopes which I have of your Excellency's? 
happy voyage makes my heart leap with joy, 
and gives me an opportunity of saying to Ma* 

montr^ la grandeur de sa Constance^ ce recomfortaut de 
Vesperance de reveoir son soleyl retourner desur cest horison, 
beau et luisant comme il en est party. Ceux lesquels le bon 
heur a reng6 sous les lois et servisse de vos. Exc. — ceux la, 
Monseigneur, jour et nuict prient Dieu pour vos**"® bien heureux 
retour, jusques a mon petit George^vos. esclave, soir et matin 
prie pour his good Lord Buckingham, La debonnairet^ que 
vos. Ex. d6monstre vers moy son pouvre pere luy en donne 
ample obligation, et faict paroistre. envers moy que sy la pre- 
sence de vos. Exc. m'est un Paradis en terre^ Tapsence m'est 
un Limbe de misere s'il y en a un. Uesperance que j'ay du 
bien heureux voyage que vos. Exc. faict, me faict tresailler le 
coeur de joye, et me donna matiere de dire k Madame, lors 


dame, whenever she is in the extremities of grief, 
that whatever occasion she may hav^ of lament- 
ing the departure of your Excellency, that 
she also has occasion of rejoicing, and should 
not regret that your Excellency has under* 
taken this journey, considering that by this 
valorous action, (in which your ExceUeiicy hais 
hazarded all the happiness of his posterity, by 
taking upon his shoulders, like another Atl^, 
the charge and conduct of the Prince of this 
kingdom ;) your Excellency, after a very happy 
return, wiUhave acquired his love and eternal 
affection, in which, after that of God and the 
good 'King, consists all the happiness of yotir 
Excellency, and will have no occasion hereafter 
of fearing the malicious and the envious, whose 
malice has no power when God is not with 
them. * 

The King with great affection has sent an ex- 

qu*elle estoist en Textremit^ de ces iarmes^ que tout ainssy 
qu'elle avoit ocasion de pleurer pour le despart de vos. Exc. 
qu'elle avoit aussy ocasion de ce rejouir et ne desirer que vos. 
Exc. ne fust party^ considerant que par c6ste action valeureuse, 
en laquelle vos, Exc. a adxjBntur6 tout le bia> de sa posterity, 
en prenant sur ces bras corome un Atlas la charge et conduitte 
du Prince de c6st empire, vos. Exc, appres un bien heure retour 
aura acquis son amour et affection perpetuelle, en quy, appres 
Dieu et le bon Roy, consiste tout le bon heur de vos. Exc. ; 
n'ayant alors ocasion de craindre les malveuillants envieux, car 
pen peust leur malice quaud Dieu n'est point pour eux. 
• Le Roy avecques afection manda un homme expres pour le 


press for the little portrait,* a proof that the large 
and the real one is ever in bis heart I have 
painted on the lid of the box the emblem of 
a sun-dial, the hand of which turns continually 
towards the pole-star, with these words, Unde* 
cumque ad idem ; signifying that your Excellency,, 
though absent and transported to distant lands — ^ 
that your heart and your soul, unchangeable^ 
turn and aspire towards his Majesty continually. 
I think that the portrait is e&teemed a very good 
one — I know, in my conscience, that it is exceed- 
ingly like — although I avow that M. Palmer 
does not like it ; but good gracious ! there is na 
greata: ' enemy of science than presumption and 
ignorance. Madame so greatly deplores your abi- 
sence, that she cannot exist without having your 
image and shadow before her eyes ; consequently 

petit portraict, sigoe que le grand et principal luy est con- 
tinuellement en Tame. J'avois despeint sur le couverceau de la 
boitte line embleme d'un candrao, dont Tesquille tourne tous«- 
jours vers VestoiUe de la Tramontane, avecques ces mots, 
*' Undecumque ad idem :" sigipiifiant qu'encores que vos. Exc. 
estoit apsent transportt6 en terres loingtaines, que vostre coeur 
et vostre ame, comme inmuable, tendoit et aspiroit tousjour$ 
vers sa Majeste. Je croy que le pourtraict a est6 trouve bon, 
car je scay en ma consienc^ qu*il resemble extremmement, 
encore que j'ay ouy que Mons' Pamer ne le veust pas : mais 
passiance ! il n'y a plus grand ennemys de la sience que la 
presumption et Tignorance. Madame a tant desplor^ vos. ap« 
sence qu elle ne pouvoit vivre sens en avoir I'image et )'ombr^ 

* S^p p. 280. 


I have been obliged to employ all my time in finish* 
ing the great picture which I had commenced in 
oils, which Madame keeps, as her sweet saint, 
always within sight of her bed. I have finished 
it ; and if it be not injured by the dust, it will 
always remain a proof of my skill. Madame 
desires me to send to your Excellency a portrait 
of herself and your sweet little lady,* but the 
time of the departure of the vessels has been so 
short that I have been obliged to send that which 
was painted three years ago; and for the little 
lady, she has been painted in great haste, and 
only half finished ; the hands which crave a bless- 
ing on your Excellency are merely outlined. 
However, Madame still wishes me to make a 
miniature of your Excellency for her, so that 
my time will slip away and not permit me to 

devant les yeux ; c'est pourquoy il m'a fallu emploier tout mon 
temps a finir ce grand que j*ayois commence en huille, lesquel 
Madame garde comme son doulx sainct tousjours en la per- 
gpective de son lict. Je Pay finy, et s*il ne ee gaste par la 
poussiere, il tesmoignera tousjours ce que je savois faire. Ma- 
dame a eu desir d*envoyer a vos. Exc. sou portraict et celuy de 
la petitte doulce Dame, mais ie temps du partement des navires 
a est6 trop court, tellement qu*il a fallu envoyer celuy quy a 
este faict il y a trois ans ; et pour la petitte Dame, elle a este 
faicte fort en haste et amoiti6 finye, les mains lesquels deman- 
dent la benediction a vos. Exc. seulement esbauch6es. Main- 
tenant Madame veust que je face encore un petit portraict de 
vos. Exc. pour elle, tellement que voilla mon temps escoule et 

* Little Lady Mary Villiers. 

KING JAMES.-^. 265 

defer my journey any longer, for before I reach 
Italy it will be extremely cold ; and besides, the 
sooner I undertake this voyage, the sooner I shall 
be enabled to return to serve your Excellency, 
I am persuaded it would be better that I should 
take my departure in good time ; and that your 
Excellency will not be dissatisfied that I leave 
the completion of this great work until my re- 
turn, which will then be all the better for it. 

I am advised, before my return from Italy, 
to make a pretty piece of the return from Spain 
with the Infanta; for instance, a triumph by sea 
representing a chariot with the Prince and Prin-- 
tess, Neptune driving his sea-horses, and your 
Excellency as Admiral of the Sea in the front 
of the chariot, holding in your hands the reins ; 
and to paint besides, on the margin of the water, 
the nymphs, which shall represent England, 

ne permet d'attendre plus longtemps pour moo yoyage, car 
avant que je soye en Italic il fera extremement chaud ; et d'aul- 
tant que tant plus tost j'entreprens ce voyage, plus tost je 
pouray estre de retour pour rendre servisse a vos. Exc. Je me 
suis persuade qu'il vault mieulx que je m'en aille ei) temps 
comode, et que vos. Exc. ne ce mescontentera que je laisse a 
faire ceste grande oeuvre a mon retour, laquelle alors n'en sera 
que meilleure. 

Je me suis advis6 qu'avant mon retour d'ltalie de faire une 
belle piesse du retour d'Espagne avecques I'lnfante ; assavoir, 
une triompHe de mer representant un char avecques le Prince et 
la Princesse, Neptune conduisant ces chevaus marius, et vos. 
Exc comme Admiral de la mer dedans le char tenant en main 
les rennes des chevaux ; et puis despaindre sur le bort du rivage 


which shall come in a dance to receive their 
Frhice, vnth many angels flying in the air, some 
carrying the arms of Spain; and others things ap- 
propriate to this unions - 1 think that this would 
b^ rveiy beautiful, and tend to immortalize this 
action of y Ours, having brought the Princess: by 
sea, and wouM be a beautiful present, to be present- 
ed on the part of your Excellency to the Prince. 

I hope your Excellency will let me know in 
Italy your opinion^ that I may complete it before 
my return. 

Yet r feel a thousand regrets at thus setting 
out without having seen your face and presence. 
My sweet and noble Lord, my hand trembles as 
I form this wo^d^ adieu, which must conclude 
this letter, the length of which (I fear) will give 
occasion of my being esteemed teitierarious in ven-: 

t » I 

les niinphes, lesquelles representeront rEngleterre, lesquelles 
ft Viendrout tout en dansant recevoir en pompe leur Prince; 
avecques plusieurs anges voUants en Tair, les uns pprtants les 
armes d'Espagne et aultres choses propres a ceste union. Je 
croy que cela ceroit fort beau et tendroit ^ rimmortalite de 
vostre action, ayant am^n6 la Princesse par mer, et ceroit un. 
beau present pour donner de la part de yos. Exc. a Monseig- 
neur le Prince. 

J*espere que vos. Exc. m'en fera entendre en Italic son opig- 
nion, affin que je la fasce avant mon retour. 

Cependant j'ay mille regrets de partir ainssy sens reveoir 
votre fasce et presence. Mon doux et noble Seigneur, ma 
main ne peut que trembler former ce mot d* Adieu, lequel doit 
finir la fin de ceste lettre, dont la longeur (je crains) peut don- 
ner ocasion d'estre estime temeraire, osant impor tuner. vostre 


turing to trouble your Excellency with such a 
long discourse^ but having had to give an account 
of my proceedings, and to take my. cbngfe, &c. ke. 

B. Gerbier. 


[Of the cabals raised against the Duke during his absence in 


My Lord, 

I HAVE written to your lordship, this very day, 
more at large of some things* which I conceive 
to import your lordship's service; but I have 
humbly prayed my Lady Marquis that she will 
be pleased to inclose that letter of mine in a co- 
ver of hers. This is chiefly to serve but fat a 
conveyance to this inclosed, from your most 
worthy mother, who hath required me to send 
it to your lordship's hands. 

I forgot in my other to tell your lordship 
that, howsoever his Majesty hath distinctly pro- 
fessed that he would grant no suitis till your 
lordship came home, — and certainly his Majesty's 
direct intention was such, as knowing that he 
should be most truly informed by you both of 

Exc. de sy long discours ; mais ayant eu k rendre compte de ce 

que j'ay faict> et de prendre mon dernier cong^ &c. &c. &c. . 

Balthasar Gerbier.* 
A Londres, ce 25 Mars 1623. 

* Orig. Hc^. Tan^lxxiii. p. 244. 


persons and things, — ^yet I assure your lordship 
that by importunity men are growing to do their 
business daily. The King is much disgusted 
with it, but knows not how to help it ; and I 
am told that he said to somebody the other day : 
Vou mil never let me alone. I would to God you had, 
Jirst, my doublet^ and then my shirt ; and, when I 
were naked, I think you would give me leave to be 

My lord, I know well enough that it becomes 
not me to take these things into my mouth; 
neither do I, but only in my true love to your 
lordship, and in the assurance I have that both 
this letter and my other shall be buried in the 
bottom of your lordship's own only, noble, se- 
cret, heart. And so I cast myself with entire 
affection at your lordship's feet; and, vowing 
my daily prayers to God for the Prince's and 
your lordship's health and happiness and safe re- 
turn, I continue 

Your lordship's for ever 

Most obliged humble servant, 

ToBiE Matthews.* 

* He was a Roman Catholic, although son to Toby Matthews, 
Archbishop of York, a zealous Protestant and opponent of 
Edmond Campion the Jesuit. I find the following anecdote 
respecting him in a MS. in the Museum : — 

** Lord Fairfax, finding the Archbishop very melancholy, in- 
quired the reason of his Grace's pensiveness. ' My Lord,' said 
the Archbishop, ' I have great reason of sorrow with respect to 
my sons : one of whom has wit aixd no grace ; another, grace 


My Lord Duke,* I understand, hath gotten 
divers things of the King very lately; and in 
particular his suit of the coals is passed, which 
was stayed so long. My Lord Treasurer}* also 
hath been very careful not to lose his time, 

I would be glad your lordship did ine the 
favor to let me know that my letters are come 
safely to your hand.j 

London, this 29th of March 1623. 

but no wit ; and the third, neither grace nor wit to direct hiin 
aright' The Lord Fairfax replied, * May it please your Grace, 
your case is sad, but not singular. I am also sadly disappointed 
in my sons. One I sent into the Netherlands, to train him up a 
soldier ; and he makes a tolerable country justice, but is a mere 
coward at fighting. My next I sent to Cambridge, and he 
proves a good lawyer, but is a mere dunce at divinity ; and 
my youngest I sent to the Inns of Court, and he is good at divi- 
nity, but nobody at the law.'" The writer of the above an^r 
dote observes, that he heard this from the descendants of that 
family, ** who yet seem to mince the matter because so immedi- 
ately related. The Lord Ferdinando Fairfax was the eldest 
son; and I have heard our good neighbour, Wm. Atkinson, 
who was gunsmith to Thomas Lord Fairfax in the late wars, 
say he has heard the old Lord Thomas call aloud to his grand- 
son, * Tom, Tom, mind thou the battle ; thy father 's a good 
man, but a mere coward ; all the good I expect is from thee ! ' 
The Rev. Henry Fairfax, chaplain to Toby Matthews, rector 
of Bolton Percy, and grandfather to the present Thomas Lord 
Fairfax, was the second; and Charles Fairfax, of Newston, 
Esquire, was the youngest." — Birch's MSS. 4460. p. 137. 

* I imagine he means the Duke of Richmond. 

t Cranfield. J Orig. Hoi. Harl. 158L f. 78. 



[Of the same subject*] 

My Lord, ^ - 

The faithful humble love I bear your lord- 
ship bids me rather venture to be too officious, 
than forgetful of saying anything which I may 
conceive to concern you. The very birds may 
have brought your lordship word of the liberty 
which men of all ranks have taken ever to speak 
their ple^u^es pf ypur lordship, for this jouni,ey 
ofuthe most ' excellent Prince. But I have i for 
ti^rtain understood, that this is not all ; but that 
divers great men are watching very close upon 
thi^ King's heart,; tft 5*e if tipey. can djiscovei' any 
hair's breadth of departure therein from you ; to 
the end that by d^fgrees they might take you 
put from tbeppe^ ^oWj forasmuch as the King's 
auction ids most faithful to your lordship, and 
his care is greater towards you than you can be 
for yourself, I do not think that the best of them 
da|:^^ p^ce^to touch upon so harsh a str^ngjn h^^ 
princely ear*- They who love not your lordship 
dre setting on meaner people to complain to the 
body of the council ^ of . divers things as bitter 
grievances, to the commonwealth, which; are said 
to have been carried by your greatness. That 
of laying a personal imposition upon strangers hath 
been already presented, and flowers upon with 


full mouth ; and I hear that many more parti* 
culars are putting on. And the end of this de- 
sign is to make your lordship very odious ; ^ind 
(that being once soundly done) to go to the. King 
as soon as they shall find pourage enough in their 
own hearts, and confidence enough in the / truth 
and malice of others; and to beseech his Majesty 
that justice may be done against you in some 
exemplar course. > 

, This I have been told for certain, and I be* 
lieve it ; and, in general, I have told some great 
man of it, whom I know to: be your true friend^ 
to the end that he might give the best diversion 
he could to such a business* And now I thought 
it my part to let yourself know it from this 
servant of yoiirs, and to pray you (if you will 
pardon^ the. boldness) to find such means to stop 
this kind of proceeding as may become your wis- 
dom and greatness, i 

J hear the King is already calling for you 
apace, and desires to have you .speedily at home 
again ; and I know your lordship^s nearest friends 
dissuade you from coming without the Prince.* 
I am not worthy to give advice, and it is not ' 
asked; anditI\erefore I must, have little to say. 
But supposing! ithat there: the Prince stand <firm 
to your lordship in his great favor, and that his 
mind will not be estranged from you by absence, 
(and how can we suspect that soul of so great a 
crime as inconstancy, whom malice itself durst 
never touch as yet with any error either in nature 


or against honor?) upon my very soul I conceive 
that, if you should return presently, you would 
see yourself here as highly and securely great 
as ever, and that they that bear you most malice 
would be most slavish and fawn upon you most. 
But, upon the whole matter, I hold your great- 
ness to be safe if you stay with the Prince till 
he come ; I conceive it also to be safe if you 
come home when the King calls ; and that you 
may jnost wisely do either the one or the other, 
according as you shall be induced by other rea- 
sons. Only I beseech your lordship, if you re- 
turn, not shortly, you will procure from hence 
that my lords here may be discouraged from 
^ving life and heart to impertinent clamours.^ 
And because I am absent, and cannot speak to 
your lordship as I would if I were in your ear; 
give me leave not to exceed these general words? 
of humble advice. If you know any man to be 
of a false nature, do not trust him, how much 
soever he may be obliged ; and be pleased to^ 

learn that Spanish proverb, '* Guardarse ze vos 

enemigo reconciliado, y de viento qui entra por 

Pardon, I beseech your lordship, this boldness. 
I love your lordship with my heart, I am bound 
to do it ; and let the devil take me if I continue not 
Your lordship's 

Humble faithful servant ever, 

London, ToBIE MaTTHEW. 

This 29th of March 162S. 




Right Honorable, 

On Sunday night Mr. Grimes arrived here at 
Theobalds, and found his Majesty in bed. Bless- 
ed and gracious King, his heart is ever open to 
the inquisition after the Prince and you; and 
therefore his eyes waked easily and willingly to 
observe Mr. Grimes his discourse of your well-* 
being and good reception, honor, and love con- 
ferred upon you from all parts, with all the ex- 
traordinary and lively forms possible. And yet 
more cause of joy that this magnificence and 
earnest expressions of joy were not so much for 
acquittal of singular honor and affection shewed 
to them by a long and hazardous journey, as for 
the attributes and acknowledgments the court 
and people gave to the honor and excellent fashion 
of your persons, dispositions, and courtesies to 

And to fill full my contentment, while his 
Majesty paused in the contemplation of the dis- 
course past, Mr. Grimes gave me a letter from 
your Excellency, for which favor and content- 
ment I have not words to thank you propor^ 
tionably to my sense of it ; neither do I wish so 
earnestly for words, as for occasion in your com- 
mandments and uses to pay you real duties to 




the last flash of my life. The nobleman out of 
Spain is expected, and will not surprise us ; his 
good entertainment being thought of, and, if his 
Majesty will *give me leave, I will offer all my 
Spanish in thankful acknowledgment to him. 
Our bonfires have burnt ; and the Lord of Bris- 
towe's fine relation of the Prince's reception, with 
all the circumstances of it, came not to the King 
from Mr. Secretary Calvert until the next day : 
the first vayled part of your reception being 
added to them is all at the print, and will quickly 
be in all parts of the kingdom. 

Since the concluding for the depositing of 
Frankendale, the embassadors are earnest for the 
proceeding into the further treaty of cessation 
of arms in Germany and general peace there. 
.. His Majesty having no arms there, that aims 
only at the cassing of Mansfeld's and Bruns- 
wicke's troops, and the Emperor hath so severally 
and grossly broken with his Majesty, especially 
in that of the Electorate, as his Majesty with his 
honor cannot find how to treat with the Em-i 
peror but by the interposition of Spain, and the 
whole relying upon that King's word. 

His Majesty continues still his profession to 
his son-in-law, and all those states interested in 
the affairs of the Palatinate, that his Majesty 
will, by one way or other, accomplish the resti- 
tution of the Palatinate with the Electorate. But 
his Highness being in Spain upon the conclusion 

KING JAM£& 27£ 

of that happy alliance there, (according to reason,) 
all entrances to actions or intendments to it must 
be at a stand. 

It is therefore expected from his Highness and 
you (and the time and place is with you) to ease 
and help not only the honor of his Majesty, but 
the state of those affairs, which is, by declaration 
as well as expectation, cast upon you. 

This being without ocnnmandmeut, I confess 
it is too high for me ; but^ when the conaidenir 
tion of my duty carries me, I think nothing too 
high to reach at, nor any thing too low to un- 
dergo. For the faidi of the humble affection^ 
pardon the ^rror. 

By a singular intercessor, the greatest faults 
ai^ forgiven to the worst men ; so may my duly 
presented by you be acceptable, to his Highness. 
My prayers to God (I hope) shall be received for 
him and you. Whether I be unworthy or worthy, 
little or great, I am by you^ and.for you, 
Your Exoelleney 's most' humble diervant, 

JEdw- Conwey. 

Postscript. — The Lord Brooke hath confiSrred 
this trust upon me (at this time) to present his 
humble duty and service to your lordship, with 
his vows and prayers for your good success in all 
your ways and safe return.* 

TlieobaWs, 2d April 16^8. ' 

* Tan. Orig. Ixxiii. 251. 

T 2 





My dearest Son, 

This letter of yours is most welcome unto me, 
wherein I perceive your safe arrival, with the good 
hopes you have for the good of all Christendom ; 
which is no small comfort to me in the midst 
of all my sorrows I have had since your going, 
partly for fear of any mischance should happen 
in your journey, and partly by reason [of] Mr. 
Crompton's* late distemper in his brain, into which 
he fell upon an overjoying conceipt of the good 
he apprehended might follow of your journey, 
which moved him to go to the court to get the 
King's leave to follow you ; but the King per- 
ceiving, by his over much talk, that he was not 
well in his head, sent him home to me in a piti- 
ful case. Dr. Hunton hath given him physic, 
but hath done him little good; his opinion is, 
that his excess of tobacco and wine hath hurt his 
brain; so that I have sent him to Whittle- wood 
Forest, where Mr.Napper hath promised me to 
do his best to recover him ; and I hope he will 
have as good success with him as he hath had 
with my sick son, who is now, thanks be to God ! 
in as good health as ever he was in his life, as 

* Her husband. 


they tell me. Nevertheless, I would have him 
stay there a year longer, for a more certain con- 
firmation of his- health, for there was never a 
more grievous disease in the world, as myself 
can best testify to my great sorrow. I pray, 
give the King thanks for the gracious letter he 
sent me in the height of my affliction ; out of his 
love to you, his royal heart pitied me. I would 
be loth to be too tedious. I have sent you my 
sweet daughter's* letter, that you may be par- 
taker with me of my joys, as I have made 
you of my sorrows. All goeth as well at 
home as your heart can imagine. My sweet 
Moll, I hope, will have a brother before it be 
long. ♦ * * * 

Your most affectionate 

Loving mother till death, 

M. Buckingham. f 

This 6th of April 1623. 



[Desires his return. — Gives an account of her little daughter 


Dear Heart, 

When Kilegrey came^ I did hope that all things 
had been agreed on there, and that it was all in 

* Daughter-in-law. f HarL 1581. p. 56. 


Qur good King to dispatch^ which I was confident 
be would hasten all he could ; but when Dick 
Grime came^ 1 perceived, by your letter, that you 
bad not your answer : what that was I know not, 
for I thought you were agreed of alL Sir Francis 
Gotington tells me^ that when he is dispatched 
you will come away presently, which puts me in 
very good comfort ; for, if I could once be so happy 
to know the certain time of your comings 1 stiould 
be well satisfied. I have sent you some perspec** 
tive glasses, the best I could get. I am sorry the 
Prince is kept at such a distance that he needs 
them to see her ; I am afraid it is a sign, if he get 
her, it will be long first. Yet we hear that the 
Prince, and the Infanta, and the Queen walked a 
great while in a garden together. Now Gresley 
is dispatched^ I hope, by the next that comes after 
his arrival there, you will be able to send us some 
certainty. My lord, indeed I must crave your 
pardon that I did write you no more particulars 
of our pretty Moll. I did tell dry-nurse what 
you wrote to me, and she says you had one letter 
from her ; and she has sent you word, by every one 
that has gone, that she was well, and what she 
could do. But, if you will pardon me this fault, 
I will commit the like no more. She is very well, 
I thank God ; and when she is set to her feet, and 
held by her sleeves, she will not go sautly, but 
stamp and set one foot afore another very fast, 
that 1 think she will run before she can go. She 


loves dancing extremely, and when the saraband 

is played, she will get her thumb and her fing«r 

together, offering to snap ; and then when Tom 

Duff is sung, then she will shake her apron ; and 

when she hears the tune of the clapping dance my 

Lady Frances Hubert taught the Prince, she will 

clap both her hands together, and on her breast^ 

and she can tell the tunes as well as any of us can ; 

and, as they change the tunes, she will change her 

dancing. I would you were here but to see her^ 

for you would take much delight in her, now she 

is so full of pretty play and tricks ; and she has 

gotten a trick, that when they dance her she will 

cry Hah, hah ! and Nicholas will dance with his 

legs, and she will imitate him as well as she can. 

She will be excellent at a hat, for if one lay her 

down she will kick her l^s over her head ; but, 

when she is older, I hope she will be more modest. 

Every body says she grows every day more like 

you than other. You shall have her picture very 

shortly. I am very glad you have the pearls, and 

that you like them so well ; and am sure they do 

not help you to win the ladies' hearts. Yourself is 

a jewel that will win the hearts of all the women 

in the world ; but I am confident it is not in their 

power to win your heart from a heart that is, 

was, and ever shall be yours till death. Every 

body tells me how happy I am in a husband, 

and how chaste you are ; that you will not look 

at a woman, and yet how they woo you. And 


Sir Francis Cotington was yesterday telling of 
me how you made a vow not to touch any wo- 
man till you saw me ; and though I was confix 
dent of it before they told me, yet it is so many 
cordials to my heart when they tell me of it; 
God make me thankful to him for giving of me 
you ! Dear love, I did verily hope I should 'a 
had a lock of your hair by Killigrew, and I am 
sorry I had it not ; but seeing you have a conceit 
it may prove unlucky, it is well you sent it not, 
though I think it but an old wife's tale ; for I 
do assure myself it would not prove unlucky 
between us. But, since you have a belief in it, I 
shall begin to think so too ; therefore let it alone. 
Dear heart, since I cannot have this, I pray, will 
you, if you have any idle time, sit to Gerbere 
for your picture, that I may have it well done in 
little ? If once I could have that, I should think 
myself very happy, I beseech you grant me this 
request; for, since I must be barred of the princi- 
pal, I must feed, as new lovers do, on the shadow; 
and as would one to one grieve and sorrow, for 
I protest that is truly my part. I would I could 
tell when I might be relieved out of it. I am 
sure, by this, you know certain news about my 
being with child. I would I had been so happy ; 
but, since it is not so, I hope I shall be often : 
,and I pray do you not trouble yourself at it, and 
I care not. I have seen his Majesty lately, but 

KING JAM£S« 281 

have not seen the picture Toby Mathus did;* 
but I hope the next time J shall. I do imagine 
what a rare piece it is, being of his doing. Since 
the Prince keeps that Gerbere has done for the 
Infanta, I hope nobody shall have the next he 
does for me ; for I do much desire to see a good 
picture of hers, for I hear her infinitely comr 
mended: she had need prove a good one, that 
the Prince may think his journey and delay well 
bestowed for her; for I swear he deserves her, 
be she never so handsome or good, to undertake 
such a journey for her ; and she had need make 
us poor wives some amends for being the cause 
of keeping our husbands from us ; but I think 
it is not her fault, for I warrant she would fain 
have it dispatched too. 

Indeed, my lord, I do excuse you to your 
friends for not writing, and I wonder they should 
take it unkindly, knowing how full of business 
you are. My ladyt is very well ; she is now gone 
into the country for ten days, and then she will 
return and stay till you return. She is very well, 
I assure you. My brother Purbeck, they say, is 
very well; but Sir Thomas Compton grows 
worse and worse. I am glad the King did write 
so peremptorily for you to come away, J for I hope 

* This picture is mentioned in a letter from Buckingham to 
the King, in Hard wickers Papers, i. p. 423. 
t The Duke's mother. 
X See the remarkable letter in Hardwicke, i. 421. 



now, if they would delay you longer, you will 
be put off no longer. I am very much bound 
to my lady, that she is pleased to take my usage 
of her so kindly. I assure you I was very glad 
to see her : and I do as much love and honor her, 
I think, as you do almost ; though I know, if my 
own mother were alive, I could not be so good a 
daughter as you are a son, yet I should love her 
very dearly too ; and, if my own mother were 
alive, I think 1 could not love her better than I do 
my lady, for I am sure I have been ever much 
bound to her. When the King went to Newhall, 
it was reported here in town he went to meet you 
there ; I would they had said truly. For my own 
part, I am sure I should 'a been very glad of it, 
and so I know would you ; but I am sure I have 
the most reason. My lord, I have not been yet 
at Newhall, but I do intend shortly to go see 
how forward things are there. The walk to the 
house is done, and the tennis-courts almost done ; 
but the garden is not done, nor nothing to the 
bowling-green ; and yet I told Fortherbe, and he 
told me, he would set men *a work presently. 
But I warrant you they will all be ready before 
you come for Buely. I heard the wall is not 
very forward yet, and my lady bade me send you 
word that she is gone down to look how things 
are there. She says she is about making a little 
river to run through the park, it will be about 
sixteen feet broad ; but she says she wants money. 


Thus, hoping 1 have obeyed your commands in 

sending you word of all things you bade me, I 


Your most dutiful wife till death, 

K. Buckingham. 

I humbly thank you for the chain you sent me 
by Mr. Killegrew. I am sorry I sent for more 
now you have sent so many.* 

York House, the 16th of July. 



My dear Lord, 

I HUMBLY thank you that you were pleased to 
write so many letters to me, which was so great 
a comfort to me as you cannot imagine; for I 
protest to God I have had a grievous time of this 
our grievous absence, for I am sure it has been 
so to me, and my heart has felt enough, more 
than I hope it shall ever do again ; and I pray 
God release me quickly out of it by your speedy 
coming hither again to her that does as dearly 
love you as ever woman did man ; and if every 
body did love you but a quarter so well, you were 
the happiest man that ever was bom, but that is 
impossible. But I protest I think you are the 
best beloved that ever favorite was, for all that 

* MS. Harl. 6987* fol. 119. 


have true worth in them cannot but love your 
sweet disposition : if I were not so near you as 
I thank Christ I am, I could say no less if I said 
truth, for I think there was never such a man 
bom as you are; and how much am 1 bound to 
God that I must be that happy woman to enjoy 
you from all other women, and the un worthiest 
of all to have so great a blessing. Only this I 
can say for myself, you could never 'a had one 
that could love you better than your poor true 
loving Kate doth, — poor now in your absence, but 
else the happiest and richest woman in the world. 
I thank you for your long letter ; I think I must 
give Sir Francis CottingtOn thanks for it too, 
because you say he bade you write long letters. 
I am beholden to him for it, because I am sure 
he knew they could never be too long for me, 
for it is all the comfort I have now to read often 
over your letters. My reason I desired you not 
to do it, was for fear of troubling you too much ; 
but, since you think it none, I am much bound 
to you for it, and I beseech you continue it I 
hope you see by this I have not omitted writing 
by any that went, for this is the sixteenth, letter 
at the least I have written to you since you went, 
whereof two of them I sent by common posts ; 
but I hope they will all come safely to your 
hands. I thank you for sending me so good 
news of our young mistress ; I am very glad she 
is so delicate a creature, and of so sweet a dis- 


position ; indeed, my Lady Bristo sent me word 
she was a very fine lady, and as good as fine.* I 
am very glad of it, and that the Prince likes her 
so well, for the King says he is wonderfully taken 
with her. It is a wonderful good hearing, for 
it were a great pity but the Prince should have 
one he can love, because I think he will make 
a very honest husband, which is the greatest 
comfort in this world to have man and wife love 
truly. I told the King of the private message 
the Infanta sent to the Prince to wear a great 
ruff ; he laughed heartily at it, and said it was a 
very good sign. I am very glad that you send to 
hasten the ships ; 1 hope you mean not to stay 
long, which I am very glad of. The King told 
me to-day that my father should go with the 
fleet : if you intend to stay till the Prince's com- 
ing, then I humbly thank you for making choice 
of my father ; but if you come home before, as 
I trust in God you will, then I confess I would 
have nobody go in your office but yourself. 
Therefore I pray think of it, and you may take 
my father with you if you please. I would I 


- * Howell, who had seen her, gives the following description 
of the Infanta's appearance: — "She is a very comely lady, 
rather of a Flemish complexion than Spanish ; fair-haired, and 
carrieth a most pure mixture of red and white in her face. She 
is full and big-lipped, which is held a beauty, rather than a 
blemish or any excess in the Austrian family, it being a thing 
incident to most of that race; she goes now upon sixteen, 
and is of a tallness agreeable to those years.'' 


might go with you; I can send you no certain 
word yet of my being with child, but I am not 
out of hope, but we must refer all to God : as soon 
as I am quick, I will send you word if I be with 
child. I thank God Moll is very well with her 
weaning.* Thus, with my daily prayers for our 
happy meeting, I take my leave. 

Your loving and obedient wife, 

K. Buckingham. 

I pray send me word when you come.f 



Right Honorable, 

I CONFESS I owe you all that I am, and with 
humble affection I would pay you some, but do 
I fear as those that take money at interest to pay 
debts ; so I, by writing, press your patience and 
increase my bonds. The Lord Kensington going 
before Mr. Grimes, my affection and duty pushed 
on my thanks for those infinite favors of yours, 
which make my thankfulness boundless and end- 

* See a characteristic letter concerning the weaning of MoU, 
in Dalryrople, Mem. 179. In this very important affair, and the 
welfare of the " poor fool Kate/' as he good-humouredly called 
her. King Jamie took deep interest. See also Hardwicke, u 41^ 

t MS. Harl. 6987. f. 117. 

i On the subject of this letter, see o. 232. n. 


less. * * * * I protest I have not a busy 
nature but where duty moves it ; so as, if that 
be a fault, I beseech you reform it with a word : 
and, that you may do so, I will give your Ex- 
cellency the rest of the account ; touching the 
Lord St. Albanes, you have my relation already. 
And now the Lord and Lady of Exeter sent to me 
to give me the story of the love and intended mar- 
riage of the Lord of Oxford and the Lady Diana, 
and to inquire of me what I knew of his Majes- 
ty's intentions of proceeding with him (to which 
part I had no commission to answer). They then 
counted to me the great obligation they had to 
you, and how graciously to them and the Lord, 
and how earnest a suitor you had been to his 
Majesty for his liberty ; of which, upon good 
grounds, they said, by your mediation, they had 
hope it should be before his Majesty going from 
this place ; and that the Lady of Mountegomeroy, 
by Sir George Goringe, had received full assur- 
ance to that purpose, and prayed me, as your 
servant, to solicit this will of yours to the King. 
And for my better assurance, which I conceived 
they observed was a little defective, they prayed 
me to go with them to the Lady of Montgomeroy ; 
which I did, and heard from her the same things. 
I then spoke with the Lord of Montgomeroy, 
and told him the story, and. the motion made to 
me ; and found truly in him a careful presenting 
of his respect to your Excellency before all others. 


I know you can command yours when you will 
have them ; and yet not to leave your works un- 
done, nor to do another's work instead of yours, 
nor suffer it to be done by others. 

I acquainted his Majesty with the proceedings, 
and the motion to me ; and withal laid before him, 
that since the Lord of Oxford's faults did justly 
deserve sentencing in the Star-chamber, and that 
his poverty did in some sort take away the ad- 
vantage of his sentence, it might be a good argu- 
ment with his Grace, the matching him with an 
alliance so staid, in and over whom his Majesty 
had power by fair pledges ; so that withal this 
might be provided for, that the world might not 
by that be misinformed that the Lord of Oxford 
had been put in prison without any just cause 
given to his Majesty, but taken by the favorite, 
and set at liberty in his absence, to the scandal of 
his Majesty's most faithful servant, except there 
had been some such way contrived before your 
going as might clear all this. By the blessed 
King's answer I found that, by a public hearing, 
his Majesty was resolved to clear his equity and 
your honor ; and there I leave the work. 

Your Excellency having imparted to me your 
resolution to do nobly for Sir Robert Naunton, 
and his Majesty having commanded me to write 
to the Lord Treasurer, which letter the Lord of 
Carlisle carried, I ♦ * * -j- that business (?) 

t A hole in the MS. 


Ivhich hath sufiered much dispute ; wherein the 
Lord Treasurer hath showed himself full of faith- 
ful care of his Majesty'ss profit, and yet with will- 
ingness and iaffection> to employ himself to your 
Excellency's satisfaction. 

The three first propositions being £1000 pen- 
sion for life ; £500 a year improved land inherit- 
ance; £500 a year fee-farm old rents. The old 
rents was no way allowed ; land improved there 
is none presently ; a thousand pounds a year pen- 
sion is offered and accepted by Sir Robert Naunton, 
with two provisions, that it may be for 21 years, 
and settled upon sure payment. For the settling 
the Lord Treasurer is agreed, but not for 21 
years. I have moved the Lord Treasurer, but 
cannot remove him ; yet the work to be done 
now is, to move the King to overrule him, or to 
procure Sir Robert Naunton to accept it as it will 
be granted him, which I shall endeavor by the 
first opportunity. 

All the news is the best news. Thanks be to 
God ! his Majesty is well; only he misseth his com- 
pany, but keeps excellent memory of them in all 
things. Those that gave the counsel to have 
bands of soldiers to guard his Majesty at New- 
market, have now discovered that this sufferance 
of so many to follow into Spain, will exhaust the 
money of this kingdom wholly. By this your 
Excellency may find how infinite the wisdoms are 
here; I protest beyond my capacity: so as I quit 

VOL, II. u 


that part, and rest only upon faith and duty, by 
which I am 

Your Excellency*s 

Most humble servant, 

Edw. Conwey,* 

Whitehall, 12th April 1623. 


[The King's kindness to little Mary Villiersr] 

♦ * * This day his Majesty came from 
Hampton Court. He passed by Sir Robert Kill!-* 
grew's Park, and there saw the designment of a 
fine ground, a pretty lodge, a gracious lady, a fair 
maid the daughter^ and a fine bouquet. He saw 
the pools, the deer, and the herondry ; which was 
his errand. From thence his Majesty came to 
Hyde Park, at the entry whereof he found a fair 
lady indeed, the fairest Lady Mary in England, 
and he made a great deal of love to her, and gave 
her his watch, and kept her as long pleased with 
him as he could, not without expression to all the 
company, that it was a miracle that such an ugly 
deformed father should have so sweet a child ; 
and all the company agreed that it was a hard 
thing to find such a father and such a child.f But 

♦ Harl. MSS. 1580. p. 293. 

t The King's fondness for the DukeV children has been 
already mentioned in Goodman's Memoirs. It is alluded to» 
with somewhat of a sneer, by the historian Wilson. ** The • 


I will go no further in this fashion until I know 
whether your Excellency love journal-writing 
or no, 

I am so confident that you are my patron, as 
I cannot doubt but you know, even as Grod 
knows, that I am 

Your Excellency's most humble servant, 

Edw, Conwby.* 

Theobalds, 3d of May 1623. 


Most gracious Patron, 

Your Grace's favor cast and continued upon 
me, speaks clearly how much I am yours ; I con- 
tinue my acknowledgment of this truth, which 
my life shall make good. What I am in love. 

King," says the old puritan, " that never much cared for women, 
had his court swarming with the Marquis's kindred, so that 
little ones would dance up and down t]]|p privy lodgings like 

In one of his letters to the Dnke, the Earl of Rutland, his 
father-in-law, thus writes :— " Your wife, your sister, Mr. Por- 
ter, and myself were at supper at York House when news came 
Dick Greame was come ; but we were so impatient to see him, 
that some could eat no meat, and when we did see him and 
your letter, they were so overjoyed they forgot to eat ; nay, my 
pretty sweet Moll, as she was undre&sing, cried nothing but 
'Dad! Dad!"*— The Earl of Rutland to the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, 1st April 1623. — Harl. MSS. 1581. p. 129. 

* Harl. 1580. p. 300. 

U 2 


faith, and power, I am yours ; and in that con- 
fidence, knowing myself and known to your 
Grace, give you this account. Upon the delivery 
of those letters by Sir Francis Cottington, his 
Majesty was much troubled at the delay, as you 
will find by his letters ; his infinite confidence 
being turned to the extreme in distrust, and that 
distrust figures to him all the evil that malice and 
falsehood can execute upon so large a subject of 
advantage as is presently in their hands. His 
wisdom, his goodness, his kindness, (which are in 
his Majesty in as large a measure as humanity 
can have,) seem to conspire against his comforts 
and inward contentment. Never father loved a 
son, never master loved a servant, with more 
dear and tender affection than his Majesty loves 
his Highness and your Grace. Let it afflict you 
as little as is possible ; for your persons, for your 
absence, he afflicts his blessed heart. God make 
me able to perform to his Majfesty the offices I 
desire, and that my sufferings might give him 

It will concern his Highness and your Grace to 
declare your great sense and high estimation of 
this, and it is happy his Majesty's satisfaction 
and your honors look in this case both one way. 
His Majesty desires your speedy return before 
all other respects, and your honor's counsel. He 
presseth you to admit of no delays. If his Ma- 


jesty ratify the articles propounded, and the King 
and Council of Spain will not rec,ede from the 
forced and devised delay of the Junto, you must 
apparel necessity like virtue, and make choice of 
continuing the treaty by according to their time 
for the solemnizing of the marriage in all the re- 
quisite parts by proxy, as is used in, the marriages 
of most kings and princes ; or by his Highness 
espousing of her personally, and presently to come 
thence, to give life and being to the performance 
and execution of the things contracted, which 
will not, cannot, in his Highness' absence be exe- 
cuted. There is nothing can be of so evil con- 
sequence as admittance of delay. I protest my 
heart cannot think that the worst of men, or bet- 
ter sort of devils, could practise so base and mon- 
strous falsehood and #inthankfulness as to stop 
his Highness' return. But if such felon hearts 
be to be found, or to be suspected by his High- 
ness and your Grace, whose wisdoms can best 
look in and through their intentions ; then, as 
when knots cannot be untied by fingers, a sharp 
edge must be applied, so, when justice, wisdom, 
and courtesy cannot prevail, courage, resolution, 
and force must be brought to the proof. And 
if the meaning be evil now, nine months' attend- 
ance will not mend it ; but it will multiply scorn 
there, contempt abroad, fear and distraction at 
home. And it will be much happier to put 


things to the uttermost trial in this time while 
we have got life and hope at home, — friends, in- 
terest, and party abroad, — than to be robbed of all 
these J>y delays. I protest to your Grace I do 
not well know what zeal hath carried me to say ; 
but I neither want humbleness, affection, nor 
confidence to your person, nor in all your actions 
that concern his Majesty, the Prince, or the 
honor of the Duke of Buckingham. As I have 
truth, I have not leisure to read this over : and 
it is not negligence ; for, God is my witness, I 
would not save my life with a wilful and gross 
neglect of you. I should write to you something 
concerning the good (?) Marquis Hambleton, 
who for your Grace*s sake doth favor me with 
some freedom. I should give your Grace account 
of Sir Kobert Naunton aiid of Mr. Mewtis, but 
I must leave it to Mr. Gresley's coming. I must 
not leave untold the good health of your most 
excellent virtuous lady, and the fairest and sweet- 
est image of you, your sweet daughter. I be- 
seech God send you and his Highness joyfully 
to return. To his Highness excuse me, and 
make me as you please, who am 

Your Grace's most humble servant, 

Edw. Conwey * 

The 15th of June 1628. 

* Harl. 1580. p. 305. 

KING JAM£S. 295 



The renown of your virtues has not only in- 
duced my dear son to come from a distance to 
see you, in the capacity of a lover, but has also 
filled me with an ardent desire of enjoying the 
happiness of your presence, and the opportunity 
of embracing so excellent a Princess in the qua- 
lity of my daughter, — an unparalleled satisfaction 

Your very affectionate father, 

J< it/* 


La renom^ de vos vertus a non seulement attire, come un 
aymant, moQ trescher filz de vous venir veoir de loing, mais m'a 
aussi rempli d'un ardent desir d'avoir le bonheur de vostre pre- 
sence, et jouir de'pouvoir embrasser une telle Princesse en qua- 
lite de ma fille, consolation nompareille a 

Vostre tresaffectionne P^re,* 

J. R« 

Endorsed — '^Copie de la lettre da Roy k Madame Tln- 

Dated Aug. 30, 1628. 

(See the Infanta's answer in Hardwicke's State Papers, i. 
p. 450.) 

* Tan. Ixxiii. i36. 



D£RE Dad and Gossope, 

This is to aduertise your Majesty that Mihill 
Androse is now dispachd to Rome, with a direc- 
tion to send the nerest way to you so sone as anie 
resolution is taken: he caries with him allso a 
letter from the Conde of Oliuares to the Pope's 
nephew, which wee hope, if there be neede, will 
much hastin the business. Sir, hetherto wee 
haue not receaued a letter from you ; but, to oure 
greate comfort, wee here that my Lord of An- 
deuer, who will be here to-morow, hath some for 
us. Wee haue receaued so much comfort at the 
verie news of it, that wee must giue you thankes 
before the receate of them. Wee haue no mgre 
to trouble you with at this time, onelie wee be- 
seech you, in the absence of your tow boys, to 
make much of oure best dade, without whose 
helth & blessings wee desier not to liue. 

Your Majesty's 
Humble Sf obedient sone and seruant, 


Your Majesty's humble slaue and doge, 

MadriU, the 21 of Mar. 1623. SxEENIE. 

Be cheerfull, good-man of Balangith, for wee 
warrant you all shall goe well, for we less re- 
pent our jurnei euerie day then other.-f- 

* The lines in italic signed by Prince Charles. 
t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 241. 



[Copied from the original by Archbishop Sancroft.] 

My sweete Botes, &c. 

The Spanishe Ambassadoure let a word fall to 
Grislie, as if thaire wolde be some question made 
that my babie's chaplains showlde not doe thaire 
seruiee in y« King's palace thaire ; btit he con- 
cludit, y* that busienesse wolde be soone accom- 
modated. Allwayes in cace any suche difficultie 
showlde be stukken at, ye may remember thaime, 
y* it is an ill praeparation for geving y« Infante 
free exercice of her religion heere, to refuse it to 
my Sonne thaire ; since thaire religion is as odious 
t* a nomber heere, as ours is thaire. And if thaye 
will not yeelde, then, my sweete babie, showe 
youre self not to be ashamed of youre profession ; 
but goe to my Ambassadour's howse 
& haue youre service thaire, y* God & man 
maye see ye are not ashamed of youre religion. 
But I hoape in God this shall not neede, &c. &c. 
And so God bless you, my sweete boyes ; &, after 
a happie successe, retume & light in y« armes of 
youre deare dade, 

James R.* 

From Quhyte hall, y* sevint of Apryle. 

♦ Tan. Ixxiii. p. 242-6. 




My sweete Babie, 

Since the ending of my last letres unto you, 
I haue ressauid a letre of youres from the Lorde 
Keeper, quhiche tells me the first newis of a 
parliament (& that in a strainge forme) J;hat 
euer I hearde of since youre pairting from me. 
By suche -intelligence, both ye .& my sweete 
Steenie Gossepp maye iuge of thaire worthe, that 
make thaim unto you ; & ye maye reste assured^ 
that I neuer meant to undertake anie suche bus- 
sienesse in youre absence, if it hadde bene pro* 
powndit unto me, as in goode faith I neuer 
hearde of it. And so, with God's blessing to you 
both, I praye God that, after a happie condv?^ 
sion thaire, ye maye both make a confortable & 
happie retume in the armes of youre deare dade, 

Greenewiche, the 1 1 of Maye. JAMES B/. 


My DEAREST Sonne, 

I doe hearby promeise, in the worde of a King, 
that quhat so euer ye, my dearest sonne, shall 
promeise thaire in my name, I will punctuallie 
& faithfuUie performe ; & so God blesse you. 

Youre louing father, 

Greenewiche, the 1 1 of Maye. James B.'f 

(To the Prince.) 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 258. f Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 259. 

* ■■' 



My sweete Boyes, 

In youre last letre by Gierke, ye keepe me still, 
as formerlie ye did, betuixt hoape 6c dispaire 
of the Infantaes comming this yeare. I lyke well 
two of the three wayes ye haue ofred thaime for 
haistening her comming hoame ; but the thridde, 
of sending to the Pope, will delaye all this yeare 
& loose the season, especiallie considdering that 
the Pope is dead, and God knowis how long thaye 
will be of choosing anotocAr^ & how he will be 
afiectid quhen he is chosen ; & thairfore I praye 
you, putte us out of this lingring paine one waye 
or other, but if she come not this yeare, the dis- 
grace & my chairges will proue infinite. All is 
performed & putt in execution heere, to the 
Ambassadour s full satisfaction. If ye can bring 
her hoame with you, stryue by all means to be 
at hoame before Michelmasse, for after it will be 
daingerouse being upon the sea ; if otherwayes, 
I hoape ye will haisten you hoame, for the com- 
forte of youre qlde deare dade: but yett, after 
the contracte, goe as farre as ye can, before youre 
pairting, upon the b;}sienessis of the Palatinate 
& Hollande, that the worlde maye see ye haue 
thoght as well upon the busienessis of Christen- 
dome as upon the cod*peece point. I proteste 
I knowe not quhat to doe, if she come not this 
yeare, for this uerrie refreshing of my fleete with 


victualls hath cost inee eight thowsande pownds, 
& thairfore ye hadde neede to baisten the pay- 
ment of the dowrie after the contracte ; & if 
ye come withowt her, lett the mariage at least 
be haistened as soone as can be after youre pairt- 
ing, to be performed by commission in youre 
absence; but I praye God ye maye bring her 
with you. And so God blesse you, my sweete 
children, & sende you a happie & confortable 
returne in the armes of youre deare dade, & 

that quikelie. 

James R.* 

Bromame, the last of lulie. 


[Proceedings at Court.] 

My Lord, 

With the care I shall ever have of whatsoever 
shall concern your lordship's service, I acquainted 
the King with the particulars you left to me in 
trust, which gave him good satisfaction in all 
points ; only, for so much as concerned the Conde 
de Gondemair, 1 found him somewhat unwilling 
to believe it, in respect he had newly received a 
letter from him full of all compliment and pro- 
testation to the contrary. I saw him very sen- 
sible of my Lord B.f his carriage in this business, 
and, by what I told him, seemed fully confirmed 

* Orig. Hoi. tan. Ixxiii. 281. t Bristol. 

KING JAM£S. 301 

in his former opinion ; though he want not daily 
friends about the King to do him all good offices, 
and to magnify whatsoever is done by him or his 
creatures. I have been subject to many crusty 
interrogatories from some of them, but have given 
them little satisfaction. They are many and ma- 
licious, and therefore worthy your lordship's cir- 
cumspection at least. Simon Dygbie (who doth 
nothing without advice), jealous of your lordship, 
or unwilling to derive any good or benefit froni 
your hand, hath lately written to the King, put- 
ting him in mind of his services, and desiring it 
may plead for him hereafter for a clerkship of 
the council against the power and labor of other 
men. Grysly the King hath rewarded with a 
hundred pounds a year, Killegray with as much, 
and Mr. Grymes, as I hear, with a suit valued 
at £500 per annum. So that I only, as unfriend- 
ed, of all that have been employed, am left to 
your lordship*s good pleasure ; on which (I am 
proud to confess) I had rather rely, than basely, 
for a fortune, stoop to court such men as my 
own conscience tells me do not love you. I shall 
content me, though I die a poor man, to have 
served you faithfnlly, and that no hope of pre- 
ferment could ever have corrupted 

Your lordship's humblest servant, 

Ed. Clarke.* 

Salisbury, this first of August. 

♦ Harl. 1580. p. 278. 


[Of the cabals at court during the Duke's absence.] 

My LiOKD, 

So far as my understanding can do me service, 
I daily employ it in observing his Majesty's 
looks, words, actions : may my soul never pix)* 
sper if they appear not to me in the same shape 
they have done these seven years! And that 
reason which proves the constant affection of a 
good wife justifies the King to your lordship, 
which is the peculiar respect of your friends in 
absence* But (my lord) I ingenuously confess 
some of yours have not had so prosperous success 
in their affairs as haply by your lordship's pre- 
sence they might. My Lady Denbigh received 
not the fullness of her expectation from his Ma- 
jesty about some monies due to the Wardrobe ; 
which my Lord Treasurer seemed to sleek with 
an excuse to his Majesty's satisfaction, but no- 
thing to her redress. Mr. Matus was publicly 
and sharply reproved by his Majesty, whett^ 
by the Lord Holdernes, who peradventure con- 
ceives he wounds you through his sides. Sir 
Wm. Sellinger likewise thinks your lordship 
was obliquely injured in him ; the business, I ' 
know, is not unknown to your lordship. There 
are some, questionless, gather an almanac out 
of these. I think there will shortly be foul 
weather, and that the storm will fall upon your 
lordship; but I have so well read the King's 


disposition, that I am no more affrighted than 
at hail which falls upon the slates when I am 
within doors. For as the King would have the 
world know that his choice of your lordship was 
not an act of chance, but a thing to which his 
judgment was accessory, so I well know, to pre- 
serve his own judgment, he must preserve his 
choice ; unless some notorious defection unfasten 
the hold on his Majesty, which when you do, 
may all miseries light upon 


Salisbury, 1st of Aug. 1623. 



[Letter of comfort.] 

May it please your Grace, 

I TAKE the boldness to tell your Grace that I 
am one of them who help to make up the con- 
cert of sad music for the little health which we 
hear you have. But withal, I will presume to 
say, that your fault is greatjflf you contribute 
anything to the indisposition of your body by the 
inordinate grief of your mind. Your Grace 
hath had patience at the absence of my Lord 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. UxiiL p. 284. 


Duke these six months, and you are desired biit 
to' have it for two months more. And since he, 
who is dearer to you than yourself, is as well as 
it is possible for him jto be without you, how can 
you find in your heart to make him worse by 
your being ill ? 

Some vulgar tongues may have told your 
Grace that the Duke is not much beloved here ; 
but that which we here know your Grace may 
be pleased to believe ; which is, that although it 
be impossible for any incorrupt great minister 
of state to have the love of a whole world, when 
a part of that world hath affairs and ends which 
are contrary to his ; yet my lord hath been so 
fortunate this way, as that even his opposites in 
the treaty carry a great affection to his person, 
and set a fair stamp of value upon his parts; and 
this King proceeds nobly towards him, and the 
Infanta takes particular gust in him, and the 
favorite desires nothing more than to oblige him, 
and the Condesa de Olivares, his wife, (who is 
one of the worthiest women in the whole world,) 
is in a kind of doting upon him ; and loving 
(as in my conscience I think she doth) the very 
name of the Duke, how sensible would your 
Grace think that she is of your indisposition, 
whom she knows by a thousand testimonies that 
he loves better than his eyes. In troth, I came 
from her but even now, and I find that between 
the blow whiph your indisposition hath made 


upon you, and the brick-wall of reflection which 
the grief of it hath made upon him, the sweet 
noble lady is in greater sorrow than you will 
easily conceive. 

Madam, I beseech you be not guilty of mak- 
ing the world sad, now that it is upon the point 
of beginning to be in universal joy for the happy 
consummation of this great business, which hath 
received so much life and heat from the Duke's 
hand. Bespeak yourself to be full of comfort, 
for you shall have him shortly in your arms ; 
and in the mean time do not think him ill-be- 
stowed where he is, since he triumpheth so 
gloriously in the Prince's heart. And for my 
part, I will presume of your Grace pardon of this 
presumption, since it was bred in me by an ex- 
treme desire that the Duke and you may be 
happy many years in one another, and all your 
humble servants (whereof I am one) in you both. 
And so I beseech Jesus make and keep your 
Grace as truly happy as your own heart can wish, 
and is cordially desired by 
Your Grace's 

Most humble and most obliged servant, 

ToBiE Matthews. 

Madrid, 8th of August 1623. 

Madam, I had the honor to be called up at 
midnight to translate your Grace's letter to the 
Condesa de Olivares into Spanish, to the end 
that instantly it might be showed by her to the 



Conde, and by him to the King, and afterward 
to the Infanta. And I thought it would not be 
displeasing to your Grace to let you know what 
particular gust they took in the expressions 
which you made of yourself, and how greatly 
they were commended by them all.* 



[The King*s affection for the Duke is as strong as ever.] 

His Majesty, some two hours since, having 
called for your letters (as he hath done often) to 
read, I took the opportunity to show his Ma- 
jesty a letter written from the Lord Embassador 
Sir Walter Aston unto me, and conveyed by 
Mr. Secretary Calvert, because I found the glad 
tidings which were brought by Sir John Epsley 
shortly and finely confirmed, and a discreet and 
princely attribute given to his Highness and to 
your wisdom and industry ; the perfection and 
grace of the whole work being wholly conferred 
upon the dignity of the Prince's person and the 
worths of your well-guided labors ; which, in this 
letter, is stretched so far as to relate how those 
and your long absence from his Majesty's pre- 
sence had cast a gloss of melancholy upon you, 
yet testifying that your Grace is so much mas- 
ter of yourself, as, through the virtue of an ex- 

♦ Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. p. 287. 


cellent servant, you overcame all difficulties to 
do well your master*s business. The praises suit- 
ing so well with the excellency of the persons, 
and in my humble and strong affection I was 
satisfied with the good, and, I confess ingenu- 
ously, did not observe the evil; but my bless- 
ed master, instantly sending for me, hath in his 
tender heart and affection examined the words 
as narrowly as a passionate lover, and hath trou- 
bled himself to think your Grace should be me- 
lancholy, that he hath commanded me to choose 
a man out that will not spare his neck to over- 
take Mr. Clarke ; and then commanded me one 
of the acceptablest charges that ever I underwent, 
to deliver from my gracious King to my gracious 
patron this gracious message, — that his Majesty 
in treats you and conjures you, by all the things 
that are dear to you, and by the deamess of his 
love to you, in a time of the prosperity of busi- 
ness, not to let melancholy lay hold upon you, 
for that were to disseisin, if not to destroy, the 
comfort of the whole work. For if you should 
now be melancholy, (which God forbid !) it must 
be the disease of melancholy, whose symptoms 
are causeless doubts and causeless griefs. For 
cause of these you can have none. Your wife is 
in health, and the best of women ; your daughter 
is well, and the sweetest of children ; and your 
King and master constantly loves, esteems, and 
holds you dear, as the best of servants ; and un- 

X 2 


doubtedly you have friends whose faith looks as 
constantly to your honor and observation as well- 
touched needle's point to the pole. And, to ful- 
fil his Majesty's contentment and yours, his most 
wise and noble son inherits his father, or contends 
with him in the love of you. And for all these 
respects, and for all reasons that can be power- 
ful with you, his Majesty once more prays you, 
commands you, and conjures you to cast off all 
thoughts and forms that are like melancholy, and 
to rejoice that you are towards coming home, and 
come rejoicing to him. 

Now, I beseech your Grace, pardon me that I 
have marred the sweetness and grace of the mes- 
sage by evil narration, but that is nature's defect 
through inequality of powers. I protest truly 
to your Grace, I never was more taken, nor my 
affection more stirred, than by the sight and hear- 
ing of his Majesty, who seemed to take delight 
in the discovery of those high and happy bless- 
ings in his son, and in your sweetness of disposi- 
tion, faith, affection, and serviceable powers ; and 
then to see and hear him make all this vain and 
waste to him, if you should be melancholy ; I do 
confess, I was lifted up and melted down as he 
changed his voice and his images. Let this suf- 
fice, coming from so high a power, to charm 
all melancholy. And what proud dust should 
I be to dare to say anything in this argument, 
but humbly this, — according to my duty and 


sense, no creature shall feel more and participate 
largelier of your good and ill than 

Your Grace's most humble servant, 

Edw. Conwey.* 

The 11th of August 1623. 



Dear Heart, 

Never woman was so happy as I am, for never 
was there so kind a husband as you are; and 
God make me thankful to him for you, and I 
beseech him make me some way worthy of you. 
I protest I could not forbear weeping for joy 
when I read your letter, to see how much kind- 
ness was in it, and grieving to see how grieved you 
were at my sickness. It has been a great grief 
to me to think you should be so troubled ; and, 
but that I hope Sir Francis Cotington will satis- 
fy you, I could never be merry till I heard from 
you again, for, I protest to God, anything that 
I know troubles you, it is ten times a more grief 
to me ; and I swear to you, when Sir John Ep- 
slae told me how much you were troubled, it 
went to my heart, and, if I thought you were 
still so, I protest I could never be merry. Dear 

* Harl. 1580. p. S28. 


heart, do not [be] angry with me for not send- 
ing you word of that I knew would trouble you, 
and when it proceeded out of nothing but love and 
care that I did not do it, which I hope you will 
con[si]der ; and think it no fault in me for loving 
you so well, that I would let you know nothing 
to trouble you there. But if I had thought any 
body would have written word of my being ill 
there, I would then have sent you word of it ; but 
I was loth to do it till I was well again, which 
then I did send you word how ill so ever I was. 
I thank God now I am very well again, and I 
hope will grow fat against your coming. I thank 
God I was not in a consumption, but many fear- 
ed I was entering into one ; indeed I looked very 
ill, and was ill, but I thank God and Doctor More 
and Miron I have recovered my looks again, but, if I 
tell you truth, I must first thank you for the good 
news you sent me by my Lord of Andever, that 
your business was concluded, and that you hoped 
to come away when Sir Francis Cotingtone came 
to you, which was the best cordial to recover me 
that could be. The physician's physic could 
never have done me good if that had not come 
as it did, for merely melancholy was the cause 
of my sickness. I hope, when once we are to- 
gether again, we shall have no more such partings ; 
for, if ever I should be so unfortunate again, I am 
sure it would kill me : then might you have a 
finer and a handsomer, but never a lovinger wife 


than your poOr Kate is. I protest to God, I can 
never express my thankfulness to you, and joy, 
for the love and tender care you have showed in 
your letter ; and though it was a joy to see how 
happy I am that no absence can alter your afFec* 
tion, yet it grieved me infinitely you should be 
so discontented ; but I hope by this you are 
merrier, which for God's sake be, I beseech you, 
or else you will kill my heart. If there were 
any need of sending, I would send Lapoynt to 
you, but I thank God I am well, therefore I need 
not ; and I am sure this gentleman, Mr. Clarke, 
will be with you as soon as any can. You say, 
if your being with me would do me good^ let 
your soon coming work some good effects in me. 
Dear heart, I hope you make no doubt of that 
which has been cause of all my illness, for never 
creature has felt more grief than I have done 
since your going. And where you say it is too 
great a punishment for a greater offender than 
you hope you are, dear heart, how severe God 
had been pleased to have dealt with me, it had 
been for my sins and not yours ; for truly you 
are so good a man, that, but for one sin, you are 
not so great an offender, only your loving women 
so well. But I hope God has forgiven you, and 
I am sure you will not commit the like again^ 
And God has laid a great affliction on me by 
this grievous absence ; and I trust God will send 
me life, and Moll too, that you shall enjoy us 


both, and I shall live to bring you many mor^, 
for I am sure God will bless us both for your sake, 
and I cannot express the infinite affection I bear 
you ; but, for God's sake, believe me, that there 
was never woman loved man as I do you. I have 
felt enough for this absence ; more than ever I 
shall do again, I hope, I should have been very 
glad if I might have had your picture; but I 
hope now shortly, and God knows that shortly 
will be long to me, I shall enjoy the principal : it 
is a great comfort to me now I know the certain 
day. I hope of your remove out of that wicked 
Madrill, and am very glad that you bring the In- 
fanta with you, that all journeys may be ended ; 
for I should have been in a perpetual fear of your 
going again if she [is] had stayed behind you. 
I hope, by the next, her picture will be done. 
My lord, you gave me more thanks for my lady 
than I am worthy of : I hope shortly she will be 
here again. She is now with Sir Tomam Comp- 
ton, who is very sick. My father is with the 
ships, and will go suddenly when the wind serves : 
he can tell you all how my sickness was. I 
thank God he is very well ; and, I will swear, 
loves you better, I think, than he does me. I 
have hardly spoken with Sir John Epslae yet, 
but I hope this week he will return from the 
Court ; and then I must have a world of talk of 
you, for it does me good when I see anybody 
that comes from you, that I may ask questions of 


you. We all are now at Hampton Court, and 
all very well, I thank God : I hope this air will 
do me much good. The reason why I stayed 
behind Moll when she came here was, not that I 
was so ill I could not travel, but I was then in 
a course of physic, that Doctor More was not 
willing I should come. Then the shooting of 
deer is all our recreation ; but, when I think how 
often we have been together here a shooting, it 
makes me not think of the sport, but of sighing 
and crying to think I am so mi[s]erable now as 
to be out of hope of being so happy this year ; 
but I hope the next will make amends for this. 
I did desire Sir John Epslae to put the King 
in mind of writing earnestly to you to come 
away, who said he would, and I do assure myself 
the Bang has done it; and assure yourself I will 
not speak of it to any but my sister, who saw 
the letter, who will do the like. I hope nobody 
shall hear of it there through our means, nor here 
neither. I humbly thank you your letters show 
you are loath to leave : they are so long I hope 
the next letter I receive from you will be more 
cheerful. Moll is very well, and is a writing to 
you to make you merry ; she is bound to you for 
your sending her a token. Sir John says he 
has one for her from you, but yet she has not 
seen it. Mr. Clarke will tell you who she is like : 
she is so lively and full of play that she will make 
you very good sport when you come home. 1 


hope you have received her picture, though you 
have sent me no word whether you have or no. 
For my niece Porter that I writ to you for, you 
need not send me any answer at all. Thus, daily 
praying for your health, I rest 
Your most loving and 

Obedient wife till death, 

K. Buckingham. 

Hampton Court, the 12th of August. 

My lord, I go this day to London in hope to 
see my father, for Doctor More told me yester-* 
day, when he was here, that he would be in town 
to-morrow; for which I hope you will not be 
angry. I return again at night. 

Dear heart, I most humbly thank you for say- 
ing, if I were ill, you would come. I thank God 
I am well, but never shall be thoroughly well 
till I see you.* 



[Reports of his conduct in Spain.] 

May it please your Grace, 

I HAVE not written sooner, both for want of 
matter and of such conveyance as you appointed 
me ; for my Lord Ashton's absence hindered op- 
portunity, and since his return nothing hath 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxili. 280. 


occurred of moment: rather, we having been every 
day of late in expectance both of the Queen's 
delivery and of the solemnizing of the Infanta's 
espousals, I let go the last correo without any 
line, verily supposing to be able to send your 
Grace word of them by the next : but now, see- 
ing another propio to depart before any further 
success, I resolved to let you hear from me as 
well as from others, (although I know you shall 
have it better from some others, but not from all,) 
what is talked and discoursed here of all sorts, 
friends and foes, among the vulgar and in the 
palace, about the marriage, and concerning your- 
self. Wherein I beseech your Grace to read this, 
and esteem of me but as a relator or historian re- 
counting what is said, not affirming what is true ; 
and to the intent that, knowing the worst, you 
may provide for the best, and make good use of 
those precepts of Plutarch, How to take profit by 
our enemies, — if they slander us, then to know bet- 
ter how to confute them ; if they tell us our 
faults truly (though with rancor), yet to amend 
ourselves. It is reported against you, that, both 
by the way and afterward here, you sometimes 
used the Prince unrespectively, carrying too hard 
a hand over him, urging or exercising your com- 
mission too rigorously, causing him to say and 
do some things which otherwise he would not, 
and, particularly in the time that his Highness 
retired from eating publicly, you sate in his 


chamber at the same table with him, yea, in in*-^ 
decent manner, without breeches, only with your 
night-gown ; and in the public market-place, at 
the feasts, stood sometime with your back toward 
the Prince, and sometime towards the Infanta; 
and other times leaning over to see and look on 
the Infanta, before, and further, and more boldly 
than the Prince. That you were very immodest 
in many discourses and answers, speaking bawdily 
as attributing your wife's alteration of religion 
to lechery .f • * ♦ ♦ That, in the main busi- 
ness itself, you proceeded with much passion and 
choler, and not with prudence nor discretion ; 
and, especially, that you were very inconstant in 
all that you treated of, to-day saying one thing, 
and to-morrow another, — if not contradicting, at 
least materially varying from what before had 
been agreed, — so that they durst not rely nor trust 
to any promise you made ; and that if the Prince 
had not been here himself, upon whose patience, 
prudence, and true reality they did and do rely, 
the marriage by you had rather been marred 
than made ; and that so at last they held you 
an enemy to it, more than a friend, in as much as 
you should be able. That the Prince would have 
stayed here this winter but for you, and should 
infallibly have been wedded and bedded with the 
Infanta by Christmas. And last of all, which is 

t What follows is too indecent either to be written or printed. 


most generally talked of, and construed in very 
ill part, that you went away without bidding 
farewell, neither the Duchess of Gandio, nor 
Condesa de Lemos, nor the Condesa de Olivares, 
to whom you had professed so much friendship; 
Bnd that your excuse made the matter worse, 
saying you went not to them, not so much as 
across the palace-court, because you were not 
well, when you were there presently well enough 
to undertake a journey to the Escurial and so 
to Santander. These are the chief points talked 
of here, and I think complained of there at home 
against you ; which I thought good to signify 
unto your Grace, the better to be prevented or 
amended, for so wise men ought to benefit them- 
selves by the enmity of others. Concerning 
other occurrents here, the chief are, that the 
Cortes or Parliament here, since your departure, 
have granted to the^ King, for payment of his 
debts and prosecuting his wars, almost an incre- 
dible sum, but it is most certain, viz. sixty 
millions; which sixty millions are now a new 
grant, and, being added to twelve millions before 
granted to the last King, do now make in all 
seventy-two millions, which are all to be levied 
and paid in twelve years next ensuing ; whereof 
thirty millions are to proceed out of all victuals, 
and two and forty millions out of lands, rents, 
encomiendas, dehezas, sheep-courses, pasturages, 
etc. Touching the marriage, all here be still in / 


most firm hope it will proceed. I am sure the 
Infanta proceeds very cheerfully to learn Eng- 
lish. We say the new Pope's approbation is 
come; I dare say it is granted: and we think 
that when the Queen is brought in bed, then 
presently shall be the desposorios or espousals; 
and so great feasts for both, all in one. The In« 
fanta's household is not yet appointed, but shall 
be so soon as the espousals are performed ; and 
already, for the appointing and ordering of her 
chapel and ecclesiastical officers, it is referred to 
the Bishop of Segovia, to Padre Fray Francisco 
de Jesus, whom you know, and to Padre Fray 
Juan de los Angeles, who was confessor to Don 
Pedro de Zuniga (now Marquis de Flores de 
Ahila) when he was embassador in England. 
Here was a rumor that the West India galleons 
of plate did not come home this autumn till the 
next spring ; but now we have advice from Seville, 
that they are certainly coming and daily expected, 
and that in all they bring about fourteen millions ; 
good news for the Genoese, who commonly get 
most for their share. I had almost forgot to tell 
your Grace, that amongst many it is laid to your 
charge that the Prince had been Catholic if you 
had not hindered him. Whereunto I beseech you 
give me leave to add a few words for a conclu- 
sion, wherein I do most humbly, and upon my 
knees, entreat your Grace to have a care, above 
all, of your soul, and, omitting all these rumors 


and worldly matters, to inform yourself sincerely 
and indifferently about matters of Catholic reli- 
gion ; for although here, peradventure, it was not 
so convenient, yet now there it would not be neg- 
lected. Good my lord, I do (and ever have done) 
avow and profess myself a loyal subject and yet 
a Catholic ; and aflSrm and can prove it, that he 
is no good Catholic who is not a loyal subject, and 
that the best subjects are true Catholics. We are 
deeply slandered in this point, and some points 
of Catholic doctrine in this particular much per- 
verted. You have there (my lord) your own 
mother, whom all men commend for a discreet 
woman ; you have your father-in-law, the Earl of 
Rutland, generally reported to be a wise man. 
I beseech your Grace hear them, or confer with 
such as they can and wul appoint you. I can say 
no more ; but settle your soul in good estate with 
God, and so he will guide all worldly matters the 
better for you : and to his goodness, with all 
humble sincerity, I betake your Grace. 

James Wadesworthe.* 

Madrid, 11° Nov. 1623. 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. p. 316. 

This man was an unprincipled renegade. He was educated 
at Emmanuel College in Cambridge, thence went to Seville and 
Madrid: having adopted the Roman Catholic persuasion, he was 
afterwards educated by the Jesuits at St. Omer's. At riper 
years he again changed round to Protestantism, and was con- 
cerned in the prosecution against Laud. He was a man of 
most infamous character, adapting his religion and his prin- 





[Miscellaneous News.] 

My very good Lord, 

I WILL begin this letter with recommending 
unto your favor the bearer hereof, my cousin Si- 
mon Digbye, who, for his introduction with 
your lordship, shall give a very particular account 
of all our business here. 

Yet I cannot omit but with much joy to let 
you know that our worthy young master hath 
left this Court with the love and admiration of 
all men, for in the whole time of his being here 
he hath not done any one action to which they 
can take exception ; but hath by his constancy, 
patience, ability to treat in his own business, and 
his freeness from all sort of vice, won all men's 
hearts unto him. Whatsoever your lordship may 
hear of the discontent in which the English are 
gone, it will consist in some wants, which either 

ciples to his interests. " A renegado proselyte turncoat," (as 
Sanderson styles him,) " of any religion and every trade, and 
is now living, 1655, a common hackney to the basest catchpole 
bailiffs ; and to boot, a justice of peace, in his bench-book, 
enters him and his wife pimp and bawd in his precinct." 

The above letter is an ingenious specimen of stabbing a man 
under the mask of friendship, a cool and effectual way of vent- 
ing malice in the garb of candor. 

KING JAMES. . 321 

the hardness of the country or omissions of the 
officers have caused ; as want of coaches, car- 
riages, lodgings, and such like: but this Prince 
and King are parted like brothers, with the great- 
est profession of love and friendship that ever I 
heard, as your lordship will see by the copy of 
the speeches which passed betwixt them at their 
departure, and by their letters since, which this 
bearer will give unto your lordship, if you desire 

His Highness hath likewise won much honor 
by his bounty at his departure ; having presented 
the King, Queen, and all the Court, as your 
lordship will see by the list of his gifts, which 
this bearer will likewise give unto your lordship. 

As for the main business, I doubt not but all 
will be punctually performed according to the 
capitulations; and therefore, whatsoever your 
lordship may hear, I entreat you to be slow to 
believe anything to the contrary. 

I have recommended divers things unto the 
relation of this bearer, and therefore I shall not 
detain your lordship any longer; but only en- 
treat you to hold me in your love and good 
opinion until I shall deserve the contrary, And 
so, wishing unto your lordship all increase of hap- 
piness, I rest 

Your lordship's humble and faithful servant, 

Madrid, the 8th of 7ber 1623, st. vet. BRISTOL.* 

* Orig. Hoi. Harl. 1580. f. 128. 
VOL. 11. Y 



Note. — ^The abrupt termination of the Spanish match has been 
generally attributed to Buckingham's impatience and ambition ; 
more than all, to his jealousy of Digby. Buckingham (poor 
fellow !) had the misfortune to be a favorite, and in that one 
ominous word was supposed to be concentred all the villany 
of all the Spencers, and of all others that ever had been, or were 
supposed to have been, favorites. Men saw themselves justified 
in attributing to his influence all that was untoward or unpo- 
pular in the proceedings of the government. (How vastly must 
kings or favorites have improved of late years !) Of course, 
therefore, the dilatory, and in the event unfortunate, manage- 
ment of this Spanish treaty was thrown upon the Duke's 
shoulders. We claim our readers' indulgence for a word or two 
on this subject. 

Granting that personal feelings might hsive weighed with 
Buckingham in urging his return, (to which he was most ear- 
nestly solicited by all correspondents from England,) — granting 
that a speedy return was actually necessary for his self-pre- 
servation, and to disperse the designs of his enemy ; we have 
a clear proof that Buckingham did not suffer these influences 
to act until he was positively commanded by James to return, 
and had clearly seen, if not the unwillingness of the Spaniard 
to proceed in the match, at least the danger which must ine- 
vitably follow by the Prince's further sojourn in Spain. 

On the 10th of August the King wrote to his son : " I sent 
you a commandment long ago not to lose time where ye are, 
but either to bring quickly home your mistress, which is my 
earnest desire ; but, if no better may be, rather than to linger 
any longer there, to conie without her, which for many important 
reasons I am now forced to renew : and therefore I charge you, 
upon my blessing, to come quickly, either with her or without 
her. I know your love to her person hath enforced you to de- 
lay the putting in execution of my former commandment. I 
confess that it is my chiefest worldly joy that ye love her ; 
but the necessity of my affairs enforceth me to tell you, that you 
must prefer the obedience to a father to the love ye carry to a 
mistress." — Hardw. i. 447. 

In answer to this, the Prince (the Duke being sick of an ague) 
writes to his father on the 20th of the same month : *♦ The 


cause why we have been so long in writing to you is, that we 
would try all means possible (before we would send you word) 
to see if we cmild move them to send the Infanta before winter. 
They, for form'ft sake, called the Divines, and they stick to 
their old resolution ; but we find, by circumstances, that con- 
science is not the true, but seeming^ cause of the Infanta's stay. 
To conclude : we have wrought wha^ we can ; but since we can- 
not have her with us that we desired, our next comfort is, that 
we hope shortly to kiss your Majesty's hands."— Hardw. i. 448. 

In the last letter, written just before they set out, (Sept. 1,) 
Buckingham writes in a postscript to the King : '< I bring all 
things with me you have desired, except the Infanta, which hath 
almost broken my heart, because yours, your son's, and the na- 
tion's honor is touched by the miss of it ; but since it is their fault 
here, and not ours, we will bear it the better : and, when I shall 
•have the happiness to be at your feet, you shall then know the 
truth of all, and no more." — Hardw. i. 451. 

The result was, (as every one knows,) that the treaty was 
broken off, the Palatinate being an insuperable bar; the Spaniard 
refusing to make any concession, and desiring the King to leave 
it to their honor to do something in accordance to his wishes 
when the match was concluded. To this he would not consent. 

Some writers will have it, that the article of the Palatinate 
was a. mere ruse for getting rid of the match. But throughout 
the whole series of papers which it has been my lot to peruse, 
(both published and unpublished,) it has always appeared a 
real and substantial article. Can it still be doubted, after the 
letters which have been printed in this volume ? if so, then let 
the reader peruse the unpublished correspondence of the Pals- 
grave and others,8til] preserved in the Bodleian. 

As to the match having been broken by a quarrel between 
the favorites, I believe it not ; nor do I believe any serious 
quarrel existed between them at this time. Such a rumor had 
its origin probably in the vulgar notion, which imagines that, 
because two men are poetically opposed, in private life they 
must needs level their daggers at each other's throats. At least 
I have some reason for this doubt; for in a letter, written 
in the succeeding spring by the Duke to Sir Walter Aston, the 

Y 2 


following passage occurs : '* I have sent viols and books for the 
King of Spain ; I know he will take pleasure in them, because 
they be the best in the world : but because, coming from here, 
they may be the less pleasing, / have directed them to the 
Cande of OlivareSy through whose hands they will be the better re- 
ceived^^-^^nav}. MS. 1580. p. 24. 

Does this give any countenance to the sinister reports of the 
times, and to the equally veracious and ridiculous charge, that 
Buckingham pointedly offended the Spanish nobility, and the 
Condessa of Olivares in particular ? (See p. 317.) This lady, 
then, must have had a very forgiving temper, for Sir Walter 
Aston, in a postscript of one of his letters to the Duke, written 
in the autumn of 1623, says to him: "The Condessa of Oli- 
vares bids me tell you, that she kisses your Grace's hand, and 
doth every day recommend you particularly by name in her 
prayers to God." 

Buckingham's quarrel with the favorite was probably of a 
subsequent date, originating in a direct insult offered to King 
James, and more particularly to himself. The Marquis of 
Inoiosa, the Spanish embassador in this Court, had endea- 
vored, in a secret and disgraceful manner, to prejudice the King 
against the Prince and the Duke. Being required, and found 
UBftble, to prove his allegations, he was dismissed from the Eng- 
lish Court, and satisfaction was demanded for this scandal ; 
" but the Conde of Olivares, with a strong and violent hand, 
delivered him from any exemplary punishment, which would 
certainly have been inflicted upon him had he been left to the 
Council of State," (says Sir W. Aston to the Duke,) "and, without 
care either of the King his master's honor or engagement, hath 
saved the Marquis, and left the envy of it upon his Majesty, if 
the King our master will so please to understand it." — Cab. p. 9. 

The insults which Olivares subsequently offered to Gondo- 
mar, Buckingham's personal friend, and a great advocate for 
the match, would doubtless widen the breach and make the 
renewal of the treaty impossible. But, of course, Olivares* 
jealousy of Gondomar would cause him throughout to throw 
every obstacle in the way of the successful consummation of 
this treaty, if he was not abstractedly unfriendly to it, from 
hatred and fear of his rival. 



[Examination of Cranfield Earl of Middlesex.] 

* * * Since my return here, hath been 
nothing done, either in Parliament or our own 
House, which I could give you any. account of, 
any otherwise than by common fame. I am sure 
you hear; viz. the examination of my Lord 
Treasurer his actions, which have been sifted by 
the Lower House, who yesterday met with the 
Upper at Whitehall, and have rendered him up 
as a man convicted of many extortions and cor- 
ruptions, and wrongful impositions upon the 
King's subjects, and evil advice ta the King him- 
self. In some it is surely thought he will be de: 
prived of his place and honors, if the sentence 
go no further. For our House, we have taken 
advice of a bill touching prohibitions, which is 
passed the Lower House, giving scope to prove 
the suggestion before the Judges of Assize in 
the country. We have drawn a petition to 
the Lords of the Upper House Committees 
about the bill, and presented reasons against it 
yesterday. We do not think it will pass. There 
is another bill in the Lower House on foot, to 
enable ministers to take leases. This was yester- 
day committed ; Mr. Selden had the chair. All 
agreed to pass it. But Sir Peter Heyman, (once 
my pupil, as you may remember,) with some 
others, would have a restriction, that non-resi- 


dents^ and such as have many livings^ might take 
no benefit by it. After the end of the com- 
mittee, sundry took him in hand. Myself at 
last discovered myself to him, and told him I 
commended his zeal to redress abuses, but this 
course was not proper for it. Let them restore 
the ministry to the common liberty and right of 
citizens, and they should have the more justifiable 
reason to take in hand the reforming of the abuse, 
&c. It is to be heard again by the committees ; 
he tells me, that assuredly the House will not 
pass it without some limitations. * ♦ * 

London, 16th of April 1624.t 


[Giving him an account of his negociation for different works 

of art abroad.] 

My Lord, 

Since I wrote to you by Sir James Arthur 
Long, an affair has been submitted to me, the 
importance of which made me resolve not to set 
out the day after for Rome without first inform- 
ing your Excellency of it; and inasmuch as I 


Depuis que j*ay escript a vos, Ex. par le Schevallier Jhaemes 
Arter Lonij, m'a est6 represent^ un affaire, dont I'importance 
m*a faict resoudre de ne partir le lendemain pour R. ayant 
que la comuniquer a vos. Exc. ; et d'aultant que je considerois 

t Orig, Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. p. 357- 


considered that a reply from you by letter would 
be too late, or might be inconvenient, I resolved 
to post with all speed, in order to communicate 
this business to your Excellency by word of 
mouth, and so in a week to return with a prompt 
answer and resolution, whereby my diligence in 
my journey would be but little diminished. To 
this; resolution I joined its execution, and came 
with all speed to Boulogne, where I found the 
wind so contrary, and the sea so rough, and my 
stomach so indisposed, that, my courage and re- 
solution failing, I have again recourse to pen 
and paper, and resolve to send by those who en- 
dure the sea better than I can ; hoping that your 
Excellency will take the trouble to consider and 
read it, and to let me have a prompt reply at 
Calais by the first that is coming there. 

que la reponsse par lettres de vostre part seroit trop longue 
ou peut estre incomode, je m'estois resolu de prendre la poste 
en toutte diligence pour comuniquer ceste afaire de bouche a 
vos. Ex. et ainssy avecque une promte responsse et resolution 
retourner en une semaine, laquelle n'amoindriroit que fort 
peu de la diligence que je feray a mon voyage. A ceste reso* 
lution j*ay adjoutte le feet, et suis veni en toutte diligence 
jusques a Boulogne, oii j'ay trouv6 le vent sy contraire, la 
mer sy turbullante, et mon- estomac sy mal dispos6, que j'ay 
failly de courage en ma resolution, aiants repris recours a la 
plume et h, ce papier lequel je me resous d'envoyer par ceux 
quy endurent mieux le mer que moy ; esperant que vos. Exc. 
prendra la peyne de le considerer et lire, et me faire,aveoir 
une promte responce a Calais, par le premier quy viendera. 


In order properly to represent this matter to 
your Excellency, I must begin by the story oi 
the pictures, which form one of the objects at 
which alL this is aimed. I mentioned, in my 
former letter by Sir James Arthur Long, the 
large and rare paintings in possession oi a person 
called President Chevallier, who has also some 
antique heads in marble and in bronze, the whole 
neither to be sold nor to be given away without 
some scheme ; but I have sworn to myself, as I 
did about the Prelate of Venice, that we must 
have them or I lack invention, for, as they are 
the ornament of a handsome house in France, 
they must be jewels at York House. These 
paintings and these heads, five thousand pounds 
sterling in tapestry, rich with gold and silver 

Pour doncques bien remontrer a vos. Ex. ceste affaire, il 
faut commencer par le recit de tableaux lesquels sont una 
des buttes ou icelle tend. J 'ay faict mention en ma precedente 
lettre de S. Jaems Artur Lonij,* des grands et rares tableaux 
apartenans a un nomm6 le President Chevallier, lequel a aussy 
quelque testes entiques, de marine et de bronse, touttes n'estans 
ny a vendre ny a donner, sy ce n'est par quelque invention ; mais 
j*ay jur6 en moy mesme comme je fis du prelat de Venise, 
qu'il les faut aveoir ou bien manquer d 'invention, car comme 
elles sont Tornement d*une belle mayson en France, il faut 
qu'elles soient des joyeaux de Jorck-bous. Ces tableaux et 
ces testes cinq mille livres sterlincx en tapisseries riches d'or, 

• Long (?) 


and silk, and made after a pattern by- Raphael, 
and one hundred and fifty thousand francs in 
cash, which make fifteen thousand pounds ster- 
ling, are within the centre and circumference of 
this business ; I fear the long recital of it will 
make your Excellency as weary as I am vexed 
at the sea, that prevents my seeing your blessed 

This is the matter. The very day that I had 
given my last letter to S. James Arthur Long, 
a stranger came to see me, who had heard that I 
was in the employ of the Duke of Buckingham, 
and who, as I very well remarked, had taken no- 
tice of the pictures which I had been looking for; 
he addressed me in these words: The marriage 
concluded, people were now only anxious for the 
arrival of the Duke of Buckingham, whose virtue 

d'argent et de soye faittes sur le patron de Raphael, et cent 
cinquante miiie francx d'argent contant, quy sont quinse milie 
livres sterlincx, sont dedens le circuit et centre de ceste affaire^ 
dent le long recit j'ay peur lassera vos. Exc. aultant comma 
je me fasche centre la mer quy m'enpesche de veoir vostre bien 
heureux visage. 

C'est issy Taffaire. Ce jour roesme que j'avois donn6 ma 
derniere lettre k S. Jaems Artur Lonij m'est venu trouver un 
homme incognu lequel ajant ouij dire que j'estois serviteur du 
Due de Buckingham, et a ce que je remarqnois forf bien avoit 
pris cognoissance des tableaux que j'avois cherch6, me diet ces 
paroUes, que le tnariage maintenant conchy Von n'attendoit aultre 
que la venue du Due de Buckingham, dont la vertu et la faveur 
en un temps sy extraordinaire ne pouroit manquer quil naquist le 


md popularity, in a time so extraordinary, could 
not fail of acquiring for him the power of doing 
any good service to whom he would ; that if it 
were the will and favor of the Duke to show it 
to one who cast the anchor of his hopes upon 
his arrival, that not only he would present him 
with all the pictures which I had seen, but also 
50,000 francs' worth of Raphael tapestry, and a 
present of 150,000 francs besides. 

I answered him in this manner : 

That, though a servant of the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, my passion did not transport me to say 
more of him than all the world to whom he was 
known allowed to be his right, that his other vir- 
tues had produced this one in him, that nothing 
could more incline him to act virtuously than 
the love of virtue itself; and that, as he was 
devoted to worthy and exalted things, he was an 

pauveoir defaire quelque bon coup a quelqu*un ; que sy c'estoist la 
volonti et la faveur du Due de le demontrer envers im lequel 
jettoit tencre de son esperance en sa ijcnue^ que non seulement il 
ha/ seroil faict present de tout les tableaux que favois veu, mais 
aussy de cinquante mille frans en tapisseries de Raphael^ et nn 
present de cent cinquante mille francx* 

Je luy fis responsse en c6ste maniere : 

Que pour estre serviteur du Due de Buckiugham, la passion 
ne me traneportoit i dire plus que tout le monde quy le cog- 
noist luy donnent ce droict ; que les vertus ont faict naistre en 
luy ceste vertu, qu'il ne fust jamais plus inclinn^ a faire du 
bien que pour I'amour de la vertu mesme, et que comme il 
estoit adonn6 aus cboses dignes et relevees, il estoit ennemy 


enemy of all that is base and low^ more especially 
avoiding the having his eye or his hand in the di^ 
rection of lines which are not perpendicular, that 
is to say, meddling with any affair unjust or con- 
temptible, much less would he be concerned in 
any thing that was mercenary. 

On this he made answer, that the reputation 
that went abroad of your Excellency was no 
other, and this was the reason they had rested 
their hopes on so good a foundation ; that truly, 
in deciphering your natural character, he had on a 
superficial view a leaning a little towards an un- 
favorable opinion ; that he must now observe, that 
an offence and unjust cause attaches no shame to 
him who : intercedes for a pardon ; and as it is 
the virtue and privilege of a judge to use pity as 
well as justice, so it was no common glory to him 
by whose means a pardon is obtained, and without 

des choses basses et viiles^ evittant sur tout d'aveoir Toeuil ou la 
main tirant aux lignes quy ne sont perpendicullaires, c'est a 
dire, de se meller d'une chose injuste ou contemtible^ combien 
moins mercenaire* 

Sur quoy ii me fist responsse, que la renorom^e quy couroit 
de vos. Exc. n'estoist aultre, et que c'estoit la cause qu*ils 
avoient dress^ leurs esperance sur un sy bon fondement ; que 
vraiement luy aiant, en deschifrant yos. naturel, un peu donn6 
sur un mal, quy est la fasse de Fafaire, il estoit contraint de 
respondre que une offence et cause injuste n'aportte point de 
hontte a celuy quy intercedde pour pardon ; et comme c'est la 
vertu et le pouvoir d'un juge d'user de sa misericordde comme 
de sa justice, aussy c'estoist une gloire non comune a cel^y quy 


any exception of the crime, so long as it does not 
approach to either murder or treason. To describe 
then the afiair in brief, he said that a certain 
derk of a financier of the King had been guilty 
of some forgetfulness in the exercise of the 
equity of his charge, who being absent and ex- 
iled for fear of being taken prisoner, not only on 
account of his own person, but of the reputation 
of his master, who was not accused nor known in 
the matter, and whose ruin would be great and 
deplorable if the said clerk were to be constrained 
to come to a day of trial to render his accounts ; 
for then his little fault would be the cause of the 
discovery of the infirmity of his master, and per^ 
haps, as I think, of others, who, as links of a 
chain, depend one upon the other ; so that, if it 
were possible to obtain the pardon of the ser- 
vant, the pot aux roses would not be discovered. 

est cause du pardon sens exeption de crime quand elle ne 
louche au meurtre ou la trahison. Pour donques le descripre ' 
au plus bref. II dist qu^un certain comis de Jinansier du Roy 
c'estoist oublie k Texercisse de Tequitt^ de sa charge, lequel 
estant apsente et exill6 de peur d'estre pris prisonnier, non 
seulement pour sa personne mais pour le respect de son maistre> 
lequel n'estoit pas acus6 ny cognu, dont la ruinne ceroit grande 
et desplorable sy le diet commis seroit contraint de venir au 
jour du jugement rendre conte. Car allors sa petitte faulte 
seroit cause de la descouverture de Tinfirmit^ de son maistre, 
et pent estre^ a ce que je remarque, d'aultres, lesquels comme 
agneaus d'une chaine despendent les uns des aultres : que s*il 


They imagine and assure themselves it would 
be easy for your Excellency to obtain this par- 
don at a time so extraordinary; and promise 
to find means and inventions so honorable, 
that the affair should succeed to your satis- 
faction, and that to the day of judgment there 
should be nothing known of it. They make no 
difficulty as to the success of this affair, if your 
Excellency would but undertake the matter; 
and as for the offer which they have made, 
with a thousand protestations and vows, they 
think that a present has no savor of any thing 
mercenary ; and since even the gods refuse 
not offerings, that great men cannot be sullied 
by accepting them. They have only a fortnight 
to wait for your determination and favorable 
answer; that, if in that time they could have 
your answer, they would delay the matter 

estoit possible d*aveoir le pardon du serviteur, le pot aux roses 
ne seroit point descouvert. Ce qu'ils s'imaginent et s'aseurent 
que seroit fassille a vos. Exc. d'acquerir ce pardon en un temps 
sy extraordinaire, et ce promettent de trouver des moiens et 
inventions sy honnorables que la chose reuciroit a vos. contente- 
menty et qu'au jour de Teternitt^ il n'en seroit jamais rien sceu« 
lis ne font difficult^ au reusiment de I'affaire, sy vos. £xc« veust 
acepter le party, et pour TofFre qu'ils ont faict, avecque mille 
protestations et voeux, ils croient que un present ne resent 
nullement d'un merssenaire ; et puis que les Dieux ne refusent 
les offrandes, que les grands ne peuvent estre entach6 de visse 
les acceptant lis n'ont que quinse jours de temps pour atr 


till the time that your Excellency would be 

I made them this answer, that I feared to en- 
tertain any thoughts of any thing that could 
give you offence, much less would I do any such 
thing ; and that I could not but hesitate to give- 
them at once an absolute answer ; but I would, 
however, endeavor to learn your pleasure, hop- 
ing that your great goodness will pardon me if 
I offend in doing so. I told them that I would 
write, and in the meanwhile I would make a 
trip to Tours, Orleans, and those quarters, to the 
Ambassadors. I said too that I had received 
news of my wife, who was very unwell, and so 
I was going post to England. They had nothing 
to charge me with except their compliments. I 
then thought in my miiid, that it was my duty. 

tendre vos. resolution et favorable grace, que sy en ce temps 
lis peuvent aveoir responsse ils trainneront Tafaire, jusques au 
temps que vos. Exc. sera issy. 

Je leur ay respondu que je craignois de penser auqu'une 
chose quy vous pouroit ofiencer, combien moins le faire ; et que 
pour leur rendre une apsolutte resolution d'abort, cela me don- 
noit bien du penssement, mais toutesfois que je tenterois de 
saveoir vos. plaisir, esperans que sa toutte bont6 me pardon- 
nera sy je I'offensse en se faisant. Je leur ay dist que j'escri- 
verois, et qu'en attendant je ferois un petit voyage h Tours, 
Orleans, et ces quartiers U, aux Ambassadeurs. J 'ay diet que 
j'avois receu nouvelles de mafemme, laquelle estoit fort mallade, 
et ainssy m'en allois en poste en £ngleterre ; ils ne m'ont rien 


my sweet lord and more than father, to inform 
your Excellency of this affair ; and, in order to 
gain time, not spare myself the trouble of go- 
ing post to London instead of to Orleans ; from 
which place, as I proposed, I should have been 
able to return in a week, had the sea been 
favorable, for I arrived in twenty-four hours at 
Boulogne by muddy roads. 

I think I remark that the President, who has 
the pictures, has an interest in the business, for 
he was very complaisant one day when I went 
to see him, and said to me laughing. No, no, sir, 
they are not to be sold at all ; and I replied only 
with the word But, without saying any thing 
more. And I am well convinced, that the man 
who spoke with me looked that way, and I suspect 
will not say his name, nor the name of him who 

encharg6 sinou leurs recommandations. J'ay donques ima- 
ging en mon esprit que c'estoit mon deveoir, mon doux Seigneur 
et plus que pere, de faire cognoistre c6ste affaire i vostre 
Exc. et pour gaigner temps de n'espargner la peyne de courir la 
poste vers Londres au lieu d'drleans. Duquel lieu, comme je 
m'estois propos^ j'eusse peu estre de retour en une semaine sy la 
mer me youloit estre favorable. Car je suis venu en vintequatre 
heures k Boulogne, par les chemains fengeux. 

A ce que je remarque, le President quy a les tableaux a de 
rinsterest en ceste affaire, car il me fist bonne mine un jour 
que je I'alay veoir, et me dist en riant, Non, non, Monsieur, ils 
ne sont point i vendre ; et j'adjouttoit le mot de Mais, sens 
plus rien dire, et j'ay bien veu que cest homme quy parloit sl 


employs him, until they know your will; then 
they will discover themselves. There are many 
things to say that cannot be expressed in writ- 
ing, for fear of weisirying your patience too much« 
If it please your Excellency to speak in this busi- 
ness, these pictures will come into our hands with 
all the rest The tapestries are on the road from 
Antwerp to Paris ; and, for the other sum, they 
promise, as I have said, fifteen thousand pounds 
sterling. I think, my lord, that coming for a 
week out of the journey undertaken will not re* 
tard business; for, now the marriage is accom<*> 
plished, friendship has its turn, as your Excel* 
lency knows. At Rome there will be more 
i opportunity and means of having something, 

I and thither I shall hurry post with all speed as 

soon as I receive your Excellency's answer about 


moy inclinoit vers ce cott6 la, et fort suspects ne veust dire son 
nom, ny le nom de cil qui! I'envoye, jusques a ce qu'ils ayent 
line responsse de vostre volont6, allors il se descouvriront. 11 
y a beaucoup de choses k dire que la plume n*est capable 
d*esprimer de peur de troubler trop long-temps vos. patience. 
S'il plaist a vos. Exc. de prendre la volont6 de parler pour 
c^ste affaire, ces tableaux nous tomberont en mains et toutte la 
reste« Les tapisseries sont en chemain d'Envers qu'il faict venir 
a Paris ; et pour I'aultre somme, Us promettent comme j*ay diet 
quinse mille livres sterlincx. Je croy, Monseigneur, que venant 
une semaine faors du voyage entrepris, que cela ne retardera 
rien les affaires, car maintenant le manage acomply, Tamitie a 
ce lieu que vos. Exc. S9ait k R. il j'aura encore plus d'affaire et 
moien d*aveoir quelquc chose, ou je m'envolleray en poste en 


this business. If your Excellency undertakes 
this affair, I will leave uiy address at Paris^ and 
will, as becomes me, advise your Excellency of 
every thing. However I will not do as John 
Tredescant, who asks pardon at the beginning; 
for as your Excellency well replied to him at 
Newhall, that, for him who has an evil purpose 
to offend, asking pardon first is not enough : but 
at the end, on my knees, my lord, I ask pardon, if 
my ignorant zeal has made me slip into any fault. 
During the time I have been in Paris, I have not 
passed one hour without searching after some 
rarity ; and I should have stayed there but four 
days, had it not been, as I thought, very neces- 
sary that I should find out all that there is in 
Paris ; and I never could have thought that they 
had so many rare things in France, all which are to 

toute dilligence aussy tost que j'auray responsse de vos. Exc. 
sur ceste affaire. Sy vos. Exc. accepte I' affaire, je laisseray 
adresse a Paris, et donneray advis de tout a vos. Exc. comme 
il faut. Maintenant je ne feroy comme Jhean Tredescant, lequel 
demande pardon au commencement. Car comme vos. Exc* 
luy responda bien k Nieni'ohai que celuy quy a un mauvaiis 
vouloir d'offencer, demander pardon auparavant n'est pas assez. 
Mais a la fin ^ genous, Monseig% je vous demande pardon sy 
mon ignorant zelle m'a faict glisser en quelque faute ; poiir le 
temps que j'ay est6 a Paris, je n'y ay est6 une heure sens 
chercher apres quelque raret^, et n'y eusse demeur6 que quattre 
jours, n'estoit que j'ay jug6 estre fort nessesaire que je trou- 
vasse tout ce qu'il i a en Paris, et n'eusse jamais penss6 qu'il 
i auroit tent de rare choses en France, lesquelies doivent to\its 



come into your hands at your happy arrival. I 
beg your Excellency yet to read the other sheets 
and you will there see three rare pictures of 
Michael Angelo Raphael. It is, my Icnrd, be- 
cause since my last 1 have found at the house of 
the Bishop of Paris three of the most rare pic- 
tures that can be. The first is a St. Francis, 
a good-sized painting, from the hand of the 
Cavalier Ballion, as good as Michael Angelo 
Carazoago ; and the other a picture of our Lady 
by Raphael, which is repainted by some devS 
who I trust was hanged ; but still it is so lovely^ 
and the drawing is so fine, that it is worth a 
thousand crowns. There is another picture of 
Michael Angelo Bonnarotta ; but that should be 
seen kneeling, for it is a Crucifixion, with the 
Virgin and St. John, — the most divine thing in 

tomber entre vos mains a vostre heureuse arivee. Je supplie 
vos. £xc. de lire encore Tautre feuille et vous i voyrez trois 
rares tableaux de Michel Angel Rapael. C'est, Monseig% que 
depuis ma demiere j'ay trouv6 cbez TEvesque de Paris trois 
les plus rares tableaux que ce pent. Le premier c*est un St. 
Fran9ois, assez grand tableau, de la main du Cavallier Ballioa 
aussy bon que Michel Angelo Carazoago,* et Taultre un tableau 
d'une Nostre Dame de Raphael, laquelle a este repintie par 
quelque diable qu'il fust pendu, mais toutesfois encore sy 
amiable et le traict sy beau que sela vaut mille escus. Encore 
un aultre tableau de Michel Angelo Bonnarotta, mais il faut 
Teoir cela a jenous, car c'est un Crucifix avecque la Vierge et 

* Corasiago. 


the world. I have been such an idolater as to 
kiss it three times^ for there is nothing that ean 
be more perfect. It is a miniature. I have a 
hundred thousand things to say^ but I ofibnd 
too much in trespassing so long upon your pa^ 
tience. I have met with a most beautiful piece 
of Tintoret, of a Danae, a naked figure the 
most beautiful, that flint as cold as ice might 
fall in love with it. I have given twenty 
crowns in hand ; it costs, with another head of 
Titian, sixty pounds sterling. I have given also 
twenty crowns in hand for the Gorgon's head; 
it costs two hundred crowns. I have •not yet * 
paid for them, because I was not willing to 
draw bills until I knew how much I should 
employ at Paris, which I shall know when I 
leave. But^ my lord, after your Excellency shall 

St. Jhean, la plus divine chose da monde. J 'ay faict tant de 
ridoUattre que je Pay bais^ trois fois, car il n'y a rien quy puisse 
passer a la perfection. II est en petit. J'ay cent mille de choses 
k dire, mais j'ofence trop h tenter si longtemps vos. passianoe. 
J'ay rencontre la plus b^le piesse Tintoret d'une Dane, un corpa 
tout nudy le plus beau^ qu'un caliQu froit de glasse en devien* 
deroit amoureux. J'ay donne vint escus en main; elle couste 
avecque une aultre teste de Titian, soisante livres sterlincx. 
J'ay donn6 aussy vint escus en main sur la teste de Jorgon ; 
couste deux cents escus. Je ne le^ ay pas encore pay6y parce 
que je n'ay pas voulu tirer argent sur mes papiers jusques a ce 
que je sache combien j'«mplieray a Paris, ce que je sauray 
quand je partiray. Mais, Monseigneur, appres que vos. Ex. 

z 2 


have made a large collection, I beg of you to 
attack Mons' de Montmorency, for he has the 
most beautiful statues that can be spoken of;; 
that is to say. Two Slaves by Michael Angelo, and 
some others. He is so liberal that he will not 
refuse them. I beg of you to mention it to 
Mons"" de Flat, for perhaps he has some friends 
about him. I hope that your Excellency will 
carry away fine things from France, particularly 
the sweet Lady, of whom the Embassadors com- 
mand me to say to your Excellency, that she 
esteems herself as happy as if she were to have the 
* monarch of all kings ; and she was so transported 
with joy that she would not speak coyly, but 
she was forced to confess before all the world, 
that since it was true that my lord the Prince 
was a prince in all points, so accomplished, and 

aura ainass6 beaucoup, je la supplie de donner battaille a 
Mods'* de Momoranssy, car i1 a les plus belles statues que dire 
ce peut ; assaveoir, Deux Esclaves de Michel Angelo, et encore 
aultres. II est sy liberal qu*il ne les refusera pas. Je vous 
prie toucher en a Mons*^ de Fiat^ car peut estre il a quelqueB 
amis envers luy. J'espere que vos. Ex. renportera de belles 
choses de France, principalement la doulce Madame dont les 
ambassadeurs me commenderent de faire ce recit k vos. Ex. 
que elle se reputoit sy heureuse comme sy elle devoit aveoir le 
monarq de tout le rois, et qu'elle estoit sy transpertee de joye 
qu*elle ne vouloit pas faire la petitte bouche, mais qu*elle estoit 
contrainte de le confesser devant tout le monde que puis que 
e'estoit la veritte, que Monseig^ le Prince estoist un prince sy 
accomply, & sy parfaict et adroit en toutte pars, qu*elle avoit 


SO perfect, and expert, she had two-fold reason 
to love and honor him ; adding this parenthesis, 
(that if Nature had not been so favorable to him 
as to give him a good figure, that nevertheless 
it was neeejssary she 3hould have him for reasons 
of state,) but since he was so accomplished, her 
happiness was complete. I hope also, my lord, 
that your hopes will be accomplished in spite 
of the Spanish factions, that may now well go 
to the Chateau de Crevecoeur. The picture of 
the Secretary of Titian I send by the bearer, to 
be delivered at York House to my father- 
in-law, who will put it in a frame. It is a 

I beg, my lord, if it be possible, do me the 
favor to let me have an answer to this busi- 
ness at Calais ; so that, if your Excellency does 
not find the business convenient, they may try 

double ocasion de raimer et de rhonnorer, adjouttant ceste 
parantese (que quand bien la Nature ne luy eust est6 favorable 
de Taveoir rendu bien faict, que pourtant il le faudroit aveoir 
par raison d'estat), mais puis qu'il estoit sy acomply, que sa 
felicitte estoit accomplie. J'espere aussy, Monseig^ que ce sera 
I'acomplie de vostre esperance en despite des factions Espag- 
nolles, quy peuvent bien aller k present au Chateau de Creve- 
coeur. Le tableau du Secretaire de Titian je I'envoye par ce 
porteur pour le faire tenir k Jorck hous k mon beau perre quy 
le mettera sur un chassis. Cest uii joyau. 

Je supplie^ Monseigneur, s*il est possible, de me faire la grace 
que je puisse aveoir responsse de c^ste afaire i Calais, affin 
que sy vos. £xc. ne trouve ceste afaire convenable, Ton es- 

I' * 

;'l " 




dome other way, as I had written about Moi^^ 

Will your Excellency order that the letter 3rou 
tnay please to send me be dbected to Calais, at 
the post-ofiice, to Balthasar Gerbier. And as 
Soon as I have the answer, I will start, with- 
out losing a day, to Paris. 

If it appears to your Excellency thdt the let- 
ters I have for the little man and for Ro. are too 
cdd, it would be proper to have others; but if 
they will do, I will Isay that I have been ill iBit 

I will give so good a direction in the memo- 
randum that I leave in the hands of the Em- 
bassadors, that your Excellency will see where 
all the pictures are. But lastly, my lord, do you 
beg of Madame that she will be pleased to fur- 
nish York House; for this Mons' Chevreuse^ 

prouve quelque aultre cbemain, comme j*avois escript de Mons'' 

Vos. Exc. dbnnera ordre que la lettre qu'il luy plaira m'en- 
voyer sbit doun^ a Calais au logis de la poste a Balthasar Grer- 
bier. £t sy tost que j'auray responsse, je m*en iray, et oe tar- 
deray |>as Un jour k Paris. 

S*il setnble k vos. Exc. que les lettres que j'ay pour le petit 
homtee et pour Ro. soieut trop viielles, il en faudroit aveoir deft 
ftultr^s ; ou, sy elles servent assez, je diray que j'ay e&ik malade 
m k Paris. 

\i Je donneray sy bon adresse en la mesmolre que je laisse entne 

i^ ieis mains des embassadeurs que vos. Ex. vOira ou soht tout 

}^ tableaux. Mais sur la fin, Monseig*^, suppliez it Madatne 
qu'elfe veuilfe \Aen gamir Jorck hous Car ce Mons^ de Ctev* 


and all the folks here« are so fine, and so mag- 
nificent, and curious in their houses, that your 
Excellency will be much pleased. I beg your 
Excellency to see the apartments of this Bishop 
of Paris, and you will see in what nice order the 
pictures are arranged, and how rich every thing 
is. And, for the love of Paul Veronese, be pleash 
ed to dress the walls of the gallery : poor blank 
walls, they will die of cold this winter ! Your 
Excellency will see also here, as at the house 
of the Duke of Chevreuse, the best paintings 
are before the chimney; and approve what I 
have always said, that they always put the prin- 
cipal piece over the chimney. For all their bra- 
very, there is still magnificence in gold. But 
your Excellency will see a great mistake they 
make in the construction of their chimneys. 
These are all made of wood, which is very im- 

reuse, et tout ces jens issy, sont sy braves et sy dorez et sy 
curieux en leurs maysons que vos. £xc. se contentera beaucoup. 
Je supplie que vos. Exc. voye les chambres de c6st Esvecque 
de Paris, et icelle voira en quel bel ordre les tableaux sont acom- 
mod6z & comment tout est riche. £t pour la mor* de Paulo 
Veronnese, qu*il plaise k vos^ Exc. d*abiller les murailles de la 
gallerie : povres murailles blanches, elles moureront de froid 
cest hiver! Vostre Exc. voiera issy comme chez le Due de 
Chevreuse les meilleurs tableaux sont devint la chemin6e ; et 
aprouvera ce que j'ay tousjours diet, que Ton mait tousjours la 
principalle piesse sur la chemin^e. Pour toutte leur braverie, 
ils ja de la magnificence assez en or. Mais vos. Ex. voira une 
grande fautte qu'ils font au parament de leurs chemin6es. 

* i, €. Et pour I'amour (?) 


proper so near the fire : they are also too deep ; 
all the heat remains within. 

Moreover, there are paintings of the French 
masters. But we have the pearls of the Italians. 

I pray God, my lord, that he will finish the 
work of this holy marriage so well advanced, 
which promises to be a rampart to sustain your 

prosperity ; and that in health, long life, 

! you may enjoy the sight of your blessed plans, 

which will make Christendom happy. And 
that it will please your Grace, in the midst of 
so many millions of your servants, to do me the 
favor to allow me to be ranked as one, and 
that I may have the freedom to subscribe myself. 

Your Excellency's 
Very faithful servant until death, 

B. Gerbier. 

Boulogne, 17th Nov. 1624. 

Elles sont touttes de bois, cela est bien mal a propre aupres du 
feu ; elles sont aussy trop profondes ; toutte la challeur demeure 

Sur touttes i a des tableaux de maistres Fran9ois. Mais 
c'est nous quy avons les perles des Italiens. 

Je prie a Dieu, Monseig**, qu*il finisse Thoeuvre de se saint 
mariage sy bien avanss6 auquel promet un ranpart de soutien 

k vos. prosperite, et qu'en sant6, longue vie, youir de 

la veue de vos bien heurez dessains, quy rendront la Chrestientd 
heureuse. Et qu'il plaise k vostre Grace, au milieu de tant de 
milions de vos serviteufs, me faire ce bonheur que je puisse 
tenir ranc, et qu'avecque franchise je me puisse nommer 

De vos. Excel, le tres fidelle serviteur jusques a la mort, 
De Boulogne, ce 17 de Novemb. 1624. B, Gerbier. 


I had forgotten to say that the financier is not 
of the number of these gallants who are in prison. 

If the weather here were fine, I might per- 
haps cross over to have a prompt answer ; but I 
hope your Excellency will not forget to write, 
for all that. 

These people in the affairs that I have written 
of, failing on your side, will perhaps try the 
Queen mother : this makes it necessary to have 
an answer. 

I have sent the picture of Titian by the Gen- 
tleman servant. of Mons' de Fiat. 

J*ay oubli6 de dire que ce financier n'est pas du nombre de 
ces gedlans lesquels sont en prison. 

Sy le temps ce m'estoit au beau, je pourois bien passer pour 
aveoir prompte responsse, mais j'espere que vos. Exc. n'oubliera' 
pas d'escripre pour tout cela. 

Ces jens de I'afaire que j'ay escript faillant de vos. cott6 
pourront faire essay de la Royne mere, voila pourquoy il 
faudroit response. 

J'ay enYoy6 le tableau de Titian par le Gentilhomme servant 
de Mons' de Fiat.* 

♦ Orig. HoL Tan. Ixxiii. 392. 




^ [Proceedings against Middlesex and Bristol.] 

Gracious Patron, 

Fear to trouble you, and hope to serve you 
here, as duties do suspend my duty of attending 
you in this absence, makes it seem long as being 
heavy to bear. 

Mr. Chancellor* hath acquainted his Highness, 
or myself, with all that he hath endeavored con- 
cerning the Earl of Middlesex ; between whom 
and your Grace his faith and affection admits no 
comparison. Yet finding that his agency may 
be misjudged by such lookers-on as collect by 
effects, though, by the sense of his own integrity, 
he be confident of your Grace's good construc- 
tion, yet he would gladly be drawn off by your 
Grace's good pleasure and favor from this trust 
and employment, which he undertook with your 
Grace's consent. 

And hunibly I present my opinion, my belief 
witnessing that his heart is upright to you, it 
were better his sufficiency, good fashion, and 
natural earnestness were reserved for the public 
or your important service, and not let go to as- 
sist and serve their turns whose prosperity they 
themselves seek not by you, nor will employ 
for you. 

* Bishop Williams. 

KING JAMES. » 847 

The Earl of BristoVs interrogatories are pre- 
paring ; but, besides the slow pace they go, the 
King, I hope, hath satisfied your Grace that they 
shall attend your presence with your ease and 
conveniency. The venom of the Spanish party, 
I trust, is past The list of the colonels and 
captains I send you herewith. The fifth regi- 
ment hath cost strife and industry, but was 
taken [for] the best remedy, but that lord hath 
quit it. 

As men thrash hens at Shrovetide, I do your 
business ; and if I displease you not much, I 
am bound to your favorable interpretation and 
my good fortune, for never strong faith and 
affection was more in the dark for want of direc- 

His Majesty hath propounded to himself a 
good way, I hope, for his entire satisfaction, with- 
out speaking himself with the friar, or present- 
ing him ; whereof the account shall be given you 
when the letter is written to Sir Walter Aston, 
and approved by his Majesty, which I will first 
show to the Prince. 

There now riseth a question between Oxford 
and Southampton for precedency. Upon this 
distinction Oxford would have given place (if 
the regiments had been joined) as to the elder 
soldier ; but, going divided equally, he will not 
give away his birthright. 

Upon unkindness between Oxford and Sir 


John Wentworth, he protests against having him 
in his regiment, and the rest do so too; these 
two points are to be decided by the Prince. 
Another exception is alleged against Sir John 
Wentworth for his religion. 

I hope this morning will put an end to the 
business with the East India merchants for the 
monies to be disposed to Mr. Oliver for the 

Gracious Patron, forgive me that I have not 
put so soon end to your trouble as I meant ; of 
your goodness, pass by my defects, and see in 
me only that I am 

Your Grace's most humble servant, 

Edw. Conwey.* 

Greenwich, 14th of June 1624. 


My Lord, 

I FEEL myself obliged to tell you what I learn 
from the mouths and from the letters of some 
well-informed English, and also by my conjec- 
tures, that the difficulties that are on this side 


Je me sens oblig6 de vous dire ce que j*appren par les voix 
& par les lettres de quelques Anglois bien sensez, et encores 
par ma conjecture, que les difficultez que Ton fait dede9a pour- 

* Orig. Tan. Ixxiii. %b^, 381. 


thrown in the way may either retard or break 
up altogether the good design of this marriage ; 
for they maintain, and it is true, that the Kings 
of England have not an authority so absolute 
that they can revoke the laws and statutes made 
and authorised by the Parliament, who are the 
three estates of the realm ; which laws they hold 
for fundamental. However, the Kings may, in 
the execution of these, in some degree relax 
the rigour; and thus the present King insisted 
at the dismissal of the last meeting of Parlia- 
ment. They say besides, that never in any simi- 
lar treaty of marriage between Princes of different 
religions was more demanded than liberty of the 
person, house, and domestics; as, among other 
instances, it appears by an article expressly touch- 
ing that which was projected between the late 
Duke of Anjou and Alen9on, and the latQ Queen 

Foient ou reculer ou rumpre tout a fait le bon dessein de ce 
mariage ; car ils soustienent, et est vray, que les Rois d' Angle- 
terre n'ont pas une authority si absolue qu'ils puissent revocquer 
les loix & les statuts faits & authorisez par le Parlement, qui 
sent les trois estats du royaume, lesq^^ loix lis tienent pour 
fondamen tales. Bien peuvent les Rois en Texecution d*icelles 
se relascher aucunement de la rigueur, et ainsi la stipule d'eux 
le Roy d' a present au licenciement de ceste derniere assembl^e 
dud*' Parlement. Disent en outre que jamais en traitez sem- 
blables de mariage entre Princes de differente religion on n'a 
demand 6 autre liberty que pour la persone, maison & domes- 
tiques, come entre autres il apprit par article depr6s de celuy 
qui fut projette entre feu M. le Due d'Anjou & d'Alen9on et la 


Elizabeth of England ; and after^ by a several and 
secret article between M. le Due de Bar, last 
Duke of Lorraine, and the late Madame, sistei 
of the deceased King ; and also by others, which 
can be produced if need be. That to demand 
more, is not only to seek an impossibility, but 
also to impose a law upon a King; and that 
in a similar case, any who required more than 
what his most Christian Majesty has granted to 
his Protestant subjects, would offend him by it; 
and his services be dispensed with. That ai* 
though there were clauses and conditions on 
the subject of religicHi, written as is said by 
the King of England, and attached to the dis^ 
pensation of the Pope last deceased; yet tha^ 
the present one (better informed by Padre Mae- 
stro, who went express to Rome last year,) had 
prudently withdrawn himself from it, seeing 

feue Royne Elizabeth d*Angleterre, et depuis par article a part 
& secret entre M. le Due de Bar dernier Due de Lorraine & 
feue Madame sceur du Roy defunt, et encore par autres que 
Ton pourra produire si besoin est. Que demander davantage 
c*est non seulement vouloir I'impossible, mais aussi imposer loy 
k un souverain, et que en cas pareil qui requerroit davantage 
que ce que S. M. Tres-Chrestiene a accord^ a ses subjets de la 
religion TofTenseroit et en seroit esconduit. Que bien qu'il y 
ait eu clauses & conditions au fait de la religion conscritez come 
on dit par le Roy d'Angleterre & attach 6es a la dispense du 
Pape dernier decede, toutes fois que celuy d'aujourdbuy, mieux 
inform^ par Padre Maestro qui fut expres a Rome Tan passe, 
s'en estoit prudemment departi, voyant que le Prince de Galles 


that the Prince of Wales would by no means 
hear of it. Besides, the Parliament of England ' 
has been since held that has revived the ancient 
laws against the Recusants, as they call them. 
Also that the said Prince was, as it were, 
detained in Spain, for whose liberty the King 
his father had (*****) to give or 
engage the half of his kingdom* In the third 
place, that the said King might promise him- 
self the aitire restitution of the Palatinate, by 
the sole request and authority of the King of 
Spain with those who hold its fortresses and 
principal places ; a thing that he cannot hope of 
the King of France, nor of any other Prince in 
Christendom. It is also to be considered that 
Don Carlos de Coloma, the Embassador Extraor-* 
dinary of Spain, is still in that court, who, with 
that of Brabant, continues his efforts and dili- 

n*y Youloit aucunement entendre. Joint que le Parlem^ d'An- 
gleterre a est6 tenu depuis que a fait revivre les loix antienes 
contre les Recusans, ainsi qu'ils les appellent. D'aileurs que le 
d^ Prince estoit come detenu en Espagne po^ la liberty duquel 
le Roy son pere eust, s'il crust pere, donner ou aigager la 
moiti6 de son royaume. En troisienie lieu que led^ Roy se 
pouvoit promettre la restitution ^itiere du Palatinat par la seule 
priere et authorite du Roy d'Espagne vers ceux qui en tieneni 
les forteresses & places principales, chose qu'il ne pent esperer 
du Roy de France ne d'autre Prince en la Christient^. Eat 
aussi a considerer que Dom Carlos de Coloma^ Embassadeur 
Extraord*^® d'Espagne, est encores en ceste Court la, lequel avec 
celuy de Brabant y continue ses efforts & diligences 4 fin, 8*il 


gence there, in order, if it be possible, to form 
a connexion with the said King, making un- 
derhandedly plausible offers for the said restitu- 
tion of the Palatinate ; and they are expecting 
there, for the same purpose, Don Hurtado de 
Mendo9a, whom the King of Spain sends to 
reside there in the place of the said Coloma; 
whilst, by their correspondence on this side, they 
set in motion the same springs to traverse the 
said treaty, relying on the facility of the said 
King to be able to reimpress him with that 
opinion of the Spanish character, which the Prince 
his son and the Duke of Buckingham have not 
yet been able entirely to efface. But the worst 
for the Catholics would be, if he were to accept the 
offer made to him by some of the principal men of 
the last Parliament, — that is, to furnish him from 
his subjects with as much as France would give 
in dowry to Madame the sister of the King, — pro- 

est possible, de reaouer avec led^ Roy, faisans sous mains des 
offres plausibles de lad^ restitution du Palatinat, et y attendant 
encor au mesme efFet Don Hurtado de Mendo^a que le Roy 
d*Espagne y envoye resider au lieu dud^ Coloma, pendant que 
par leurs correspdndans dede9a ils font jouer les mesmes resorts 
pour traverser lad^' trait^, se promettans de la facilite dud^ Roy 
de luy pouvoir rimprimer le charactere Espagnol que le Prince 
son fils & le Due de Buckingham ne luy ont encore S9eu bone- 
ment efFacer. Mais le pis pour les Catholiques seroit s'il ac- 
ceptoit les offres que luy ont fait faire aucuns des principaux 
du dernier Parlem^ qui est de luy fournir par ses subjets autant 
que la France voudra donner en dot a Madame soeur du Roy, 


vided that the said Prince marry a Princess of 
his own religion, to the end, say they, that he may 
liberate himself from these importunities of Rome 
and bind himself with the Protestant party in a 
more strict and more confidential alliance, — the 
whole to the exclusion of the Catholics, and by 
this means to avoid all factions and divisions in 
their state ; besides, that by such a confederation 
with Denmark, Sweden, Holland, the Hanseatic 
Towns, and other Protestant Princes and States, 
their King would imperceptibly find himself the 
most powerful prince of his party in Europe, as 
well for defence as for any enterprise against 

That the recovery of the Palatinate is not so 
important to them, nor have they it so much at 
heart, as the preservation of their religion and 
their state. And that, in any event, the King of 

pour^u que led* Prince espouse une Princesse de sa religion, 
a fin, disent-ilsy de se liberer de ces importunitez de Rome, et 
destreindre avec le party Protestant une alliance et plus estroite 
et plus confidente, le tout k I'exclusion entiere des Ca^tholiques, 
& par ce moyen eviter toutes factions & divisions en leur estat ; 
outre que par une telle confederation avec Danemarck, Suede, 
HoUande, Villes Anseatiques, et autres Princes & Estats Pro- 
testants, leur Roy se trouveroit insensiblement le plus puissant 
Prince de son party en TEurope^ tant pour se garantir que pour 
entreprendre sur autruy* 

Que le recouvrement du Palatinat ne leur est si important, 
ni si a coeur, que la conservation de leur religion et de leur es- 
tat. Et qu'en tout evenement le Roy de la G. Bretagne a 

VOL. II. 2 A 


Great Britain has plenty of lands and countries 
whence to give part and appanage to the children 
of his daughter, waiting for the said recovery ; 
for the rest, not recognising any difference be- 
tween the French Mass and that of Spain, nor 
between the Spanish Jesuit and the French, save 
that the last has this advantage, of having but 
a three hours' voyage to pass and repass to Eng- 
land. So too they hold it a mistake to think 
that the Jesuits of England or France wish more 
for the marriage with France than with Spain, 
as the said Jesuits have sufficiently testified by 
their letters and their discourses since the rup- 
ture of the treaty with Spain. The same it is 
with the Benedictines of England*, brought up 
and instructed for the most part in the schools 
and seminaries of Spain and Flanders ; who, to 
rendejr odious and fruitless our negociation with 

assez de terres & pais pour y doner part & appanage aux enfans 
de sa fille, attendant led^ recouvrement : pe recognoissant au 
reste aucune difference entre la Meste de France & celle d*£s- 
pagne, ni entre le Jesuite Espagnol & le FraH9ois, sinon que 
]e dernier a cest avantage de n'avoir que trois heures de trajet 
pour passer & repasser en Angleterre. Aussi tiennent-ils pour 
erreur de croire que les Jesuites Anglois ou Fran9ois souhaitent 
plus le mariage avec la France qu'avec I'Espagne, come lesd** 
Jesuites Tout asses tesmoign6 par leurs lettres & par leurs dis- 
cours depuis la rupture du trait6 avec FEspagne. Le mesme 
est-il des Benedictins Anglois, nourris & instruits pour la plus- 
part es escholes & seminaires d'Espagne & de Flandre, lesquils 
pour rendre odieuse & infructieuse nostre negociation avec 


England, publish falsely that persecution has 
there recommenced against the Catholics : add^ 
that it can be said with truth, that in England; 
Germany, and the Low Countries, whoever is 
Catholic by profession is a Jesuit in feeling and 
a Spaniard in his inclinations ; so that they are 
all so many servants and creatures of Spain, 
and enemies that France will have in England 
and in all that climate. It remains then, my 
lord, to consider of the utility or inutility of 
this treaty for France in the present state of 
Christendom, and of the prodigious progress that 
the Spaniards have been making around us for 
some years past, and their refusal to execute the 
treaty of Madrid and to restore the Valteline to 
its primitive state; bearing in mind the displea- 
sure that we had at seeing the Prince of Wale^ 
pass into Spain, and the gratification that we 

TAngleterre, publient faussement que la persecution y est re- 
commenc^e contre les Cath cliques. Joint qu'il se peut dire 
avec verit6 que soit en Angletefre, Allemagne, ou Pais Bas, qui- 
conque est Catholique de profession est Jesuite d'affection et 
Espagnol d'inclination ; tellement que ce sont autant de servi- 
teurs & creatures pour TEspagnoI et d'eiiemis que la France 
aura en Angleterre et en tout ce climat la. Reste done, Mon- 
seigneur, k considerer de Tutilite ou inutility dece trait^ pour la 
France en Testat present de la Chrestient6 & du progrez pro- 
digieux qu'ont fait les Espagnols autour de nous depuis plus 
d'annees et du refus qu'ils font d'executer le trait6 de Madrid 
& remettre la Valteline au premier estat ; nous ressouvenans 
du desplaisir que nous eusmes de voir passer le Prince de Galles 

2 A 2 


have since had at seeing him return without 
doing any thing, so that we may not twice stum- 
ble at the same stone. 

21st July 1624. 


My Lord, 

Being arrived at Gravesend, I have seen and 
spoken with Mons' de Fiat the Embassador, and 
have had a pretty long conversation with him con- 
cerning our affairs ; I say our, because your Excel- 
lency's satisfaction makes me imagine myself a 

en Espagne^ & du contentement que nous avons eu depuis de le 
voir revenir sans rien faire, k fin que ne choppions deux fois k 
une mesme pierre.* 

21 Juillet 1624. 

Endorsed — ** Copie de lettre du Sieur de Villiers Holman a 
M" les Cardin. de Richelieu, Garde des Sceaux, & la Vieuville." 


Arivant a Gravesande, j'ay veu et parl6 a Mons. de Fiat 
TEmbassadeur, et ay eu assez long discours avecques luy 
touchant nos affaires; je dis nos, parce que le contentement 
d'icelle me faict imaginer que j'ay part. II m*a donne grande 

* Tan; Ixxiii, 377. 


party. He gave me great hopes, entreating me to 
return, unless going on some other business ; but 
I did not think that a good prescription, for we 
must make haste. He wished to manage the 
matters by time alone, and the whole must fall 
into your hands ; that the King of France (when 
your Excellency shall be at Paris), and all the 
others, will give all that they have of them; 
but, as your Excellency knows, this is; too far 
off, for often one hunts the deer and another 
eats the venison. I believe *that it will be ne- 
cessary, when Mons*^ de Fiat is at Newmarket, to 
tell him not to mention the pieces about which 
I spoke to him. From what I have remarked, 
I think that he wishes to talk about them to 
Mons"^ de la Villoclair; for Mons' de Fiat has 
said, that within four or five days he will write 

esperance, me conjurant de retourner sy je n'alois pour aultre 
affaire ; mais je ne trouvois ce remedde 1^ bon, car il se faut 
hatter. l\ desiroit les manier seul avecque temps, et qu'il 
falloit que tout cela tombat entre tos mains ; que le Roy de 
France, lors que vos. Exc. sera a Paris, et tout les aultres, donne- 
ront tout ce qu'ils en ont ; mais, comme vos. Exc. S9ait, sela 
tire trop long, car souvent Ton chasse la venaison, et un aultre 
en mange. Je croy qu'il sera nessesaire, lors que Mons^ de Fiat 
sera a Nieuvomarket, de luy dire qu'il ne parle pas des piesses 
que je luy ay parle ; a ce que j'ay remarque, je croy qu'il en 
veust comuniquer k Mons^ de la Villoclair, car Mons*" de Fiat 
m*a diet ^ue pendant quatre ou cinq jours qu'il m'escrivera. II 


to me. He was very importunate to know the 
business about which they had spoken with me, 
and who the man was ; saying to me. Tell us, 
and we will take care that you shall succeed in 
the olgect of your voyage. I would rather that 
they did to me what the Spanish devils did to 
my father, than that I should be the cause of 
sorrow to any person. He said to me, Without 
doubt, it is some financier : but I told him I did 
not know ; that all I knew was, the mere offer 
which I had represented to your Excellency, and 
which your Excellency took in bad part ; and that 
your Excellency had replied to me, that y6u did 
not desire any other favor but to purchase with 
your own money, without wishing to trespass on 
the liberality of a Prince so just. 

m'a fort importunn^ pour s9aveoir quelle estoit Taffaire que Ton 
m'avoit parl6, et quelle estoit rhomme, me disant, Dittes^ et nous 
ferons que vous gaignerez bieu vostre voyage. J'aimerois mieu 
que Ton me fist ce que les diables d'Espagnols firent k mon 
pere, que je serois cause de I'aflictioD d'auquae personne. II 
me dit, Sens doutte, c'est quelque finansier; mais je luy respondia 
que je ne savois> seulement que je ne cognoissois que la simple 
offre laquelle j'avois representee k vostre £xc. laquelle vos. Exc. 
prist en mauvaise part, et qu'icelle m'avoit respondu, que vous 
ne desiriez aultre faveur que d'achepter de vostre argent propre, 
sens vouloir tenter sur les faveurs liberalles d'un Prince sy 

* He alludes to the appellation given to Louis XIII. — the 


I shall wait at Paris in pious expectation that 
Mons' de Fiat will write, and I will not fail never- 
theless to do my best. It is true, according to 
Mons' de Fiat, that all seems very likely to fall 
into our hands, and that haste would add nothing 
save the fear of the man your Excellency knows 

Mons' de Fiat tells me he thinks of going to 
Rome ; it would not be amiss to make a trial of 
his assistance ; if he only does something for the 
present, I shall be like the Catholics, who believe 
in a saint when they see a miracle. 

I dare not detain your Excellency longer in 
perusing this; but will only say, I have made 
a model for the somters, which I have given to 
M. Olivier that he may send it to your Excel- 

I believe there is velvet enough to be had in 

J'attenderay a Paris en bonne devotion sy Mons*" de Fiat 
escrivera, et ne failliray pour tout cela de faire mon mieux ; il 
est vray^ com me dit Mons** de Fiat, que tout cela nous diist tom- 
ber entre les maitxs, et que le hatter n'y adjbuteroit rien sinon 
la crainte de c6st homme que vos. Exc. S9ait. 

Mons'^ de Fiat m*a diet qu'il pense aller a Rome, il ne seroit 
pas mauvais de faire essay de son assistance; s'il faict seulement 
quelque chose pour le present, je resembleray les Catoliques, 
lesquels croient en un sainct, quand ils voient un miracle. 

Je n'oserois tenir vos. Exc. plus long-temps en lecture, seule- 
ment diray que j'ay faict faire un patron pour les somters, (?) 
lequel j'ay donne a M"" Olivier affin qu'il Tenvoye a vos. Exc. 

Je croy que Ton trouvera du velours assez a Londres, et ay 


London, and I have taken the size of the apart- 
ment; it will contain twelve somters, each of 
which will have seventeen ells of velvet. I have 
found so many things to employ me at York 
House that I could hardly get out of it, and 
before my departure they commenced paving the 
grand chamber. I have also given orders to make 
the model for Newhall, and the carpenter will 
sho,w it to your Excellency as soon as it is done. 
I pray God, my lord, that all that I do may suc- 
ceed to your contentment. 

The surveyor Inigo Jones has been at York 
House to see the house, and he was like one 
surprised and abashed. It would only require 
me to get the reversion of his place to be an 
eye-sore to him, for he is very jealous of it. 
He almost threw himself on his knees for your 
Secretary of Titian, which I beg your Excellency 

mesure la chambre ; elle contiendra douse somters, chaqun d'i- 
ceux aura dixsept aulnes de velours. J*ay trouv6 tant de soins 
et de choses a m'emploier a Jork hous qu*^ peynue en pouvois 
je sortir, et avant ma despartie I'on a commence a paver la 
grande chambre. J*ay aussy donne ordre pour faire la modelle 
pour Nieuwhalle, (?) et le charpentier la montrera a vos. Exc. 
sy tost qu'elle sera faitte. Je prie i Dieu, Mons^ que tout ce 
que je fasse reussise a vos. contentement. 

Le surveyor Enigo Jons a est6 a Jorck hous pour veoir la 
mayson, et estoit comme confus et honteux. II ne me faudroit 
plus que la revertion de sa plasse, pour luy faire aveoir la gra- 
velle, car il en est fort jaloux. II s'est presque mis a genoux 
pour vostre Secretaire de Titian, que je suplie a vos. Exc. de 


to examine a little more leisurely. May God 
enrich us with others as good, and grant me the 
happiness of being the bearer of them ; and per- 
mit me always to remain in the happy condition 
of being allowed to call myself, 

My Lord, your Excellency's 
Very humble and very faithful servant, 

B, Gerbier. 

Gravesend, 2nd Dec. 1624 

[Upon certain sums to be given for honors at court.] 

Dere Dad and Gossope, 

Watt Steward hath bine withe me this morn- 
ing to tell me your Majesty was well inclined 
to make Sir Francis Vaine an Erie for hime.* I 
answered, that I could hardlie beleeue it, but if 
he would be contented that Sir Frances Stward 

bien regarder un peu plus a loisir. Dieu nous veuille enrichir 

d'aultres aussy bonnes ; et me fasse ce bonheiir d'en raporter, 

et deraeurer tousjours sous ce bien heureux estate^ que je me 

puisse nommer tousjours d'estre, 

Monseigneur, de vos. Exc. 

Le tres humble et tres fidelle serviteur, * 

B. Gerbier. 
De Gravesande, ce 2 Dec. 1624. 

* Sir Fr. Vane made Earl of Westmoreland, Dec. 1624. 


might share with him, I would be a suter to 
your Majesty for them in that for the present, 
and hereafter, as ocoation would seme, for som- 
thing else ; but with this condition, that he would 
p^rswade my Lord Hauton to giue fine or six 
thousand to be another, which mmiie I tould fahn 
I desired to make use of my self. Upon this he 
fell upon another sute'he hath had to your Ma- 
jesty, of being a groume in your bedchamber, of 
which he sayeth he hath had a promis from you. 
I answered in this, he . must giue me leaue abso- 
lutelie to thinke otherwise ; whereupon he asked 
me if it were trew, whether I would not be con- 
tented with it. I tould him playnelie, as I oft- 
times haue before, I thought him not fitt for it, 
neyther would I promis him anie assistance in it. 
My resons I shall giue your Majesty when I 
shall haue the hapines to kis your hands. ThUs 
much I thought fitt in the meane time to acquaint 
you with. So I craue your blissing as 

Your most humble slaue and doge, 


Euen as I was seleing of this, Kate and I re- 
scued another present from you, for which wee 
giue you our humble thanks. Your presents are 
so greate, wee can not eate them so fast as the[y] 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 403. 



[Arrival and reception of the French Embassador Villeaux 


Gracious Patron, 

When I came yesterday to this town, Mons. 
Villeaux Clercs was not then arrived. I met 
therefore with the colonels, who, upon the first 
remonstrance, saw their own errors ; took satisfac- 
tion ; only gave some few requests, which are 
proper enough to be mediated for them accord- 
ing to their use and necessity, as far as the wis- 
dom of the Lords and former precedents shall 
warrant. Their best satisfaction I will endea- 
vour, for which the Council meets this after- 

Yesterday, about three o'clock, the embassador 
arrived. About five I went to him, and delivered 
him his Majesty's welcome to this town, the con- 
tentment his Majesty received to hear of his safe 
landing, the joy his Majesty had in the cause of 
his employment, which was enlarged by the accep- 
tation of his person, who, by many singular good 
ofiices in this so near and dear a negociation had 
continued a declaration of that successive affec- 
tion which had formerly been imparted by his^ 
predecessors and family to the house and person 
of his Majesty. Either this did create a lively 
apprehension, or he formed and acted exceeding 
readily a passionate joy for the honor done him 


by his Majesty, which he acknowledged with as 
zealous and affectionate expressions as was possi- 
ble, with as humble demonstrations in his person, 
and as hearty and humble terms as could be de- 
livered. And he is furnished to speak himself, 
and inform another, as lively and effectually as 
any man I have met with. And, to confirm the 
words the more, he gave more respect to my 
person than it could be worthy of, even as it 
was honored with the employment ; but that he 
would seem to show and see the spirit of his Ma- 
jesty in that particulaj* and timely honor and 
favor done to him. 

My Lord Chamberlain being not certain to be 
found, I desired, by a letter to him, the assign- 
ment of an hour and a place where I might 
attend him. This morning, at nine o'clock', I 
waited on him at Whitehall, where I met him 
with my Lord Steward and my Lord Marshal ; 
and they then deliberated with Sir Lewis Lew- 
kenor* touching the journey of the embassadors, 
which, for the greatness of the train and number 
of clothes, could not begin before Tuesday ; so 
a$ they made account on Thursday the embassa- 
dors should be at Cambridge. And, for con- 
gruity, they wished that his Majesty would be 
pleased to be there on Wednesday ; and so the 
embassadors come to him, and he not come to 
them. Divers household considerations were 

* Master of the Ceremonies. 


likewise thought on, as the division of provisions 
and the attending ministers. And, as I conceived 
by their discourse, they understood the embassa- 
dors thought of staying there ten days. I told 
them my collection from the embassador was, 
that they would make much more haste. I de- 
sired, in your Grace's name, my Lord Chamber- 
lain's advice what from the King, what from your 
particular, might be done of honor to the em- 
bassador, and that with best lustre. To this he 
said, the place must be Cambridge, Newmarket 
being able to bear nothing of grace ; that, on the 
King's part* the general entertainment would be 
as good as is possible ; that the King gave them 
one meal at his own table ; and that his Majesty 
must be pleased to send to my Lord of Suffolk 
to lend furniture of two lodgings for the embas- 
sadors, with drawing-rooms and a dining-room; 
and likewise to give order, as most proper to his 
authority, for all that can be added by the Uni- 
versity. For your particular, he thought it most 
convenient for you to present him with horses, 
except you would exceed further with any other ^ 
kind of present. He thought it might be con- 
venient for you to treat them [with] one meal, 
which he thought would be more proper and con- 
venient for you to do at Cambridge than here. 

For the present to be given to the embassador, 
my Lord Chamberlain can think of none so fit 
as Sir John Eyre's diamond, esteemed at £3000, 


richly worth £2000^ at which rate the King may 
have it, and is about the value he thinks fit to be 

This day I visited the Marquis d'Effiat, and 
showed him the confidence your Grace had in 
him, by your freedom to counsel with him in 
what, or how, honor might be done to Mons. Vil- 
leaux Clerc, or what particular you might do to 
make out your ownf ♦ ♦ ♦ intentions to 
honor and serve him. [The Marquis] expressed 
much contentment in this in war [d] ♦ * * 
afiection ; protested that his respect to you, and 
confidence in you, deserved it, ana should de^- 
serve it by clear faith to you ; but seemed to be 
sorry that you asked him his advice in things 
already done, (and to show his clearness, he made 
a relation of all that had been done,) which al- 
though, he said, had been so fully as had satisfied 
all that could be expected, yet he observed some 
escapes, errors, or neglects, which had been well 
excused, — would take up time to relate, and there- 
fore I spare them until I wait on you. But he 
protested, in all that was noble and excessive, out 
of many collections your hand was seen in every 
part. And he could not satisfy himself to express 
the honor, satisfaction, and contentment Mons. 
Villeaux Clercs took for the express honor his 
Majesty had done to . him by sending of me to 

t Torn off. 


perform him the ofSce I did just at his arrival. 
Insomuch, as he protested, Villeaux Clercs found 
himself so overloaden with the honors done him, 
as he desires to discharge the guards and train of 
officers as marks of more greatness than he was 
capable of. So as, in conclusion, the Marquis 
could not devise what to do more, where all, and 
more than enough, was done. 

But this I did gather from him, that they did 
expect a ball, or masquefrade, before the King, 
or privately with you. That they did expect (to 
use his own word) a blue ribbon to bid them 
welcome to Cambridge : and, groping as well as 
I could at the time and manner of disposing it 
there, I collect that they hope to find the King 
at Cambridge on Thursday night ; on Friday 
to have a public audience ; the same day, or Sa- 
turday, to have a private access to the King ; to 
have a day with you, and then to fashion and 
put in order the work and acts as they must be 
done ; a day between, and then an audience for 
a farewell. 

I did forget, in its due place> to tell your Grace 
that the Lord Steward, Lord Marshal, and Lord 
Chamberlain debated concerning their visiting of 
the embassador before audience ; and finding no 
precedents, unwilling to bring up new fashions, 
they concluded in the negative. 

I send this by an express, that he may return 
with your pleasure if any thing be to be com- 


manded^ if it should be nothing else but to 
command me not to write so long letters. Your 
Grace may be pleased to pardon this, so as not 
to think me the less worthy to be 

Your Grace's most humble servant, 

Edw. Conwey.* 

London, Dec. 4, 1624. 

[Dispute between Olivares and Gondomar.] 

On the I6th of this month st. vet. the Conde 
of Gondomar, being set in council, had order 
notified unto him by the Sec. Don Andres de 
Prada to put himself upon the way for England 
on the Thursday following. The day after the 
Conde had received this command, he wrote a 
letter unto Don Fernando Giron, entreating him 
that he would move the Conde of Olivares to 
excuse him altogether of the journey, for divers 
reasons which he expressed in his letter. The 
Conde of Olivares seemed to take this extremely 
ill, the Conde of Gondomar having before ac- 
cepted of the employment; and the storm is at 
the height betwixt them, that they speak not to 
one another. Don Pedro de Toledo and Don 
Fernando Giron have performed to and fro divers 
diligences betwixt them, but what will be the 

* Orig. Tan. Ixxiii. 397. 



issue, I know not : divers of the Conde of Gori- 
domar's friends tell me that he desires to' excuse 
himself of the journey ; the Conde of Olivares 
having offered him a meaner despatch than he 
thought fit for the giving his Majesty satisfac- 
tion, and that by this means he hopes to get am- 
ple instructions concerning the business of the 
Palatinate. Those that are inward with the 
Conde of Olivares tell me that no excuse shall 
serve the Conde of Gondomar, but it is resolved 
he shall go : what the mystery is I dare not give 
my judgment of, only 1 have thought fit to ad- 
vertise your honor what passes at present ; as I 
shall likewise be careful to let you understand 
what follows.f * * * 

Madrid, 24 of X' 1624. 


* ♦ * Sometimes when I am contemplating the 
treasure of rarities which your Excellency has in 
so short a time amassed, I cannot but feel aston- 
ishment in the midst of my joy. For out of all 

* * * QuAND je contemple auqune fois le tresor de 
raretez que vos. Exc. a ainass6 en sy peu de temps, je ne me 
puis que estonner au milieu de la joye. Car de tout les ama- 

t Harl. 1580. p. 60. 
VOL. II, 2 B 


the amateurs, and Princes and Kings, there is not 
one who has collected in forty years as many 
pictures as your Excellency has collected in five. 
'Let enemies and people ignorant of paintings say 
what they wiD, they cannot deny that pictures 
are noble ornaments, a delightful amusen^ent, 
and histories that one may read without fatigue^ 
which neither eat beef, nor drink greedily, nor 
feed on oats (as this horse that Mr. Graymes has 
given me will do, and for which therefore I take 
the liberty of begging your Excellency, that I 
may have an allowance of oats). Our pictures, 
if they were to be sold a century after our death, 
would sell for good cash, and for three times 
more than they have cost. I Wish I could only 
live a century, if they were sold, in order to be 
able to laugh at those facetious folk who say. It 

teurs, Princes et Roys, il n*y en a pas un quy aye amass6 en 
quarante ans autant que vos. Ex. a amasse de tableaux en 
cinq ans. Que les ennemis et ignorants de tableaux disent 
ce qu'ils veulent, sy ne pouront ils pas nier que les tableaux 
ne soient nobles oraements, recreatifs passes-temps^ et his- 
toires que Ton list sens pyne, quy ne mengent ny biff ny ne 
boivent sec,* ny ne mengent avoynne (comme fera le ch^val 
.que Mons*^ Graymes m'a donn6, pour lequel je prens la hardiesse 
de supplier a vos. £x. d'aveoir une livrance d'avoyne). Nos 
tableaux, cent ans apres la mort, quand on les vousdroit vendre, 
ils vendront tousjours du bon argent, et plus trois fois qu'ils 
'n*ont coust6. Je vousdrois seulement viyre cent ans pour, sy 
I'on vendoist, me poiiveoir rire de ces badins quy disent, It is 

* Vin sec — sack, canary ? 

KiNO JAMES. 371 

is monny cast away £(»* bobles and schadows. 
I know they will be pictures still, when those 
ignorants will be lesser than schadows. So 
much for them! But for Mons' Douet, who 
like the cat is set to guard the milk, he is a 
nice man, only he is a joker: and' one picture of 
Raphaers is a trifle, a treasure which the kings, 
bis ancestors, always kept as a holy relic; but 
I am not content with that, more must be had ; 
this is a good beginning for others. 

I have been thinkings that if I am at Paris 
a fortnight or twelve days, or at soonest before 
your Excellency leaves LondcM), it will be time 
enough ; for then, knowing that your arrival 
is near, their minds will be on the watch, and 
they will begin to make preparations for re- 
ceiving your Excellency, some with blandish- 

motmy cast away for holies and schadows, I know they will be pic* 
4ures stilly when those ignorants will be lesser than schadows; 
Toila pour eux ! Mais, poiir Mons'^ Douet, quy comme le chat 
e&t fait gardien du lait, c'est wk brave homme, seuleinent une 
jocoude ; et un tableau de Raphael c'est peu de chose, un tresor 
<{ne les Rois ses ancestres ont tousjours gard6 comme sainte 
relique, mais je ne suis pas content de cela, il en faut aveoir 
davantage, c'est un bon commencement, aux aultres. 

J 'ay consider^ que quand je seray a Paris quinse ou douze 
jours, ou d*au plus tost avant que v. Exc. partte de Londres 
que sera temps assez^ car alors eux sachant que vos. venue 
sera prochaine, leurs esprits se reveilleront et comenceront i 
s'aprester a recevoir v. Exc. les uns par caresses, et autres par 

2 B 2 


ments, and others with presents. Then, in my 
opinion, it will be a fitter time to strike the 
iron while it is hot, and to fire the tow, than 
if I got there a long while beforehand. The 
unstable humour of the French grows weary of 
the presence it is accustomed to ; but, as I say, 
arriving there with the news of your approach- 
ing visit, it will be. Oh, here he is returned ! 
and then we shall see the gentry in ecstasy. 
And if it is only required to represent the atti- 
tude of Hercules holding a golden chain in his 
mouth, I shall play my part well ; but we must 
proceed softly, and always keep hold of one 
end of the chain to draw still more souls out of 
Purgatory. I am vexed that I was prevented 
from delivering the letter to Mons' Chevreuse, 
for I had a great notion it would have worked 

presens. Allors je croy en mon opignon que sera le temps plus 
propre a battre le fer eschaufie, et mettre le feu aux etoupes, 
que sy je me trouvoi^ la long-temps auparavant ; d'une acous- 
tum6e presence Tinstabile humeur Fran9oise s'en lasse, mais, 
comme je dits, arivant Ik avecque les nouvelles de vostre pro- 
chain voyage, ce sera, Ho, le voicy revenu I et allors Ton vera 
les Mons*^ aux boutades. £t s'yl ne manque qu'a representer 
la posture d'Hercule quy tenoit une chaine d'or en bouche, 
je joueray bien mon personnage; mais il faut aller tout belle- 
ment, et tenir tousjours Tun bout de la chaine pour tirer encore 
aultres ames de Purgatoire. Je suis mary que j'ay este inte- 
ron pu a delivrer la lettre k Mons^ de Chevreuse, car j*avois 
grands opinion qu'elle eusse fait miracle, ce n'eust est^ qu'une 


a miracle; it would only have been abundance 
of courtesy, for he knows just as well that your 
Excellency has got his picture. I wish I could 
meet with somebody going post to Paris, so that 
I might write and send news to my mounte- 
bank earlier than by the ordinary communi- 
cation. For I should like him to detach a 
Saint Michael of Raphael's. I have written to 
him again to-day, but the ordinary couriers are 
so long on the road. I have given him pro- 
mises, but this rogue must not be chained up 
till he has done some more mischief. I have 
written to him also about the horse and several 
other things. But I see I am almost at the end 
of my paper. To conclude : if your Excellency 
will only give me time to mine quietly, I will fill 
Newhall with paintings, so that foreigners will 

abondance de courtoisie, car aussy bien sait-il que v. Ex* 
a son tableau. Je vousdrois pouyoir rencontrer quelq'un quy 
allat en poste k Paris pour pouveoir escripre et envoyer nou- 
velles k mon charlatan plustost que les messages ordinaires* 
Car je vousdrois bien qu'il me detaschat un St. Michel de 
Raphael. Je luy ay encore escript aujourdhuy, mais les mes- 
sagers ordinaires sont long-temps en chemain. Je luy ay donne 
des promesses, mais il ne faut pas que ce laron soit enchainn6 
avant qu'il aye faict plus de mal. Je luy ay escript aussy du 
cheyal et die plusieurs aultres choses. Mais, a ce que je vois, je 
suis bien tost au bout de mon papier. Pour finir : de pintures^ sy 
V. Exc. seulement me donne temps de miner tout doucemeut, 
je veux remplir Nieuwhal, que les etrangers i viendront en 


come there in prooession ; but we itiust proceed 
very quietly. Tuesday the paving the cabinet with 
marble begins, which will be the grandest thing 
in the kingdom; but it will be at least three 
weeks before it is finished. I am very desirous 
of your presence ; but I should be glad not to 
see you for three weeks, for we are whiting the 
ceilings, which had not been whitewashed be- 
fore, so that we have got sca£R>lding every<> 
where. I should like all to be clean before 
your arrival, and that all should be done before 
I set out for France. I protest I could not 
sleep quietly, if I was in France, for thinking 
of my house, Madame has not given orders' 
about the furniture of Persian cloth of gold^ 
nor for matting the other apartments; that 
should be done in time, for new mats for d 

prosession; mais 11 faut aller tout doucemeat. CeMardyon 
comence k paver le cabinet de marbre, quy sera la plus noble 
chose de ce royaume ; mais sera bien trois semaiaes avant que 
soit finy. Je souhaitte fort vos. presence, mais je vousdrois 
bien ne vous veoir en trois semains, car nous bianchlsons lea 
voutes quy n'avoyent pas encore est6 blanchies^ tellement que 
nous avons des chafFaux par tout. Je voudrois que tout 
fust nett avant vos. arrivee, et que tout fust faict avant que 
je m'en aille en France. Je proteste que je ne pouvois dormir 
a repos estant en France tousjours pensant en ma roayson. 
Madame n*a point donn& ordre pour des cheres k la fournitnre 
de toille d'or de Persse, ny pour matter les aultres chambres ; 
cela devroit estre faict en temps, car le& mattes neuves ont 



month cft two have an ill smell. Half of our 
Dutch mats are come. Mr* Crow will have the 
dress with pearl ornaments made at Boulogne; 
the patterns I send, the larger is not made 
to my fancy. My design was for the compart- 
ments to be small, and the flowers too ; which 
might be changed in the working, and be made 
as small as one pleased. The one is for the in- 
side, the other for the outside. There is the name 
of the Prince and of Madame, and the roses and 
lilies combined ; that is for the inside of the 
mantle. This is only a little paper lost, and it is 
late too, and it would cost near twelve hundred 
pounds sterling. This will be some day for the 
wedding of a young Charles. I wish your Ex- 
cellency would decide about the water at York 
House, for it is time ; you must resolve to ex- 

pour un mois ou deux une fortte senteur. La moiti6 de nos 
mattes de Hollande sont venues* Mr. Crow fi^ra faire Fabit 
de perle k chausse a Boullon ; les patrons que j'envoye, le plus 
grand n'a pas est^ faict a ma fantasie. Mon dessain estoit que 
les compartements seroient petits, et aussy les fleurs ; ce que 
Ton pouToit changer a Touvrage, et le faire aussy petit que 
Ton veust. L'un c'est pour le dedens, et I'aultre pour le dehors* 
II y a le nom du Prince et de Madame, et les roses et les lis 
cogointes, sela est pour le dedans du manteau. Ce n'est q'ua 
peu de papier perdu^ car aussy bien est il tard, et cousteroit 
pres de douse cents livres sterlincx. Ce sera quelque jour pour 
les nopces d'un jeusne Charles. Je vousdrois que ▼. £xc. 
voulut resoudre pour de Teau k Jorck hous^ car il est temps ; 


pend four hundred pounds, and to do the whole 
with leaden pipes, not earthen ones, which are 
not so safe. 

My Lord, with clasped hands, &c. 

B. Gerbier. 

Sth Feb. 1624-1625. 



[Proceedings against Lady Purbeck the Duke's sister, and Sir 

Robert Howard.] 

Most noble Lord^ 

We have, since our last letters to your Grace, 
attended the Lord Chief Justice several days for 
further examination of the business of your bro- 
ther the Lord Purbeck, in which we have jgained 
some good purpose more than before, to give 
satisfaction that the child was not begotten by 
the Lord Purbeck ; so as the Lord Chief Justice 

il faut s'y resoudre de dependre quatre cents livres, et de faire 
tout en pipes de plomb, et non en terre, cela n'est pas sy 

Monseigneur, h, mains jointes^ &c* 

B. Geebier.* 
Ce a Feb. 1624-1625. 

• Orig* Tan. Ixxiii. 

KING JAMES. * 377 

and we do hold the purpose laid together to be 
strong for that point, and the suspicions to be 
violent and strong against Sir Robert Howard* 
though we cannot.yet gain any express confession 
from parties, or testimony of witnesses, that can 
directly prove him guilty of the act of adultery 
with her. But, all being laid together, we hold 
the cause [as] ready and ripe for a proceed- 
ing in part, as we can probably expect ; (the 
Ecclesiastical Court, if your Grace shall so di- 
rect ;) and as much light gained for a proceed- 

Concerning the point of sorcery, we do not 
conceive the proof such that we can conclude 
any sorcery to be acted, either by Lambe or 
Frodesham, against your Grace or the Lord Pur- 
beck ; but that the Lady Purbeck did resort 
often to Lambe is most manifest, and we verily 
think with evil intention to your brother ; and 
that Sir Robert Howard went often with her 
is equally clear, but that his intention was to 
have any sorcery used is not so plain ; so as we 
think the use to be made of this part of the busi- 
ness will be rather to aggravate and make odious 
the other part of the offence, than to proceed 
upon it as a distinct crime of itself. Now, be- 
cause nothing yet appears that should cause us 
to think the matter to be capital against any fo 
the delinquents; and because there remam no 

878 • . THE COURT OF 

other to be examined, save only one wonian who 
cannot yet be found ; and because the offend^^ 
are by law bailable, and the Earl of Suffolk hath, 
since his message sent at first, written a round 
letter to the Lord Chief Justice, pressing the 
bailment of his son as being bailable by law ; the 
Lord Chief Justice hath entered into considera- 
tion about bailing of him and some of the rest. 
But we have moved him to respite it until we 
might advertize your Grace; though, after a full 
examination of the cause, and as much brought to 
light as either in our own judgments, or by any* 
thing we can learn from those that follow the 
business, is like to be effected though they should 
be long kept close, we see no fruit of holding 
them in prison. And when their imprisonment 
is but fruitless, their bailment may give the 
world satisfaction. And so, praying your Grace's 
direction, we rest. 

Your Grace's 
Most humble and bounden servants, 

Thomas Coventrye. 
Ro. Heath.* 

Serjeants' Inn, 24th Feb. 1624. 

♦ Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 414. 


KING JAMES TO * * * * 

My onlie sweete & deare chylde, notwithstand- 
ing of your desyring me not to wrytte yester- 
daye, yett hadde I written in the euening if at 
my comming in out of the parke suche a drow- 
zienes hadd not comed upon me as I was forced 
to sitte & sleep in my chaire halfe an howre ; & 
yett I can not contente myselfe withowte send* 
ing you this puUet, pra3dng God that I may haue 
a ioyefull & confortable meeting with you, & 
that we maye mak at this Christenmasse a new 
mariage, euer to be kept hearafter ; for God so 
loue me as I desyre onlie to Hue in this worlde 
for youre saike, & that I hadde rather line ba-^ 
nished in anie pairt of the earth with you, then 
liue a sorrowefuU widdowe*s lyfe without you ; 
& so God blesse you, my sweete chylde & wyfe, 
& grawnte that ye maye euer be a conforte to 
youre deere daide & husbande. 

James R.f 


The King had written Maisierf which seems to imply that 
this letter was written to the Duke. 

t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxii. p. 1^8. 




Since his Excellency the Embassador has been 
pleased to do me the honor to aUow me through 
him to tell you what my opinion is on the^pre- 
sent occasion; after seeing what. Bautru brings 
you, I shall speak to you the more freely from the 
security I have by this means. I will tell you this 
again, that it is true they have been greatly dis- 
pleased here at the conversations that have pass- 
ed, but are now removed by Blainville ; and that 
if you decide to come, you will receive every satis- 
faetion ; and in case that you will not come at pre- 
sent, if you will send Mons*^ le Conte d'Hollande 
you will see the proof by him, the proof of what 


Puis que Monsieur TEmbassadeur m*a voullu fayre rhouneur 
que par luy ie vous dye ce quy est de mon sentymant sur Toc- 
casion presente ; appres avoir veu ce que vous porte Botru, je 
vous parleray issy plus libremant pour la seurrett6 que je prens 
en cette voye. Je vous diray done encore qu'il est vray qu'ils 
ont issy eu grant displaysir des discours quy se sont passes soit 
par Blainville et dispers6 ; et que si vous vous resolues a venir, 
vous resseures toutte sorte de contentement, et au cas que vous 
ne voullies venir presentement, si vous envoyes Mons** le Conte 
de Hollande, vous vesres la preuve par luy la preuve de ce que 
je vous dis estre tres verittable. Vous aures grant ad ventage 


I say to be very true. You will have great ad- 
vantage in sending a man who depends on you, 
and like him, in whom you have full confidence. 
Excuse the anxiety I show in this matter, which 
arises only from that which I feel, and shall 
always feel in your service, and from the interest 
I take in satisfying both crowns. I do not speak 
of the interest I have in it, because you will 
hear all the particulars from his Excellency the 
Embassador, to whom I have trusted all on ac- 
count of the honor he does me by his friendship. 
What I can say besides is, that, taking a good 
resolution, there never was a voyage so full of 
honor and glory as yours will be, nor more ad- 
vantageous to the weal of Christendom. Re- 
member to continue the good offices you have 
rendered to Mr. de Blainville, and allow me still 

d'enuoyer vn homme quy despende de vous, et comme luy^ et 
en quy vous ayies toutte confianse. Escuses la passion que 
i'ay en cette affayre, quy n'estcos6e que de celle quy j*ay et ore 
tousiours a vre. seruisse, et a Tinterest que j'ay de la satisfaction 
de Tunne et Taultre couronne. Je ne vous parle point de Fin- 
terest que iy ay par ce que Monsieur I'Embassadeur (en quy 
ie me suis confis du tout pour Thonneur quy me fait de me- 
mer) vous en fera entondre touttes les particullarites. Tout 
ce que je vous puis dire de plus est que prenant vnne bonne 
resolution auecque luy^ il n'y eut iamais vn voyage si plain 
d'honneur et de gloyre qui sera le vostre, ny plus aduentageus 
pour le bien de la Cretiente. Souuenes vous de contynuer k 
Mr. de Blainuille les bons offisses que vous luy rendis, et me 


to have the honor of your esteem, since I am, 
ivith all my heart. 

My Lord, 
Your most obedient and very humble servant, 



[Invitation to hunt at Harrison's Heath, &c.] 


QuHEN I made little Dicce wrytte my excuse 
to thee yesterdaye, for not wrytting my selfe, I 
was uerrie sikke of a greate fluxe that morning ; 
but now I thanke God I ame well, in spyte of 
thee ; & hauing chainged my purpose in resolu- 
ing to staye heere tile Mondaye, so earnist I am 
to kill more of Zouchis greate staigues, I sum- 

conseruer Thonneur de uoz bonnes grasses, puis que je suis de 
tout mon coeur, 

Vre. tres humble & tres obeissant serviteur, 


A Mons% Mods' le Due de Bouginham. 

* Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxii Si-. 


mone thee to come heere to morrowe, & lette 
Kate & Sue goe to Windsore, & meete me on 
Mondaye after noone jat Harrieson's Heathe heathe 
,with thaire bowis. Mi Lorde Fercie is comde 
owte of France with bettir newis then before; 
oure sending to it hat made thaime more reason- 
able. Thaye are contentid now with a letre, & no 
mention of the holie eaungills in it. Thy letre 
did greate goode. How soone my sonne comes 
from Gilforde, I will sende thee the paper. I 
jsende thee an excellent Barbaric melon ; in goode 
faith, I hadde no mellons since thy pairting till 
yesternight God bless thee and me ! 

James R * 


My Lord, 

I SENT on Sunday last a letter to your Excel- 
lency, which should have been at Borl6 on Mon- 
day evening; and in it there were two letters 
from Monsieur Chevreuse, his man waiting here 
to have your decision touching Monsieur Bautru, 


J*AY envoy^ Dimenche pass6 une lettre a tos. Exc. laquelle 
devoit estre k Borle lundy au seoir, et deDs icelle y avoit deux 
lettres de Monsiear de Cheureuse, son homme attandant icy 
pour aueoir vos. resolution touchant Mons' Beautru, qu'il devoit 

Harl. 6987. No. 105. 


whom he was to go and see after at Calais ; but 
the s^d Monsieur Bautru has made more haste 
than the courier, for he arrived last night secretly 
in London, and is dwelling at the Italian Hotel, 
where I have been to see him, and he very impa- 
tiently desires and hopes for the happiness of 
seeing you. The Duke of Chevreuse had sent 
another into Holland, who is also come back 
with Monsieur Bautru, who does not wish Mon- 
sieur Blainville to see him, unless your Excel- 
lency sees fit. I have sounded him a little, and 
learned thus much, that the King and the Queen 
Mother know and are parties to the subject of 
his journey, which was prepared and arranged 
for Holland, they thinking your Excellency 
would still be there, and having no business but 
with you. He related to me, that they say pri- 
vately at the French court, that the Embassador 

aller querir a Calais ; mais le diet Mons' Beautru a faict plus de 
diligence que le courier, car il est ,arriv6 secrettement hier au 
seoir a Londres^ et est log6 k Tordinaire Italien ou je Fay este 
veoir, lequel tres impatient desire et aspire k Theure de vous 
veoir. Mons^ le Due de Cheureuse avoit en%pye un aultre en 
Hollande, lequel est aussy revenu aveeque Mons' Beautru, quy 
ne desire que Mons»" Blinuille le voye, sy vos. Ex. ne le trouve 
bon. Je I'ay un pen sond6, et ay appris jusques k la que le Roy 
et la Royne Mere sauent et out part au subject de son voyage, 
quy estoit dresse et ordonne pour Hollande, eux eroiant que 
vos. Exc. seroit encore la, n'aiant aultre affaire que synon vers 
vous : il m'a raconte comme Ton disoit a la court de France en 
secret, que TEmbassadeur quy est k la Haye avoyt faict un 


who is at the Hague had made a eomniunication 
to your Excellency on the part of the King, that 
tended to divert you from undertaking a journey 
you had resolved upon^ and that your friends 
in France had heen in great fear ; as they would 
not, for any thing in the world, that you should 
come to a place where you would not be re- 
ceived as you merit. I said that if your good 
friends had known your resolution they might 
have been quite easy, that being in my opinion 
the last of your thoughts ; and, indeed, that I 
believed, even if the King had occasion to send 
you thither in person, that you would have in- 
fluence to persuade him to send somebody else 
who had more inclination. 

Monsieur Bautru makes a show of great zeal 
in your service, and conjures you to believe the 
same of Mons"^ Fiat. As for the Duke of Chev- 

raport a vostre Exc. de la part du Roy quy tendoist k vous 
divertir de la resolution prise de faire un voyage, et que vos 
amis en France avoyent este en grande crainte, ne desirant pour 
chose du monde que tous viendriez en un lieu ou vous ne 
seriez receu selon vos merittes. Je luy dis que sy vos bons 
amis eusseut cognu vostre resolution, ils eussent estez hors de 
peyne, car je croy que c'est la moindre pensee que vous 
aurrez jamais, et que mesme je oroyois sy le Roy avoyt oca- 
sion d'y envoyer vos. personne que vous avez ce pouveoir de 
persuader d'en envoyer un aultre quy auroist plus d'euvie. 

Mons*^ Beautru faict une apparence d*un grand zelle a vos. 
service, et vous conjure de croire le mesme de Mons> de Fiat. 
Pour Mons"^ le Due de Cheureuse il n'en faut point parler, car 

VOL. II. 2 c 


reuse, there is no need to speak of him, for he 
loves you from his inmost heart. Mons' Bau- 
tru pretends greatly to hate, and expressly to 
blacken, Blainville and Mons*^ Villeauxclercs ; say- 
ing they give currency to a thousand reports, 
that even you are no longer on so good terms 
with the King. An evident sign, said I, of their 
folly and their malevolence. He said that Blain- 
ville writes a number of letters, but that he is 
laughed at in France. 

Your wise foresight will find the true mark 
they are aiming at, and will know how to turn 
it to your advantage; and, inasmuch as Mons*" 
Bautru is very anxious to know when he is to 
see you, I have been forced to promise to send 
another messenger, (if your Excellency delayed 

il vous ay me jusques dedens les entrailles. Mongr Beautru 
faict semblant de fort hayr, et denigre expressemS Blinuille* et 
Mons^ la Vill o* Clair, disant qu'il font courir mille raports que 
mesme vous n'estes plus sy bien avecque le Roy. Signe evident, 
je luy diet, de leur sottice et de leur malice. II diet que Blin- 
ville escript quantitt6 d'epistres, mais que I'on s*en mocque en 

Vostre sage prevoyance trouvera le vray but ou ils vousdront 
tendre^ et en S9aura bien faire son profit; et d'autant que 
Mpus** Beautru desire fort de s^aveoir quand e'est qu'il vous 
vera, il me luy a falu promesse d'expedier encore un aultre 

* Blainville, Embassador in England. 


longer,) in order to let him know your will; 
so I thought it opportune to send back the 
bearer, that, if he finds your Excellency at Roy- 
ston, you may settle your journey accordingly. 

We have heard here that my Lady is not com- 
ing till after Christmas, and that my young Lord 
remains at Borl6 till spring, which will be a 
good season for change of food, I had caused 
the apartments to be prepared, hoping my young 
Lord would have made his entry ; but I see 
plainly that in pleasure I am always to be among 
the last. Nevertheless, I feel assured that no- 
body has precedence of him who enjoys your 
favor, and that I shall not be les3 in the good 
graces of this sweet hope your first-bom son. 

poste sy vos. Exc. tarderoit d'avantage^ qu'il puisse s9aveoir 
vos. volont6, surquoy j*ay jug6 n'estre hors de propos de ren- 
voyer ce porteur ; que s'il trouve vos. Exc. k Rostown,* icelle 
puisse gouverner sa journee selon. 

Nous avons entendu icy que Madame ne vient point que 
appres Crismis, et que le petit Seigneur demeure k Borle jusques 
au printemps, quy sera une sayson bonne pour changer de 
nouriture. J'ayois faict acommoder les cliambres, esperant que 
le petit Seigneur y eusse faict son entree ; mais je voy bien que 
je seray tousjours des derniers en la jouissance. Toutesfois je 
m'asseure que celuy quy est en tos bonnes graces, est comme 
k une table ronde ; et que je ne seray moindre en celle de c6ste 

* Royston. 

2 c 2 


whom God endow with the talent^ the dispo- 
sition, and the fortune of his father, by whom 
I trust always to be esteemed for my services 

and obedience. 

My Lord, &c &c. 

B. Gerbier. 
Mr. Clarke was still, four days ago, as Mens' 
Bautru says, at Boulogne, having waited at Do- 
ver so long for a passage. 


My Lord, 

I HAVE been informed that at the court where 
you are they have got intelligence of the dia- 

douce esperance, vostre fils premier n^^ que Dieu douit Tes- 
prit, le naturel, et la fortune du pere, duquel j'espere je seray 
tousjours estime par mon seruisse et par mon obeissance. 

Monseigneur, &c. Sec, 

B. Gerbier. 

Monsieur Clarke estoit encore quatre jours pass^e, comme 
diet Mons' Beautru, k Boulogne, aiant attend u ^ Douvre sy 
long-temps pour un passage.* 


L'oN m'a adverty qu'a la court ou vous estes ona eu intel- 
ligence des diamants que vos. Exc. faict mettre en des bagues ; 

* Tan. Ixxiii. 420. 


monds your Excellency is causing to be set in 
rings, and so they are trying to guess what 
can be your reason. The greater part think it 
is in order to make presents, which they are all 
resolved not to receive. Your Excellency's per- 
fect sagacity needs no interpreter for understand- 
ing their policy, which is only that somebody 
has been such an exceeding busybody as to blow 
in the ear of the Duke of Chevreuse that if 
your Excellency were to be remarked above 
others for liberality, it would be greatly to his 
detriment. I note now that it was not without 
a reason that the Secretary of the Duke of 
Chevreuse, while at Paris, importuned me so 
much to have an account of what was given 
to his household servants, and also of the other 
presents. I have deemed it necessary, my Lord, 
to give you intelligence of this affair, which I 

sur quoy il se forme des imaginations, assaveoir» quelle en peut 
estre Tocasion. La pluspart juge que c*est pour faire presents, 
le^quels ils ont touts resolus de ne point resseveoir. Vos. Exc. 
comme tout sage, ne manque point d'interprette k entendre 
leur policie, quy n*est aultre que quelque personnage, comme 
Ton diet, a este trop bisiboddy, pour souffler es oreylies du Due 
de Chevreuse que sy vos. £xc. excelloit en une liberality, que 
sela seroit k son grand desadvantage. Je remarque aussy main- 
tenant que ce n'est sens cause que le Secretaire du Due de 
Chevreuse, estant k Paris, m'a fort importunn^ pour aveoir une 
liste de ce quy a est6 donne tant aux serviteurs de sa mayson 
que des aultres presents. J'ay creu estre nessesaire, Monsei- 
gneur, de vous donner inteligence de ceste affaire, que je n'ay 


have only learned since leaving the city. My 
author is Mons' la Riviere, who is ignorant 
that I discover the fact to you. After a long 
and full discourse upon this subject, he said 
to me: That it is held at court that your 
Excellency has some intention of making pre- 
sents, and that people are greatly surprised at 
it; that nobody will receive them, and even that 
everybody will take it as an affront. If they 
have been conspiring together, your prudent 
foresight will easily discover without letting it 
appear, and will easily fish to the bottom of this 

Now, my good Lord, permit me to lay before 
you some lines touching myself in particular, 
for who knows whether fate will not make this 
the last of my importunities. 

sceu que depuis aveoir este sorty de la ville. Mon auteur c'est 
Mons'^ la Riviere, quy ne S9ait que je vous descouvre ce faict; 
il m'a diet, appres un long et ample discours sur ce subject, ces 
parolles : Que Von tient d la cour que vos. Exc. a quelque in- 
tention de faire presents, et que Ton s'estonne fort de cela ; qu'il 
n'y a pas un seul quy en recevera, et mesme le tiendront touts 
pour UD afiront. S*ils out monopoUe ensemble, vostre sage 
prevoyance dissernera bien sela sens faire semblant, et pesschera 
bien aisement jusques au fon de la Rivierre. 

Maintenant, mon bon Seigneur, permettez, s'il vous plaist, que 
je passe quelque lignes devant vos yeux touchant mon par- 
tiqulier, car quy S9ait sy le destin ne rendra ceste la fin de mes 


If, after taking leave of him whose gracious- 
ness is the delight of every one, I could not go 
away, and to give colour to an excuse, I said 
that I wished to see the Queen, the cause of my 
afiQiction is plain, at quitting thus him whom 
in the world I adore with the purest of my poor 
intentions. My Lord, I know this very paper 
blushes at my language of servility towards a 
master : but let me be permitted for the last 
time to protest that I never did any thing base, 
and despite of rogues, calumnies, enmities, and 
conspiracies, God avenging my just cause, will 
in the end make it appear what sort of person I 
have always been ; and, touching that word that 
escaped me in jest, I appeal to God himself, 
who will prepare his arm to maintain my inno- 
cence, for witness of the small blame that ought 

Sy, appres aveoir pris cong6 de celuy dont la douceur charme 
tout le monde, il ne m'estoist possible de m'en aller, et que pour 
coulourir une excuse, je dis que je desireois veoir la Royne, la 
cause de mon affliction est evidente, de quitter ainssy celuy que 
j'adore au monde du plus pur de mes povres intentions. Mon- 
seigr, je S9ay que ce papier mesme rougit de mon language 
de serviteur k seigneur, mais qu'il me soit permis pour la der- 
niere fois de protester que je n'ay jamais fait chose lasche^ 
ct qu en despit des fourbes, inventions, haynes et monopoles, 
Dieu, vengeant ma juste cause, fera paroistre k la fin quel j'ay 
tousjours est6; et touchant ceste parolle quy m'est eschappee en 
riant, c*est k Dieu meme que j'en appelle quy me dressera le 
bras k maintenir mon ignocence, et la peu de coulpe que Ton 


to attach to me in this matter^ according to the 
manner and the intention. As bees sudt honey 
from sweet flowers, so do spiders extract a poi- 
son from them. All this displeasure would not 
have occurred if incendiaries had not contributed 
to it, whom I shall not hesitate to name, since 
at last the truth must always be spoken. Thanks 
be for it to Gabriel March in particular, and crea- 
tures like him, who, bursting with jealousy at 
seeing your Excellency trust your money and 
jewels to me, said in thundering voice, " Whee 
must have him down ; he was but a painter the 
other day." I swear to God that I was never 
a painter till I placed myself under your patron- 
age, leaving the Prince of Orange ; and come 
what will, I will never be one: poverty shall 
change neither my blood nor my courage. 

poura atribuer k mon endroit, selon la maniere de Tiiitention. 
Comme les abeilles sucent des doulces fleurs leur miel, ainssy 
les areignes en extraient un venin. II n'en eust pas reussy toutte 
c6ste aigreur, sy des boutte-feux n'y eussent contribuez, que 
je ne feray consience de nommer puis que sur la fin Ton parle 
tousjours la verite. Graces en soit k Gabriel March en par- 
tiqulier et k ses semblables, creatures quy, crevant de jalousie de 
veoir que vostre Exc. me fioit et son argent et ses joyaux, disoit 
a bouche fulminante, fVkee must have him down ; he was but a 
painter the other day* Je jure de Dieu vivant que je ne fus 
jamais peintre que depuis que je me suis adonn6 sous vos. 
protection, sortant du Prince d'Orange ; et en vienne se qu'il 
poura, je ne le seray jamais: la povrete ne changera jamais 
mon sane ny mon courage. 


My Lord, they have descended to be so en- 
vious as to note that I had a hired carriage. 
God knows how much 1 have suffered in my 
leg, which did not allow me to stand, save when 
constrained, in order to enjoy your blessed pre- 
sence ; this carriage has been very convenient to 
take me these three days every evening out of 
the town to sleep, being of those for whom there 
is hardly any place at the board. See here the 
extremity and the fruits of passion ! My Lord, 
I well know that it is not becoming of me to 
make a long discourse to you about myself. 
I have only one request to make to you: it is, 
that when God shall have upheld my cause, (of 
which I make no doubt,) and I may be in need 
of pardon, that it will then please your Excel- 
lency to remember me. And if I have never 
done any thing to merit such remembrance, I 

Monseigneiir, ils se sont touts revoltez jusques k prendre notice 
que j'aveois un carosse de louage. Dieu S9ait comme j'ay souf- 
fert en ma jambe, laquelle ne m'a pas permise d*estre debout, 
que par contrainte, pour jouir de vos. heureuse presence ; la- 
quelle carosse m'a est6 bien favorable a me mener ces trois 
jours tout les soirs hors de la ville pour coucher^ estant de ceux 
pour quy il n'y a presque point de plase k Testable : voila Tex- 
tremit6 et les fruicts de la pation ! Monseig^, je s^ay bien 
qu'il ne m'apartient pas, touchant de mon partiqulier, de vous 
tenir long discours ; j'ay seulement une requeste a vous faire : 
c'est q'apres que Dieu aura maintenu ma cause, de laquelle je 
ne doutte pas, et que j*aurois besoin d'un pardon, q'alors il 
pleust k vos. Exc. de se resouvenir de moy. Et syje n'ay 


supplicate you to cast your eyes on a proof of 
my zealous disposition in your service in a little 
example that I will communicate. 

Being arrived with the present of horses at 
Paris, the Embassadors, principally my Liord 
Carlisle, asked me if I had letters for each in 
particular, and for the Queens ; and if I knew 
in what terms your Excellency wrote to them. 
I answered that you had acquainted me with 
the tenor of the compliments. Their question 
arose from the anxiety they had about all that 
related to your person ; they were very desirous 
of knowing how your Excellency subscribed 
your letters, whether ** obedient servant,'* or " very 
humble servant," and principally to the Queen 
of England. I said that, for the Queen of Eng- 
land, I thought it was '' servant." Whereupon 

jamais rien faict qui puisse meriter cest souvenance, je la sup- 
plie de jetter les yeux sur une marque de mon ame zellee k vos. 
servisse par un petit example que je vous descouvriray. 

Estaut arive avecque le present de chevaux k Paris, les am- 
bassadeurs, principaliement Milord Carleyl, me demeuda sy 
j*avois lettres pour chasq'un en particulier, et pour les Roynes, 
et sy je s9aveois en quel terme vos. Exc. escrivoit k eux. Je 
luy respondis que vous m'aviez acointiez de la teneur des com- 
plements. Leur demande procedoit du soin qu'ils avoient 
de tout ce quy procedoit de vos. persoune ; ils estoient fort 
desireux de s9aveoir comment vos. Exc. se nommoit au bas 
des lettres, ou serviteur obeissant, ou serviteur tres humble, 
et principaliement a la Royne d'Angleterre. Je luy dis 


he asked me very particularly whether I was 
sure of that. In order to know the reason and 
grounds of their curiosity, (knowing that you 
had written " subject/') I asked if there were any 
great difference in those matters, and whether 
the pen was not allowed great freedom in com- 
pliments. Whereupon my Lord Carlisle told me 
that it was a matter of great importance, and 
asked me at last if it was not " subject," relating 
to me a history (which occurred in England) of 
one who to the Queen Anne had subscribed 
himself " subject," and the King on that account 
thought of having him hanged; and repeating 
to me, " For God's sake ! Gerbier, if you are not 
sure of that, rather burn the letter or do not 
deliver it, for," said he, " 1 would rather lose an 
arm." Whereupon I kept my countenance, and 

que pour la Royiie d'Angleterre, je croy que c'estoit serviteur. 
Sur quoy il me demenda fort curieusement sy j'estoits asseur6 
de cela. Moy, pour en s^avoir la reson, et le fon de leur 
curiosity, (sachant que vous aviez mis subject,) je leur demeuday 
s*il y ayoit grande difference en ces choses \k, et sy par com- 
pliment Ton ne pouvoit pas laisser couller la plume. Sur quoy 
Mons'' Carleyl me diet que c'estoit un cas de grande importance, 
et me demenda en fin s'il n'y avoit pas subject, me racontant 
une histoire, laquelle s'estoist pass6e en Engleterre, d'un quy 
avoist escript subject i la Royne Ane, et que le Roy le pensa 
faire pendre pour ceste occasion, me repetant, For God-sacke, 
Gerbier, sy vous n'estes asseure de cela, bruslez plustost la lettre 
ou ne delivrez pas, car, disoit-il, j'aymerois mieux perdre un 


assured him you had only written "servant;" but 
I hastened to my apartment, and all in a trem- 
ble broke the seal of your letter, and with a 
penknife erased the word " subject," for I thought 
it was better to do that than to leave you in 
danger. This long recital, my Lord, aims only 
at beseeching you to consider my sincere inten- 
tion ; and that, losing you for a master, I will 
never belong to another. My obstinate rival 
does me the honor to threaten me at Boulogne. 
If he is as valiant as he is Ul-natured, he will 
have the victory. So the object to which my 
long discourse always tends is this, that when by 
the fortune of war I have need of pardon, your 
Excellency may not forget it There needed not 
this conspiracy, for I had vexation enough at 

bras. Sur quoy je fist bonDe tninne et lu; asseuray que tous 
n'arez mis que serviteur, mais je m'eii allay vistemeot en ma 
chambre et rompy le seau de vos. lettre tout tremblant, et 
avecques un canivet je esrassis le mot de subject, car je croiois 
qu'il valloit mieux faire cela que de vous laisser en denger. 
Ce long recit, Monseig', ne tend qu'k vous prier de jetter les 
yeux sur ma sincere iutention, et que 7ous perdant pour tiltre 
de maiatre, je ne seray jamais k aultre. Mon obstine corival 
me faict c€st bonneur de me menasaer k Boulogne. S'il eat 
aussy vaillant qu'il est de mauvaise nature, il aura la victoire. 
Ainssy le but de mon long discours tousjours vise que lore que 
le Bort du vainqueur aura besoin de pardon, que vos. Exc. ne 
I'oubJie pas. II ne m'estoist besoin de ce monopole, cai j'avois 


having lost k cheval et la joconde, having always 
had the fear of failing in something wherein 
you were interested. God knows, and my Lord 
Carlisle, if I have been wanting in diligence 
and importunity ; on this proof I hazard the 
being, or ceasing to be, 

Your Excellency's, &c. 

B. Gerbier. 


[Of his dispute with the Duke of Buckingham.] 

Good Cousin, 

This bearer, W. Gresly, will be able to tell you 
all that I can say of the estate of my unfortunate 
business ; wherein having done all that I can think 
of by way of humiliation, I must now attend with 

de la facherie assez d'aveoir perdu le cheval et la joconde,* aiant 
tousjours eu c6ste crainte de faillir sur quelque subject que 
vous prendriez du contentement. Dieu S9ait, et Mons'^ Carleyl^ 
sy j'ay manqu6 en diligence et importunity ; et je mait en risque 
sur c6ste preuve d'estre, ou de n'estre plus, 

De vos. Exc* &c. 

B« GfiRBIER.f 

♦ Probably some proverb ; but the allusion is not very intel- 

t Orig. Hoi. Tan. Ixxiii. 422. 


patience God's will and his Majesty's, for, on my 
part, I can do no more only defend my innocency 
the best I shall be able when I shall be called 
to any trial, which I confess, if my humble seek- 
ings and submissions may not take place, I should 
be glad were as speedy and as public as might 
be : but, cousin, I shall continue them, and so 
shall my wife at her coming up. And I entreat 
you to do the like with my Lord Duke upon 
all occasions you can lay hold of. There is fur- 
ther one particular wherein I shall entreat your 
kindness. I hear my Lord Duke should be in- 
formed that I should plot and combine with 
some Parliament-men that seemed adverse to his 
Grace at Oxford, and that thereupon should of 
late be much incensed against me. Herein, 
cousin, I shall entreat you to give his Grace 
satisfaction in my behalf, which you may do as 
truly as ever was in any business; for, I take 
God to record, I never would have to do, since 
I came into England, with any thing belonging 
to Parliament, nor never attempted any thing 
to the Duke's prejudice. The particulars W. 
Gresly will tell you by word of mouth, being 
too long for a letter : but I entreat you to deal 
very effectually ; for, although my Lord Duke 
should ruin me to-morrow, yet, for Abrowth 
sake, I should be glad he were satisfied herein. 
And so, not having wherewith further to trouble 


you for the present, I remember my love and 
service to you, and remain 

Your most affectionate cousin to serve you, 


6th Feb. 1625. 


My Lord, 

I HAVE received your letter of the 25th of 
February, and therein a commandment in his 
Majesty's name to make a clear and plain answer 
whether I desire to rest in the security I am 
now in, and to acknowledge the gracious favour 
of his late Majesty, and of his which now is, 
who have been pleased not to question my ac- 
tions, &c. Hereunto I have labored exactly to 
obey, but find that a plain and clear answer can- 
not possibly be made until there be a clear un- 
derstanding of the thing propounded. So that 
I must crave pardon if my answer be not as clear 
as I could wish it ; for I must freely acknow- 
ledge, that I no way understand what is meant 
by the security I am now in, whether it be by 
the present estate I am in or not ; if it be so, I 
conceive a man cannot be under a harder con- 
dition ; for your lordship knows, that by order 

* This and the two subsequent letters are taken from the 
Harl. MSS. 1581. 


my person is restrained, and you were pleased 
lately to send me word that you would not ad- 
vise me to make use of the liberty which his 
late Majesty had given me of coming to Lon- 
don, although it were only to follow my private 
affairs, and for the recovery of my decayed 
health. I stand likewise prohibited to come to 
the Court, or to the King's presence. (I pass by 
the being removed from aU my places and offi- 
ces, and wholly depending upon his Majesty's 
royal pleasure,) But being a peer of this realm, 
I have not only by commandment been formerly 
stayed from the Parliament, but of late, by writ, 
[have] been detained, although my honor were 
forfeited. And this is truly the condition which 
I am now in; but I cannot imagine that this is 
the security intended I should rest in, but am 
in hope that the security intended is, that I may 
for the future enjoy the liberty of a free subject, 
and the privileges of a peer of the kingdom ; 
which being so, I shall with all humility ac- 
knowledge his Majesty's grace and favor, and be 
ready to serve him with all fidelity, even to the 
laying down of my life ; not thinking it to stand 
with the duty of a subject to press his being 
questioned, since, such being the pleasure of his 
Sovereign, it were not in the power of any sub- 
ject to avoid it. But in case his Majesty shall 
be pleased to bring me to any legal trial, I shall 
most willingly and dutifully submit myself there- 


unto, and doubt not but my innocency in the end 
will be my best mediator for his Majesty's future 
favor. And in that case I am a suitor, that my 
writ of Parliament as a peer of the realm may be 
sent unto me, and that my present repair unto 
London may not displease his Majesty. 

And as for the pardon of the 21st Reg. Ja- 
cobi, which you mention I should renounce, I 
know that the justest and most cautious man 
living may, through omission or ignorance, offend 
the laws, so that, as a subject, I shall not disclaim 
any benefit which comes in the general, as it doth 
usually to all other subjects of the kingdom. 
But as for any crime in particular that may 
trench upon my employments in point of loy- 
alty, fidelity, or want of affection to the King 
or State, I know my innocency to be such, that 
I am confident I shall not need that pardon. 

I shall conclude with a most humble suit unto 
your lordship, that out of your nobleness, and 
that friendship that hath been betwixt us, you 
will use your best endeavours both with his Ma- 
jesty and the Duke, that these unfortunate busi- 
nesses may be passed over; by the renewing 
whereof I can see little use that can be made, 
but the adding to a man's misfortunes, already 
sufficiently humbled, for I am ready to do all 
that a man of honor and honesty may do ; but 
rather than to do any thing that may be preju- 
dicial to me in that kind, to suffer whatsoever 

VOL. II. 2 D 


it shall please God to send: and so with the 
remembrance of my humble service unto your 
lordship, I recommend you to God's holy pro- 
tection, and rest 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 


Sherborne Lodge, the 4th of Marcb^ 1625. 


My Lord, 

I RECEIVED a letter from your lordship dated 
the 4th of this month, written in answer to a for- 
mer which I du-ected to your lordship by his 
Majesty's commandment. This last letter, ac- 
cording to my duty, I have showed unto his Ma- 
jesty, who hath perused it, and hath commanded 
me to write back this unto you again, that he 
finds himself nothing satisfied therewith. The 
question propounded to your lordship from his 
Majesty was plain and clear, whether you did 
rather choose to sit still without being questioned 
for any errors past, in your negotiations in Spain, 
and enjoy the benefit of the late gracious pardon 
granted in Parliament whereof you may have the 

* This letter has been published, but somewhat incorrectly, 
in the Cabala, p. 97. It seemed expedient to reprint it in 
this collection, rather than in the shape of a note, that the 
reader might better understand the answer and the other letters 
connected with it. Conway's answer is also in the Cabala, 
p. 878. 


benefit, or whether for the clearing of your inno- 
cency, whereof yourself and your friends and fol- 
lowers are so confident, you will be contented to 
wave the advantage of that pardon, and put your- 
self into a legal way of examination for the trial 
thereof? His Majesty's purpose is not hereby 
to prevent you of any favor the law hath given 
you: if your assurance be such as your words 
and letter import, he conceives it stands not with 
that public and resolute profession of your in- 
tegrity to decline your trial ; his Majesty leaves 
the choice to yourself, and requires from you 
a direct answer, without circumlocution or bar- 
gaining with him for future favors before hand ; 
that if you have a desire to make use of that 
pardon, which cannot be denied to you, nor is 
any way desired to be taken from you, his 
Majesty expects that you should at least forbear 
to magnify your service, and out of the opinion 
of your own innocence cast an aspersion upon 
his Majesty's justice in not affording you that 
present fulness of liberty and favor, which can- 
not be drawn from him but in his own good 
time and according to his good pleasure. Thus 
much I have in command to write unto your 
lordship, and to require your answer, clearly 
and plainly, by this messenger sent of purpose 
for it. 

Whitehall, 21st of March 1625. 

2d 2 


♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ TO MR. MEAD. 

[Disastrous event of a duel — and other accidents of the time.] 

On Saturday came hither the Earl of Bristol, 
who it is said shall be reconciled to the Duke. 

That day also came Gondomar's secretary with 
letters from his master to his Majesty, the Prince, 
Duke, &c. It is said the letters import he^ brings 
peace, and the Palatinates in his pockets, and 
desires a safe conduct with one of the Eang's 
ships to fetch him from Calais, as also to have 
a house appointed for him ; and that he writes 
merrily to the Duke, that when he comes they 
must needs fight, but that the place of their 
meeting shall be his Grace's own gallery. 

On Saturday likewise was here the highest 
spring-tide that in thirty or forty years hath been 
remembered, whereby much hurt is done here 
in merchandize, and along the river on both 
sides in cattle. 

Sir Humphrey Tufton* and Mr. Murray, of 
the Prince's bed-chamber, brother to his Highness' 
late secretary, meeting on the same Saturday in 
St. George's Fields to fight, upon a falling out at 
a stage play ; they, with consent, departed with- 

* Of Bobing and the Mote near Maidstone in Kent, Kt. and 
Bart.; brother of Nicholas Lord Tufton, afterwards Earl of 


out fighting till some other time, when they might 
do it privately, and none to see them. The rea^ 
son was, that Tufton having first appointed with 
seconds, afterwards sent word it should be single. 
Yet came Mr. Gibson, another Scotsman, the 
King's servant, a skilful cannonier, and who had 
in reversion the Master Gunhership of England, 
and should have been Mr. Murray's second, into 
the field, walking a good way off to observe the 
event ; and therefore Tufton would not then fight, 
lest he might be wronged. So Tufton went thence 
oneway, and Murray another, unto whom Gib- 
son came, reproached him (Murray) for not fight- 
ing; said he had shamed his nation, that his 
surname should ever hereafter in all men's 
mouths be coward — drew secretly his sword and 
thrust Murray through both his cheeks. Here- 
upon Murray also drew and thrust Gibson into 
the belly, who, before he fell, gave Murray two 
wounds in the body. Gibson died that night, 
and Murray not desiring to live, died also on 
Tuesday following at night. 

Furthermore, on Saturday came Mr. Mayn- 
waring, or Manning, the Prince's servant, unto 
Mr. Palmer's at London Bridge, as he often used 
to do. After a while he went up into a cham- 
ber, made fast the door at the inside, took a 
wainscot frame out of the window, stripped him- 
self naked, laid aside his rings, leaped into the 
Thames, and was drowned ; whose body is not 


found. The cause of his desperation is diversly 
spoken of. 

On Monday, Dr. Prideaux, Vice Chancellor 
of Oxford, haying at the Earl of Montgomery's 
lodgings, near the Cock-pit, bestowed three days 
in catechising the young Lord Dormer* and the 
Lady Anne Herbert,f and the last Sunday ad- 
ministered the Lord's supper unto them, then 
married them by special licence of the Arch- 
bishop's; of which young lord is much good 
conceived, though his mother be an absolute 
recusant, and his brother like to prove so, if any 
thing at all. 

On Thursday, between one and two in the 
morning, died the Lord Marquis of Hamilton, 
not without suspicion of poison, as is said, be- 
cause after death his whole body, with neck^ 
face, and head, swelled exceedingly, and was 
strangely spotted. The young lord was then 
so dangerously sick at the Countess of Bedford's 
at New Park, that he could not come unto his 
father before his death. 

London, March 4th> 1824-5. 

* Robert, afterwards Earl of Caernarvon, 
t Anna Sophia, eldest daughter of Philip Earl of Mont- 
gomery^ afterwards Pembroke. 



[[Proceedings against Bristol in the House of Lords.] 

* * * On Saturday last, in the morning, 
the Earl of Bristol was at the bar before the 
Lords of the Upper House. Where Mr. At- 
torney-General did charge him with many par- 
ticulars of miscarriage of his negotiation in Spain, 
and ill offices there done to our now King, then 
Prince ; and, among others, his attempting to per- 
suade the Prince either to embrace the Roman 
religion, or at leastwise to make semblance of it. 
The Attorney having . delivered his charge, the 
Earl, before he would answer thereto, besought 
the Lords, first, that they would conceive his 
case to be their own ; secondly, that they would 
do him this favor, to know of Mr. Attorney 
whether he had uttered all that he had in charge 
to accuse him of. Whereto the Lords did con- 
descend, and Mr. Attorney did answer forthwith, 
that he had no further matter to charge him 
with at this present. Thereupon the Earl began 
to address himself to his answer, and praised God 
that the great noise of High Treason (where- 
with some two or three days before in that place 
the Duke had charged him, and he likewise, by 
recrimination, retorted the like upon the Duke) 
was now ended in such petty matters ; all which 
also he was well assured that he could easily wipe 


off, having the King his late master's direction 
and commandment under his hand, for the act- 
ing of all those parts (which carried such an 
outside of a bad carriage on his part) before they 
were done, and his gracious approbation after- 
ward of his whole negotiation, and pardon for 
any error and defect in the managing of the 
same. But forasmuch as his said papers were 
now at Shireborne Castle, he craved favor, that 
he might be credited till he did show them, and 
have some three or four days' respite to send a 
post for them. He added further, that he much 
dreaded, before his coming to that bar, that there 
would have been laid to his charge some crime 
suitable to those terrible reports of high treason 
wherewith he had been scandalized ;* as, namely, 
that he had gone to mass in Spain ; that he had 
adored the Pax in the open street ;t that he had 
received bulls and dispensations from Rome ; that 
he had gone beyond the limits of his commission ; 
that he had sent the King's navy to no purpose 
into foreign regions, but to expose it to hazard, 
ruin, and scorn ; mispent the King's money, ad- 
vanced every one of his own kindred^ without 
any desert of theirs, with many other sarcasti- 
cal and biting passages to that purpose. The 
Lords granted his desires, and allotted him to 
bring in his papers of defence until to-morrow 

* See Rushworth, i. 259. t Rushworth, i. 266, 


or Thursday next. He carried himself in this 
appearance on Saturday very temperately and 
sadly, but spake lower ; whereas, at his first call- 
ing thither and confronting of the Duke, he de- 
meaned himself in a very passionate manner, 
for the which, his then carriage, he did at this 
second appearance crave pardon of the Lords. 

The House of Commons did yesterday (as 1 
think, for so it was intended^) send all their load 
into the Upper House against the Duke; and> 
because they would not have a secular lord of 
his place to be unattended with a chaplain suit- 
able, they sent the like load of much foul stuff 
against the Bishop of Bangor, whereof I blush 
to write for Sion*s sake^ and do heartily pray 

they may be false. 

Yours at command, 

A. B.* 

From Mr. Lawes, at St. Austen's Gate in 
Paul's Churchyard. May 9, 1625. 

Since my writing this afternoon, I repaired 
to my Lord Chief Justice, his lodging at Ser- 
geant's Inn ; but he was not then within. I 
have also been certified from a parliament man, 
that the House of Commons have divided their 
charge against the Duke into two days* work, 
to be uttered before the Lords by eight several 
persons; four whereof discharged their trusts 
yesterday. The parties were th^se. Sir Dudley 

* t. c. Andrew Byng. 



Digges, Mr. Selden, Mr. Glanville — I have for- 
gotten the fourth. The other four (whose names 
I have not yet heard of) delivered their errand 
this very day. My Lord of Bristol made also 
one request more, at his appearance on Saturday 
before the Lords, that he might know bis accuser. 
Whereto Mr. Attorney being required by the 
Lords to answer and to discover who was the 
accuser, answered, that the King himself was he 
who charged Bristol with those particulars which 
he had uttered. I pray you commend me to any 
of my neighbors of Yarmouth as you see them, 
and tell them that Mr. Attorney General did in- 
form me from his own mouth last Saturday, that 
the King hath commanded to pen a proclamation 
forthwith to be published, that letters of marque 
shall be granted to any subject in as full and 
ample manner as ever they were granted in Queen 
Elizabeth's time ; they putting in sufficient sure- 
ties to the Admiralty, that they will not prove 
pirates, but spoil only the common enemy and 
continue their loyalty to the King.* 

• Orig. Hoi. Tan. ixxii. 169. 



Abbot, Dr. George, Abp. of Canter- 
bury, invites the Abp. of Spalato 
to England, i. 339 ; notice of his 
accession to the Archbishopric, ii. 
135; his letters to the Bishop of 
London, 157 ; to Sir G. Vilhers, 

Albert, Archduke, refuses King 
James's book in defence of the 
oath of allegiance, i. 263. 

Aldred, Mr. committed for writing 
against the proposed marriage be- 
tween Prince Charles of England 
and the Infanta of Spain, ii. 193. 

Allegiance, oath of. King James's 
book in defence of the, i. 262 ; 
refused at the court of Brussels, 

Ambassadors, observations on, i. 401. 

Anne, Queen of England, (consort 
of James I.) her disagreement with 
the Earl of Salisbury, i. 37 ; her 
legacies, 168; her letter to the 
Earl of Salisbury, ii. 145 ', her re- 
ception of the King of Den- 
mark, 137 ; entertained by him 
on board his fleet, 140 ; his present 
to her, 142 ; her illness, 186 ; no- 
tice of her death, 187 n. ; fune- 
ral, 195. 

Antonio, Don, a competitor for the 
crown of Portugal, account of, i.l52. 

Arundel, Philip Howard Earl of, ac- 
cused of treason, i. 140; his trial 
and execution, 141 n* 

Countess of, her charac- 
ter, i. 145 n. 

Aston, Sir Robert, account of, i. 
16 n. ; his character, 18. 

Sir Walter, his letter to the 

Duke of Buckingham, ii. 368. 


Bacon, Sir Francis, afterwards Lord, 
account of his chancellorship, i. 
283 ', created Lord Verulam and 

Viscount St. Albans, 284 n. ; de- 
dicates his works to the King, ii* 
221 ; his acknowledgments to the 
Duke of Buckingham, 222 ; his 
letters to King James I. 220 ; to 
the Marquis of Buckingham, 222, 

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, anecdote of, 
i. 279 «. 

Baily, Dr. Lewis, Bp. of Bangor, ac- 
cused in the Commons, ii. 409. 

Baldwyn, Mr. a Jesuit, suspected of 
favouring the gunpowder plot, i. 1 14. 

Balfour, Sir James, his account of 
the treaty between the English and 
Scotch ministers on the union of 
the kingdoms, i. 19 n. ; his re- 
marks on the Earl of Tyrone's 
rebellion in Ireland, 96. 

Banger, Mr. Woolphengus, Dutch 
apothecary to King James I. re- 
marks respecting, i. 410. 

Banqueting house at Whitehall, ac- 
count of its destruction by fire, 
ii. 175. 187. 

Bashe, Mr. notice of his being 
drowned, ii. 10. 

Basinge, Queen Elizabeth enter- 
tained there by Lord and Lady 
Paulet, ii. 20. 

Beaumont, M. de, French ambassa- 
dor in England, sets out for France, 
ii. 107; rumours respecting, 113. 

Bedell, Mr. his letter to Dr. Ward, 
ii. 325. 

Bellieure, M. de, notice of his oppo- 
sition to the execution of the Queen 
of Scots, i. 130 n. 

Benett, Dr. preferred to the Bishop- 
ric of Hereford, i. 14. 

Bishoprics, endowment of, in Ireland 
and Scotland, i. 91. 

Bishops, account of their refusal to 
crown Queen Elizabeth, i. 420. 

Blunt, Sir Christopher, notice of liis 
execution, ii. 18. 

Bohemia, King of, see Frederick V, 

Queen of, see Elizabeth, 



Bordaren oTSGotUnil, (bur i 
on the Ei^liih bordcn, ii. 9. 

Bothwell, Eirl of, hia niBrnagB with 
iha Qaceo of Seals, i. 77. 

BovUloD, Duke de, oegotialet for ■ 
ln*tj between Fraikce and Eiig- 
l«Dd, ii. 2. 

Bowlei, Dr. John, hi* ■cconot of Ihe 
death of the Eul of Saliibnnr, i. 
47 b. 

Brill, town of, aocoaot of it> mtora' 
tioD to the HoUukden, i. 48. 4U)i. 

BriiUJ, John D'^bt fint EacI of, hit 
qiuutcl with iba Duke of Bucking- 
haro, i. 373, 403; oOen mida to 
him in Spain, 375 ; commitled Sot 
treaiOD, 403 ; hia addreu lo the 
Prince at the Spuuh Conrt, 404 ; 
acenaationi igiuMt him, 407 ; pro- 
ceedion a^aat him in the Haiua 
of Loidi, ii. 407 ; request* to know 
the DBUie of bii accuser, 410; hii 
leltet to the Bishop of IJncola, 
320 ; to Sir Kenalm Digbr, 397 ; 
lo Lord Conwcj. 399 ; Duke of 
BackiDgham'i letter to, 402. 

British teas, remarks on ^e, i. 173. 

Brook. Henij, Lord Cabham, notice 
of his quarrel with Sir R. Cecil, i. 
15 II. ; remarks on his conduct lo 
Sii Walter Raleigh, 65. 67 ; mii- 
ried to Lady Ki Ware, 70 n. ; re- 
marks respecting him, 179 i notice 
of his death, ii. 10 n. 

Mr. George, his Iriat for 

treason, i 63 ; found guilty, 64. 

Blown, Anthonj, firat Viacounl Mon- 
tague, notice of him, ii. 123 R. 

Buckhural, Thomas Sackvitle first 
Lord, remarks on his opinion in 
regard lo the Queen of Scots, i. 
133 n. ; see Doritt. 

Buckingham, Duke of, see Fillin-i. 

CouQlesi, suspected of 

adminislering a plaster to King 
Jamei in his last Illness, i.4IDn.; 
Bishop Hacket'i character of her, 
ii. It)3; her letters to her son the 
Manjuis, ii. 258. 276. 

Katherine MannersDu- 

cliess of, her marriage with the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 169 r. 
1^ ; her letters lo ber husband, 
277. 283. 309 ; lellen to her from 
Tobie Matthews, 303. 

Burwell, Mr. remarka on the COD- 
Btniction of hta ships, i. 55. 

Batter, Dr., phyiician, i 
him, i. 107. 

Bjng, .Aadiew, hit account of the 
ptoceeding* in tlie House of Lords 
aeaioat the Earl of Brlatol, ii. 407. 

Cadji, acconnt of the Engliah eipe- 

ditioD to, ii. 6. 
Calfert, Mr. Secretoir, remark* re^ 

specting, L 376 ; letter to, from 

Mr. ¥. Cottington, ii. 252. 

i. 306. 

Caoterbuij, Abp. of, see Abbol. 

Carew, Sir G. hia letter* lo Ihe Earl 
of Saliabur;, ii. 97 ; to Lord Ca- 
rew, 100; letteis to him Irom ^ 
R. Cecil, 12. 

George Lord, letter lo, &om 

SirG. Cue*, U. 100. 

Caricatures — of King James I. i. 
242 ; the Queen of Bohemia, ib. ; 
the Prince Palatine, 243. 

of S 

Sir Dudley, iavitea Ihe Ahp. 
Lto to England, i. 338. 
r Roberl, Earl of Somerset, 

. 216; 

hia decline and fall, ib. a. ; re- 
marks on hia marriage with the 
Countess of Essex, 221 ; true rea- 
Bon of his fall, 225, 257 n.; dis- 
covery of his participation in the 
murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, 
ii. 144. 

Carey, Sir Roberl, Earl ofMoumouth, 
remarks on his conduct on the 
death of Queen Elizabeth, i. 5 n. ; 
appointed guardian of Prince 
Charles, 7 R. 

Catesby, Mr. one of the coospiraton 
in the gunpowder plot, i. 103. 

Cecil, Sir Robert, l^arl of Salisbm?, 
notice of hia quarrel with Lord 
Cobham, i. 15 n. ; retains his secre- 
taiyship on the accession of King 

enled tc 

im, 28 ; 

the King's testimony iu his favour, 
31 ; refutations of the reports 
against him, 33 ; created Earl of 
Salisbury, 36 ; his differeuce with 
Ihe Queen, 37 i account of his rise 
in Ihe King's favour, 38; cause 



of his fall, 40 ; notice of a war- 
rant against him, 45 ; his illness, 
46; note respecting his death, 
47 n.; account of his influence 
with Queen Elizabeth, 96 n. ; his 
intelligence of the gunpowder 
plot, 102. 105; his letters to Sir 
George Carew, ii. 12 ; to Lord 
Montjo^, 39. 45; letters to him 
from Sir G. Carew, 97 ; from Sir 
T. Overbury, 143; from Queen 
Anne, 145. 

Cecil, Thomas, first Earl of Exeter, 
his opinion of Queen Elizabeth, 
i. 4. 

William, remarks respecting 

him, i. 330 n. 

Chancellor, Lord, great power of, in 
England, i. 275, 276 ; characters 
of different chancellors, 278. 

Chandos, Lady, notice of her death, 
ii. 107. 

Charles Duke of York, ^afterwards 
Charles 1.) guardianship of, en- 
trusted to the Earl of Monmouth, 
i. 7 n. ; notice of the impediment 
in his speech, 8 n. ; persuaded to 
join in tne prosecution against the 
Earl of Middlesex, 325 ; his high 
opinion of his wisdom, 327 ; pro- 
posal for his marriage with the 
king of Spain's daughter, 360; 
supposed to oe his own contrivance, 
363 ; his journey into Spain, 369 ; 
reception at that court, 371. ; sup- 
posed reason for the breach of the 
match, 377. 379; shows his con- 
tempt for the marriage, 380 ; re- 
marks on his desire for war, 382 ; 
his proposed marriage with the In- 
fanta of Spain, ii. 235. 239 ; in- 
tercedes for his sister the Queen 
of Bohemia, 250 ; account of his 
journey into Spain, 253 ; his an- 
swer to the Pope's nuncio, 260; 
his attachment to the Infanta, 284; 
remarks on his conduct in Spain, 
320 ; on the cause of the treaty of 
marriage with the Infanta being bro- 
ken on, 322 ; account of the Mar- 
quis of Inoiosa's attempts to pre- 
judice the King a^nst him, 324 ; 
comments respecting his proposed 
marriage, 349. 351 ; his letter to 
the Duke of Buckingham, 209 ; 
to King James, 253. 296 ; letters 
to him from the King, 255. 257. 
297, 298, 299. 

Cheney, Bishop, observations respect- 
ing, i. 125. 
Chevallier, President, account of some 

Saintings in his possession, ii. 

Chevreuse, Duke of, his letter to the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 380. 

Church, James the First's opinion 
of the authority of the, i. 259. 261. 

of Scotland, ambition of the, 

i. 261, 262. 

Clarendon, Lord, notice of his cha- 
racter of Lord Weston, i. 2 n. ; 
of Sir Henry Montague, 291 n. 

Clarke, Mr. a priest, his trial for trea- 
son, i. 64 ; liis execution as one of 
the conspirators of the Raleigh 
plot, ii. 87. 

Mr. Edward, his letter to the 

Duke of Buckingham, ii: 300. 

Clement VIII. Pope, character of, 
i. 82 n. ; King James's application 
to him, ib. 

Cobham, Lord, see Brook, Henry. 

Cofe, Mr. his execution, ii. 18. 

Coinage, remarks on the English, ii. 

Coke, Chief Justice, his letters to 
Viscount Villiers, ii. 161. 

Colman, Morgan, remarks on his 
correct housekeeping, i. 318 n. 

Commons, House of, refractory con- 
duct of, ii. 209. 

Como, Cardinal, his intriguing cha- 
racter, i. 120 n. 

Compton, William Lord, letter to 
him from Lady Compton, ii. 127 ; 
remarks on his accession to his 
property, 127, 128 n. 

Lady Elizabeth, her letter 

to her husband, ii. 127. 

Cond6, Princess of, account of her 
escape from drowning, ii. 99, 100. 

Confession, observations on the na- 
ture of, i. 109 ; necessity of. 111. 

Conwey, Secretary, (afterwards first 
Lord Conwey,) his letters to the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 273. 286. 
290, 291. 306. 346. 363 ; letter to 
him from the Earl of Bristol, 399. 

Cooke, Sir John, one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to superintend 
naval affairs, i. 54 ; account of 
him, 308 n. 

Comwalleys, Mr. T. his letter to Sir 
John Hobart. ii. 91. 

Cottingtou, Mr. F. his letters to Se- 
cretary Calvert, ii. 252. 

Cotton, Sir RobL letten to him from 
Mr. FoiT, ii. 134. 138. 

Court of Requrati, grctt imprare- 
manti in the, i. 393. 

Co*enliy, Sir T. his letter to tbe 
Duke of Buckiagham, ii. 370. 

Crane, Sir Robt. letter to him from 
Mr. R. Tiym, ii. IBS. 

CnDfteM. Sir Lionel, (■ftemuili 
Eirl of Middletoi,) notice of hi* 
raniarti on the abuiei in the navj, 
L63n. ; appointed Lord Tteaturer, 
293 ; account of, 296 ; member of 
tbe Men-en' Company, 29B ; hii 
■peach to the Lordt ol the Council, 
303 ; ob%as the Eul of North- 
ampton, 301; introduced to *be 
King, niade Matter of Requests, 
306; hi) refoimE, 308 ; convenatioa 
with the King. 311 ; created Earl 
of Middlesex, 313 ; anecdolet of his 
administrsuon, 313 ; fills the office 
of Treasurer and Master of the 
Wards together, 315 ; opposes 
raising the coinige, 316 ; propoies 
the repairing of St. PnulV 317; 
King Jamea g praise of hia house' 
keeping, 319 ; hi* economy in thfl 
King's revenues, 323 ; remarks on 
hii fall, 334; his principal ene- 
mies, 335 ; his policy io leCerence 
to the Spanish match, 336 ; King 
Charie*'* high opinion of him, 337 ; 

303 ; anecdote of him, 303 ; 'his 
account of the state of the revenue, 
ib. 307. 311 i account of hia ei- 
aminatbn, 325 ; liis lelleis to Vis- 
count Villieis, Duke of Bucking- 
ham, 164. 203. 207. 310. 

Cnuuner, Abp. hi* religious lenels, 
i. 259. 

Crompton, Mr. his illness, ii. 376. 

Cuff, «ee Cft. 

Cumberland, George Clifibid Earl 
of, notice of his death, ii. 106; 
his ^11, 107. 

Davers, Sir ChKiiei, implicatsd in tba 
Earl of Essex's conspiracj, a. 13 ; 
notice of his execution, 18. 

Davison, Seereiaiy, his obMrvatioii* 
relative to the eiecuiioD of the 
Queen of Scots, i. 133 ; notica of 
his disgrace, ib, n. 

Uenmark, King of, account of his 
arrival in England, il. 136 ; hit 
enlertainment by the King and 
Cjueen, 138 ; entertain* the King 
and Queen on board hk ship^ 
140; hia present* to tliemrl42. 

Derby, Ferdmand Earl of, Camd«e's 
account of his death, i. 143 tt. 

Henry Stanley Earl of, re- 
marks teipecting him, u 140 ; a 
suspected partisan of the Que«a of 
Scou, 142 Q. ; obi 
death, 143 ifc. k. 


defence before tl 

mons, i. 184 n. ; letter to him from 

the Earl of Bristol, iL 397. 

Dolman, Abel, character of, i. 84 ■. 

Dominis, Antonio de, see Spalalo. 

Donne, Dr. accompanies Lord Don- 
caster to Garmaoy. ii. 195. 

Dormer, Robert Lord, . (afterwards 
Earl of Caernarvon,) his marriage 
with Lady Anne Herbert, ii. 406. 

Dorset, Thomaa Sackville Earl of, 
laltera to him &om Lord Monta- 
gue, ii. 118. 120. 

Douay, establishment of Catholic te- 

Drake, Sir Francis, remark* on his 

death, i. 170. 
Dun, Dr. letter (o him from ^moa 

Tbeloal, ii, 55. 
Dunbar, Earl of, see Hin>». 
Duresme, Bishop of, see Tunital. 
Durham, Bishop of, see NtiU, 
Dyer, Mr. Edw. letter to, from the 

Earl of Essex, ii. 1. 

Darnley, Henry Lord, account of his 
marriage with Mary Queen of Scot- 
land, u 76 ; of bis murder, 77 ; 
his imperious character, ib. n. 

Daitford, story of the tailor of, i. 396. 

Davenant, Dr. afterwards Bp. retnnrks 
respecting him, ii. 189 n. 

Edmonds, Sir Thomaa, English am- 
bassador at Bruasels, his conduct 
respecting die King'* book, i. 362 ; 
letters to, from Sir Edw. Ho- 
bart, ii. 106 ; liom Sir John San- 
ford, 132. 

Egerton, Lord Chancellor, account 
of his public life, i. 273 ; his in- 
firmities, 281 ; death, 283. 



Elizabeth, Queen of England, opinions 
of her, i. 4, 5 n. ; remarks respect- 
ing, 9 n, ; desirous of breaking 
off the league between France and 
Scotland, 11 ; her influence in the 
government of that kingdom, 12 ; 
her reception of the Duke Prusiano, 
17 ; account of her interview with 
the Polish ambassador, 59 n. ; of 
her changing the religion of the 
state, 73 ; her anger at the mar- 
riage between Lord Damley and 
the Queen of Scots, 76; anec- 
dote of her, ib. n, ; her penu- 
riousness, 96; her conversation 
with Cecil, 97 n. ; effect of the 
Irish war on her spirits, 98 n. ; 
account of a conspiracy against her 
life, 120 ; offended at the Earl of 
Essex's marriage, 147 n. ; her an- 
swer to Dr. Lopez, 151 ; her pro- 
mises to him during his imprison- 
ment, 153, 154 ; her personal 
courage, 161 ; account of her go- 
ing to council, 163 ; her appear- 
ance in old age, 164; nobles of 
her court, 177 ; anecdote of her, 
198 ; comparison between the mag- 
nificence of her court and that of 
King James I. 199; parallel be- 
tween her times and those of King 
James, 413 ; account of her pro- 
clamation, 418 ; her conduct to 
the bishops, 419 ; quarrel with 
the Earl of Essex, ii. 1 ; despatches 
a fleet to Cadiz, 5 n. ; swears to 
the treaty with France, 10 n. ; ac- 
count of her entertainment at 
Basin ge by Lord and Lady Paulet, 
21 ; anecdote of the flattery of h^r 
courtiers, 38 ; her disposition to- 
wards the Irish rebels, 39 ; Ty- 
rone's submission to, 42 ; her 
conditions respecting his pardon, 
50 ; accounts of her death, 55 ; 
her letters to Lord Montjoy, 28. 43. 
49 ; Lord Montjoy's letters to her, 
23. 28, 29. 32, 33, 34. 37. 

Princess of England and 

Queen of Bohemia, daughter of 
James I. married to the Prince 
Palatine, i. 228 ; crowned Queen 
of Bohemia, 238 ; compelled to 
fly, 240 n. ; takes refuge in the 
Low Countries, 242 ; caricatured, 
ib, ; pension allowed to, by King 
James, 243 n. ; the Prince of 
Wales's intercession for her, ii. 250. 

Elvis (or Elwys), Sir Jervis, Lieut, 
of the Tower, discloses his know- 
ledge of the murderer of Sir T. 
Overbury, ii. 144 n. ; his trial, 
147^ execution, 148. 151. 154. 

England, uncertain titles of the Kings 
of, i. 85 ; want of small specie in, 
171 n. ; remarks on the simplicity 
of the courts of the early kings of, 
189 ; on the efliciency of the go- 
vernment of, 271 ; power of the 
Lord Chancellor in, 275 ; remarks 
on the authority of England, ii. 

English courts, simplicity of, in the 
reigns of the early kings, i. 189; 
aggrandizement of, in that of Hen- 
ry VIII. 191 ; comparison respect- 
ing, between the reigns of King 
James and Queen Elizabeth, 199. 

Epemon, Duke of, carries the Queen 
Mother of France from Bloys to 
Engolesme, ii. 186. 

Erskine, John, seventh Earl of Mar, 
account of, i. 10 n. 

Sir Thomas, of Gogar, Earl 

of Kelly, account of, L 15 n. ; 
his marriage with the Viscountess 
Kilmarnock, 391. 

Essex, Robert Devereux second Earl of 
that family, his accusation against 
Dr. Lopez, i. 145 ; conversation 
with Dr. Overall, 146 ; marriage, 
147 ; restored to the Queen's fa- 
vour, 149 ; his intiigues with Lo- 
pez, 150 ; accuses him to the 
Queen, 153 ; remarks respecting 
him, 156 ; his quarrel with Queen 
Elizabeth, ii. I ; the Lady War- 
wick's friendship for him, 3 n. ; 
his expedition against Cadiz, 5 n. ; 
copy of his letter to the Council, 
8 n. ; account of his conspiracy, 
11 ; remarks on his inconsistent 
conduct, ib. n. ; account of his 
behaviour after his trial, 14. 16 ; 
notice of his execution, 18; his 
letter to Mr. Edward Dyer, ii. 1. 

Robert Devereux third Earl 

of, notice of his marriage, ii. 125. 
Frances Countess of, ques- 

tion respecting the nullity of her 
marriage with the Earl of Essex, 
i. 221 ; notice of her marriage ^ith 
Somerset, 223 ; note respectiog her 
marriage to the Earl of Essex, ii. 
Excommunication, remarks on, i. 261. 

416 INO 

Enwr, ConntMi of, piefenabill at 
■ccuiatiDD >g>imt Sir Thomu Like 
and hii family, i. 193 ; pditioiu 
the KiDE to bum wme letten, 195 ; 
letter to her from Lad; Lake, ii. 196. 

Erara, Lord, reproved for circnUliiiK 
leporti r«ip«cting King Jame* f. 
i. 3S7. 


Fair&i, Lcai, anecdota of, iL 26S ■. 

Fani, Gny. ODa of Iba conapiraton in 
the ^npowder plot, account of hia 
arrett, ii. Ill, 113.117.123. 

Fieldiag, WilliHm Lord, afterwBnU 
Eaii of Denbigh, ii. 216. 

Fiiher, Bishop, notice of aa attempt 
to poison him. i. 108. 

Fitt-Willuuni, Sir Vr'illiam, hii ij- 
Tannjoierthelriih Doblei,i. 138n. 

Fletcher, Dr. allendi the Queen of 
Scots at ber eiecation, i. 133 ; no- 
tice of his prefermenti. 134; ac- 
count of him, ill. n, 

Flaibiog, town of, account of its reito- 
ntlon to the Hollanders, i. 48. 414. 

FortCKne, Sir John, docriptioD of 
hiicharaeler.i. 24n, 

France, conftwon in the religiou* 
foundatioDS of, i. 89 ; reruBrlu on 
Q of chimneya io, ii. 

. Kinra of, lee Henry III. IV. 

Franeii II. 

Qaeen of, narrowlj escapes 

dnmniug, ii. 98 ; her jealousy of 
the Marquis of Vemeuil, 101. 103. 

Fiaocii II. King of France, his mar- 
riage with the Qaeen of Scoti, i. 
74; death, 75. 

Frederick V, Prince Elector and 
Count Palatine of the Rhine, mar- 
ried to Etirabeth, daughter of James 
I. of Eoeland, i. 328 ; offered the 
crown of Bohemia, 237. 239 n, ; 
his coronation, 238 ; defeated bj 
the Duke of Bevaria, 240 ; takes 
refuge in the Low Counlrie*. 242 ; 
caricatures and play in derision of 
him, 243 n. 

Fuller, Dr. Thomas, his account of 
the candidates (or King Jantea's 
favour, i. 38 n. 

Gaudy, Justice, made Chief Justice 

of the Common Pleas, ii. 109. 
Gaibier, Balthasar, accooDt of his ne- 
roliatian for different vroAt of art, 
u. 32B ; his letters to the Duke of 
Buckingbam, 360. 336. 366. 369. 
383. 388. 

Gibson, Mr. account of hii duel with 
Mr. Mnrra;, iL 405. 

" God and l£t King," principles of 
the book so called, i. 267. 

Gondomar, Count, Spanish ambaasa- 
dor at the court <h King James, 
anecdote of him, i. 29 ; his conver- 
sation with the Duke of Lenor re- 
laliie to the Spanish match, 360 ; 
anecdote respecting him, iu 929 n. ; 
attempts to promote the marriage 
between Prince Charles and the 
Infanta of Spain, 234. 240 n. ; 
insulted by the Conde of OUvares, 
324: his (juanel with him, 368 ; 
bis letters to King James, 334 ; 
to the Marquis M Buckinghun, 

Gray, Thomas Lord, of Wilton, one 
oF the conspirators in the Raleigh 
plot, pardoned, ii. 92. 

Gregory XIII. Pope, his promises of 
assistance to Mary Queen of ScoU, 
i.79, 80 n. 

Gunpowder Plot, remote causes of 
the, i. 73. 87. 99 ; description of 
the conspirators, 102 ; discovery of 
the plot, 105, 106. ii. 110; le- 
1_ ._ .L_ p[oj^i^ log. .. 

conspirators. 111. 113 ; reward of- 
fered for the apprehension of Percy, 
115 ; some of the traitors sent to 
(he Tower, 117. 


Ilacket, Bishop, his remarks on the 

Duke of Buckingham, L 325 «, ; 

bis character of the Countess of 

Buckingham, ii. 183 n. 
Hackwell, Dr. George, tvmarks on 

bis opposing the Spanish match, i. 

365 ; account of him. 366 n. 
Haddington, Lady, notice of her 

death, ii. 187. 
Hall, Dr. afterwards Bishop, his let- 

ter to Dr. Ward, ii. 194. 
amilton, James Duke of, notice of 
him, ii. 247 ; of his marriage, 
248 n. ; his letters to Ibe Duke of 
Buckingham, ii. 347. 



Hamilton, Marquis of, his death, ii. 

Heath, Nicholas, Abp. of York, ac- 
count of his proclaiming Queen 
Elizabeth, i. 418, 419. 

Sir Robert, his letters to the 

Marquis of Buckingham, ii. 244. 

Henry III. King of France, his death, 
i. 81 n, 

IV. of France, cautions King 

James against the Catholics, i. 87 ; 
his treaty with Queen Elirabeth, 
ii. 9 n. ; narrowly escapes drown- 
ing, 98 ; anecdotes of him, 100. 

II. of England, increased 

magnificence of the English court 
in his reign, 192. 

VIII. magnificence of the 

English court in his reign, i. 191. 
Prince of Wales, son of James 

I. his death, suspicion of his being 
poisoned, i. 247 ; public lamenta- 
tions, 248 n. ; his character, t6. 250 ; 
anecdotes of him, 251, 252 n. ; re- 
marks on the proposals for his match 
with the Infanta of Spain, 357 ; 
letters to him from Arabella Stuart, 
ii. 103, 104. 

Herbert, Gerard, his letter to Dr. 
Ward, ii. 186. 

Lady Anna Sophia, account 

of her marriage with Lord Dormer, 
ii. 406. 

Hewme, Sir George, see Home, 

Hobart, Sir Edw. his letter to Sir T. 
Edmonds, ii. 106. 

• Sir John, letters to him from 

Robt Hobart, ii. 87. 89 ; from T. 
Comwalleys, 91. 

Robert, his letters to Sir John 

Hobart, ii. 87. 89. 

Hoboguer, Madame de, remarks re- 
specting her, ii. 109. 

Holderness, Earl of, see Ramsay. 

Holland, restoration of the towns of 
Flushing and Brill to, i. 48. 414. 

Holman, VilHers, his letter to the 
Cardinal Richelieu, ii. 348. 

Home, Sir George (afterwards Earl 
of Dunbar), character and account 
of, i. 19 n. ; his Scotch embassies, 

Honour, remarks on the useless punc- 
tilios of, i. 62. 

Howard, Sir Robert, notice of the 
proceedings against him, ii. 377. 

Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, his 


remarks on Queen Elizabeth's aver- 
sion to appoint her succeifsor, i. 
9 n. ; appointed treasurer, 289 ; 
removed from ofiice, 290 ; his cha- 
racter, ii. 131 n. 

Hubberd (or Hobart), John, letter to 
him from Thomas Tooke, ii. 20. 

Hudson, James, notice of his em- 
bassy to Scotland, i. 12. 

Hunsdon, Henry Carey first Lord, 
character of, i. 178 n. 


Ingram, Sir Arthur, character of, i. 
252 n. 

Inoiosa, Marquis of, account of his 
attempts to prejudice King James 
against Prince Charles and the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 324. 

Ireland, endowment of bishoprics in, 
by King James I. i. 91 ; Tyrone's 
rebellion in, 93 ; Spaniards land 
in, 31, 


Jacob, Lady Mary, her letter to the 
Marquis of Buckingham, ii. 229 ; 
anecdote of her, ib, n. 

JamesVI. Kingof Scotland, and James 
I. of England, entrusts the care of 
his son to the Earl of Monmouth, i. 
7 n. ; notice of his proclamation in 
England, 8, 9 n. ; his reception of 
Queen Elizabeth's messengers, 13 ; 
remarks on his disposition, 18 ; on 
his treatment of the Scotch nation, 
20, 21 ; favours the Earl of l^Torth- 
umberland, 26 ; his opinion of Se- 
cretary Cecil, 28 ; anecdote re- 
specting him, 29 ; his testimony in 
favour of Sir Robert Cecil, 31 ; de- 
sires the French King's friendship, 
39 ; his favourites, 40 ; conduct to 
the Earl of Salisbury, 44 ; his de- 
sire for peace, 61 ; justification of 
his conduct in regard to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, 68, 69 ; notice of his ap- 
plication to the Pope previous to his 
accession to the throne of England, 
82 ; his conduct to the Papists, 87 ; 
endowment of bishoprics in Ireland 
and Scotland by him, 91 ; his con- 
duct on Tyrone's rebellion in Ire- 
land, 94 ; accused of ingratitude, to 
the Earl of Northumberland, 102 n. ; 
conspiracy of the Papists against 
him, 103 ; informed of it, 105 ; re- 

2 B 



marks on his conduct to his mother's 
partizans and enemies, 1 35, ib. n, ; 
136 n. ; his respect for his Queen, 
167 ; conduct after her death, 
168 ; alters the coinage, 171 n« ; 
his partiality for hunting, 174 ; 
present at the trial of Sir Thomas 
Lake, 195; deprives him of the 
secretaryship, 196 ; his opinion of 
Lady Lake, 197 n. ; comparison 
between the magnificence of his 
court and that of Queen Elizabeth, 
199; his bounty to the ScoU, 204 ; 
comments on his treatment of the 
Lady Arabella Stuart, 210, 211 ; 
on his theological controversies, 
214 ; confers the honour of knight- 
hood on Mr. G. Villiers, 224; 
marries his daughter the Princess 
Elizabeth to the Prince Palatine, 
228 ; refuses to sanction the con- 
duct of his son-in-law, 238 n. ; 
forbids his subjects to acknowledge 
him King of Bohemia, 240 ; cen- 
sured by writers for refusing to join 
in the war for the recovery of the 
Palatinate, 240, 242 n. ; money 
spent in embassies during his reign, 
244 ; sends a fleet against the 
pirates, 245 ; death of his son, 
247 ; his sentiments respecting the 
authority of the church, 259. 261 ; 
his book in defence of the oath of 
allegiance, 262 ; removes Lord Suf- 
folk from the Treasury, 290 ; his 
conversation with Sir Lionel Cran- 
field, 311 ; his praise of him, 319 ; 
issues & proclamation against the 
Scotch rabble, 321 ; anecdotes of 
him, 327 n. ii. 268 ; his reception of 
the Abp. of Spalato, i. 339 ; gives him 
several preferments, 340 ; his con- 
duct on the Archbishop's departure, 
347. 349 ; restoi-es his trunks, 352 ; 
remarks on the proposed marriages 
for his sons, 357 ; desires the 
match between Prince Charles and 
the Infanta of Spain, 361 ; his con- 
duct on its proposal, 365 ; his af- 
fection for the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, 384, 393 ; rejjorts respecting 
him, 387 ; his foresight of the con- 
sequences of the breach of the 
Spanish match, 394 ; refutation of 
the charge against him of cow- 
ardicei, 395 ; his illness, 409, 410n.; 
notice of his death, 410 ; rumour 
of his being poisoned, 411 ru ; pa- 

rallel between hit times and those 
of Queen Elizabeth, 413; account 
of his resignation of the towns of 
Flushing and Brill, 414 fi. ; of his 
proclamation on the death of Queen 
Elizabeth, ii. 57 ; conspiracy of the 
Papists against him, called the 
gunpowder plot, 110; offers a re- 
ward for the apprehension of Percy, 
1 1 5 ; his speech in parliament, 116; 
entertains the King of Denmark, 
138, 139; entertained by him on 
board his ship, 140 ; his presents 
to the King, 142 ; his life attacked 
by a Frenchman, 169 ; conspiracy 
against him, 198; account of the 
state of his^revenue, 203 n. ; pro- 
posed marriage between his son and 
the Infanta of Spain, 235 ; his taste 
for collecting rare animals, 237 n, ; 
notice of the contradictory ac- 
counts respecting his reign, 249 n. ; 
his fondness for the children of 
the Duke of Buckingham, 290 ; 
his directions respecting the In- 
fanta's journey to England, 299 ; 
his attachment to the Duke of 
Buckingham, 306; remarks on 
the termination of the treaty of 
marriage of his son with the In- 
fanta, 322 ; attempts of the Mar. 
quis of Inoiosa to prejudice Um 
against the Prince and the Duke 
of Buckingham, 324; his letters 
to Prince Charles and the Duke of 
Buckingham, 255. 257. 297, 298, 
299. 380 ; to the King of Spain, 
259; to the Infanta, 295; let- 
ters to him from Lord Bacon, 
220 ; from Secretary Naunton, 227 ; 
from the Count (jondomar, 234 ; 
from Prince Charies and the Duke 
of Buckingham, 253. 296; from 
the Duke of Buckingham, 361. 

Jones, Inigo, account of his mask, 
ii. 125 ; remarks respecting him, 

Jonson, Ben, account of his mask, ii. 

Joyeuse, Cardinal, his report of the 
character of Sixtus Quintus, i. 80 n. 


Kelly, Earl of, see Erskine, Sir Tho9, 
Kildare, Lady, her marriage with 
Lord Cobbam, i. 70 n. 



Kiimarnook, Viscountess, her mar- 
riage with Lord Kelly, i. 391. 

King, Dr. Bishop of London, his 
contribution towards repairing St. 
Paul's Cathedral, i. 317. 

Kitson, Sir T. anonymous letter to 
him, ii. 5. 

Knighthood, conferred by Queen Eli- 
zabeth on eleven persons at Ba- 
singe, ii. 22. 


Lake, Sir Thomas, account of his rise 
at court, i. 175 ; report respecting 
him, 181 ; cause of his fall, 182 ; 
narrative of his life, 192 ; the Coun- 
tess of Exeter prefers a bill against 
him, 193 ; his trial, 195 ; deprived 
of the secretaryship, 196 ; his fine 
and sentence, li. 179. 185 ; politi- 
cal reasons suspected to be the 

■ cause of his fall, 196 n. 

Lady, the Countess of Exeter's 

bill against, i. 193 ; applications 
to the King in her behalf, 197 n. ; 
sentenced to imprisonment, ii. 179, 
180. 185 ; her letter to the Coun- 
tess of Exeter, 196. 

■ Dr. Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
his letter to Dr. Ward, ii. 218. 

Laud. Abp. his charitable works, i. 

Leicester, Robert Dudley Earl of, 
his enmity to the Queen of Scots, 
i. 128. 

Lennox, Ludovick Stuart, second 
Duke of (afterwards Duke of Rich- 
mond), account of, i. 1 1 n. ; his 
conversation with Count Gondo- 
mar relative to the Spani^ match^ 

Lincoln, Bishop of, letter to, from 
the Earl of Bristol, ii. 320. 

London, proclamation of King James 
I. in, ii. 57. 

■ Bishop of, letter to, from the 
Abp. of Canterbury, ii. 157. 

Lopez, Dr. his intrigues with the Earl 
of Essex, i. 150 ; disparages him 
to Don Antonio, 152 ; arrested for 
treason, 153 -, executed, 155 ; court 
versions of his treason, 156 n. 

Lords of the Privy Council, letter to, 
from William Watson, ii. 59. 

' of Scotland, their privileges, 

i.73; change the religion of that 
kingdom, 75. 

Lorkin, Mr. his remarks on Sir Lionel 
Cranfield's reforms in the court of 
James I. i. 320 n. ; his letters to 
Sir T. Puckering, u. 136. 168. 176. 

Lorraine, the Lady Mary of. Regent 
of Scotland during the infancy of 
Queen Mary, i. 73 ; her death, 75. 

Lyle, Robert Sydney Lord (after- 
wards Earl of Leicester), birth of 
his son, ii. 187. 


Madrid, accident to the Venetian 

ambassador's suite in, ii. 182. 
Manchester, Sir Henry Mountague 
Earl of, appointed Lord Treasurer, 
i. 291 ; account of him, ib, n. ; 
honours conferred on him, 292; 
defends himself from the imputa- 
tion of being concerned in the gun- 
powder plot, ii. 118. 120. 122; his 
letter to the Earl of Dorset, 118. 

Manners, Katherine, see Buekinghaniy 
Duchess of, 

Manoury, M. arrested for clipping the 
coin, ii. 181. 

Mansell, Sir R. character of, i. 56. 

Mar, Earl of, see Erskine, John, 

Markham, Sir Griffin, one of the con- 
spirators in the Raleigh plot, par- 
doned, ii. 92. 

Mary Queen of Scotland conveyed to 
Prance, i. 73 ; married to Francis 
II. 74 ; returns to Scotland, 75 ; 
her marriage with Lord I>arnl^,76 ; 
her disagreement with bim, 77 ; 
married to the Earl of Bothwell 
after Damley's murder, ib» ; impri- 
soned in England, 78 ; remarks on 
her imprisonment, 127; letters re- 
specting her, 129 n. ; intrigues to 
procure her execution, 131 n. ; in- 
dignation of her subjects at her 
death, 132. 

Matthews, Toby, Abp. of York, anec- 
dote of, ii. 268. 

son of the Abp. his 

letters to the Duke of Buckingham, 
267. 270 ; to the Duchess, 303. 

Mayerne, Dr. Theod. his opinion- of 
the illness of the Earl of Salisbury, 
i. 46 n. 

Maynwaring, Mr. account of his sui- 
cide, ii. 405. 

Mead, Mr. his letters to Sir Martin 
Stuteville, ii. 198 ; letter to him, 404. 




Meryke, Sir GiHy, notice of his exe- 
cotioD, ii. 18. 

Middlesex, Earl of, see CranJUld, 

Monmouth, Earl of, see Cary. 

MoQson, Sir Thomas, indictment 
against him for acceding to the 
murder of Sir T. Overbury, ii. 154 ; 
his arraignment, 156. 

Montacute [Mountague], Anthony, 
Lord, one of the gunpowder plot 
conspirators, sent to the Tower, ii. 
117. > his letters to Lord Dorset, ex- 
culpating himself, ii. 118. 120. 122. 

Montague, Lord, see Browne. 

Montjoy, Charles Blunt Earl of, re- 
marks respecting him, ii. 23 n. 
25 n. ; his flattery of Queen Eliza- 
beth, 38 ; his letters to her, 23. 28, 
29. 32, 33, 34. 37 ; letters to him 
— from Sir Bobert Cecil, ii. 39. 
45 ; from Lord Nottingham, 14. 
39 ; from Queen Elizabeth, 28. 43. 
49; from Tyrone, 41. 53. 

Mordaunt, Henry Lord, one of the 
conspirators in the gunpowder plot, 
sent to the Tower, ii. 117. 

More, Sir Thomas, anecdote of his 
chancellorship, i. 277. 

Moret, La Haye, the Countess of, 
anecdote of, ii. 101. 

Mountague, first Viscount, see Broim. 
' SirHenry, see Manchester. 

Mountain, Dr. preaches Sir Robert 
Cecirs funeral sermon, t. 30. 

Murray, John, Earl of Annandale, 
notice of his influence with King 
James, i. 30 n. 

Mr. account of his duel with 

Mr. Gibson, ii. 405. 

Musgrave, Capt. carried away by the 
Scottish borderers, ii. 9. 

Lord, anecdote of him, ii. 



Naunton, Sir Robert, one of the Se- 
cretaries of Stale, account of his 
disgrace, ii. 228 n. ; his letters to 
the Duke of Buckingham, 225, 
241 ; to King James, 227. 

Navy, the English, remarks on the 
abuses in, during the early part of 
the reign of James I. i. 52 ; com- 
missioners appointed to manage the 
affairs of, 54. 

Neile, Dr. Bishop of Durham, after- 
wards Abp. of York, anecdote of 
ii. 2dl. 

Neville, Dr. Thomas, Dean of Can- 
terbury, his embassy to King James 
from the clergy, i. 28, 29 n. 

Norfolk, Thomas Howard Duke of, 
notice of his execution, i. 139. 

Norris, Capt. remarks respecting, i. 55. 

Northampton, Henry Howard Earl 
of, his remarks respectine Sir John 
Fortescue, i. 24 -, the Earlof North- 
umberland, 25; accounts of him, 
144. 180. 

Northumberland, Henry Percy Earl 
of, remarks respecting him, i. 25«i. ; 
favoured by King James, 26 ; sus- 
pected of being privy to the gun- 
powder plot, 103 n. ; ii. 112 ; his 
examination, 115. 

Nottingham, Charles Howard Earl 
of, his favour with Queen Elizabeth, 
i. 164 ; remarks on his revenues, 
181; anecdote of his treatment of 
Admiral Stuckeley, ii. 173 ; his let- 
ters to Lord Montjoy, 14. 39 ; let- 
ters to him from LadyRiche, 18. 


Olivaies, the Cond6 of, account of his 
quarrel with the Dtdce of Bucking- 
ham, ii. 324 : his insults to Gon- 
domar, ih, ; quarrel with him, 368. 

0*Rourke, Mr. account of, i. 137 ; 
his apprehension and execution, 
138 n. 139. 

Overall, Dr. (afterwards Bishop of 
Norwich,) his conversation with the 
Earl of Essex, i. 145. 

Overbury, Sir Thomas, anecdote of, i. 
216 ; remarks on his imprisonment 
in the Tower, 219 ih, n. ; allusion 
to his murder, 220, 221 ; execution 
of the parties, 146. 151. 158; in- 
quiry into his murder, ii. 143 ; his 
letters to the Earl of Salisbury, ih, 

** Overbury 's Vision," description of 
Mrs. Turner in the poem so called, 
ii. 146 n, 

Oxford, Henry de Vere Earl of, ac- 
count of his imprisonment in the 
Tower, ii. 232 n. 


Pagett, Charles, his letter to the 
Queen of Scots, i. 128 n. 

Paintings, account of some rare paint- 
ings in the possession of the Pre- 
sident Chevallier, ii. 328 ; of the 
Bishop of Paris, 338. 



Palatine, Prince, see Frederick V, 
Palmer, Mr. proposes to raise the 

coinage, i/3l6. 
Pampeluna, Governor of, executed for 

practising with France, ii. 109. 
Papists, hatred of, in England, i. 86 ; 
their plans, 87 ; their persecution 
in the reign of James 1. 100; con- 
trive the gunpowder plot, 102 ; act 
of parliament respecting thern^ ii. 
Paris, £ishop of, description of some 
rare paintings in his possession, ii. 
Parry, Dr. William, account of his 
treason, i. 1 19 ; his trial, 123 ; ex- 
ecuted, 124. 
Pasquinades on the poverty of the 

Scots, i. 321 n. 
Paulett, Lord and Lady, entertain 
Queen Elizabeth at Basinge, ii. 20. 
Philip II. King of Spedn, his opinion 
of the Princess Elizabeth (after- 
wards the Queen), i. 4 -, his treat- 
ment of her, ib. n. ; favours the 
English Papists, 88 ; their depend- 
ence upon him, 90. 

III. King of Spain, proposal 

for the marriage between his daugh- 
ter and Prince Henry of England, 
i. 357 ; with Prince Charles, 360 ; 
his reception of him, 371 ; punishes 
the Governor of Pampeiuna for 
practising with France, ii. 109 ; 
letter to him from King James I. 
Pembroke, William Earl of, anecdote 

of his generosity, i. 313. 
Percy, Thomas, his character, i. 
102 ; one of the conspirators in 
the gunpowder plot, 103, ii. Ill ; 
reward for his apprehension, 1 15 ; 
his death, i. 106, ii. 117. 
Perkins, Sir Christopher, account of, 
i. 329 ; remarks on his marriage, 
334 ', his death, 335. 
Pickeringe, Sir T. see Puckeringe, 
Pius Quintus,Pope, character of, i. 78 j 
excommunicates Queen Elizabeth, 
Poland, King of, sends an ambassador 
to England with propositions of 
peace, i. 59. 
Popes, see Pius Quintus. — Gregory 
XllL'-'Sixtus Quintus, — Clement 
Popish priests, see Priests, 
Porter, Sir Endymion, account of his 

accident on his embassy to Spain, 

Portugal, competitors for the crown 
of, 1. 152 n. 

Fory, Mr. his letters to Sir Robert 
Cotton, ii. 124. 138; to Sir T. 
Puckering, 201 n. 

Priests, popish, many of them tried 
and executed for treason, i. 158^ 

Proclamation for the apprehension of 
Thomas Percy, ii. 115. 

Puckeringe, or Pickeringe, Sir T. fa- 
vours the execution of the Queen 
of Scots, i. 132 ; his appointments, 
133 ; letters to him from Mr. Lor- 
kin, ii. 136. 168. 176; from J. 
Pory, 201 n. 

Purbeck, Lady, notice of the proceed- 
ings against her, ii. 377. 


Raleigh conspiracy, or bye-plot, ac- 
count of, ii. 59 ; execution of the 
conspirators, 88. 91, 92. 

— — • Sir Walter, his project on the 
union of England and Scotland, i. 
21 ; account of his treason, 63. 
65 ; remarks on his execution, 68, 
69 ; notice of his attempt to stab 
himself in the Tower, ii. 93 ; his 
letter to his wife, ib. 

Lady, letter, to her from Sir 

Walter, ii. 93. 

Ramsay, John, Earl of Holderness, 
account of, i. 22 n. 

Randolph, Thomas, his account of 
the Queen of Scots' marriage with 
Lord Darnley, i. 77 ». 

Rawleigh, Sir Walter, see Raleigh, 

Revenue, account of the state of, ii. 
203.207. 2U. 

Rich, Sir Harry (afterwards Lord 
Kensington and Earl of Holland), 
account of his duel with Sir Edward 
Villiers, ii. 171. 

Rich, Lady, sister of the Earl of 
Essex, out of favour with Queen 
Elizabeth, ii. 1. 18 ; her letters to 
Lord Nottingham, ib. 

Richelieu, Cardinal, letter to him 
from Villiers Holman, ii. 348. 

Richmond, Duchess of, her intrigue to 
procure the marriage between Lord 
Kelly and the Viscountess Kilmar- 
nock, i. 391. 

Roman Catholic seminaries, see Semi- 




BiNDtn Catholics, the Eoglith, their 

dependence upon Philip II. of 

Rpaitty i. 90. 
Root, Lady» daughter of Sir Thomaa 

Lake, particulara respecting her, iL 

Roos, Lord, character of, i. 182 ; his 

auurriage, 183. 
« Ro^l and Noble Aathors" (Wal- 

KW%), impression of one of Eliza- 
th*s coins in, u 164 n. 
Rutland^ Francis Manners Earl of, 
account of the marriage between his 
daughter and the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, ii. 189. 192 n. ; his letter 
to the Marc^uis of Buckingham, 189; 
letter to him from the Marquis of 
Bttckingbamy 191. 


Sackville, Sir Edward fafterwards 
Earl of Dorset), visits the Abp. of 
Spalato at Rome, i. 352 n. 

Salisbury, £arl of, see Cecil, Sir 

Sancy, M. Harley de, negotiates for 
a treaty between France and Eng- 
land, u. 9 n. 

Sandford, Sir John, his letter to Sir T. 
Edmonds, ii. 132. 

Saxon Kings, umplicity of the, i.382. 

Scotland, governed by Lady Mary of 
Lorraine during the infancy of 
Queen Mary, i. 73 ; change of the 
religion in, 75 ; endowment of 
bishoprics by King James VI. 91 ; 
revenues of the Crown insufficient 
to support the government of, 270. 

Scotland, church of, see Chwreh, 

Scots, their extravagance in England, 
i. 99 j pasquinades on their poverty, 
321 rim 

Seminaries, R. Catholic, establishment 
of, by Cardinal Allen, i. 90. 

Sixtus Quintus, Pope, his penurious 
character, i. 80 n. ; anecdote of 
him, 81 n. ; his death, ib,n, 

Somerset, Earl of, see Carr, 

Spain, extension of religious know- 
ledge in, i. 89 ; fertility of, 169 ; 
base coin in, 170; amusing de- 
scription of, ii. 132. 

King of, see Philip III, 

Queen of, her present to 

Prince Charles, i. 371. 

Infanta of, her proposed mar- 

riage with Prince Charles of Eng- 

land, ii. 23d. S89; descriptiofi of 
her, 285 n.; King James's direc- 
tions respecting her jouhiev to Eng- 
land, 299 ; remariis on the abrupt 
termination of her proposed mar- 
riage, 322 ; letter to her from King 
James I. 295. 

Spalato, Antonio de Dominis, Abp. 
of, account of him, i. 336 ; his ar- 
rival and reception in England, 
339 ; mastership of the Savoy and 
dtanery of Windsor given to him, 
340 ; anecdote of, iS. n. ; quarrel 
with the canons of Windsor, 341 ; 
corresponds with the Pope and Ca- 
tholic ministers, 345, 346 ; solicits 
permission to leave England, 347 ; 
proceeding in consequence, 348; 
nis examination, 349 ; (wdered to 
depart, 350 ; his trunks detained, 
351 ; solicits the King for their re- 
storation, 352; his recantation of 
heresy, id. ; his death, 354 ; his 
body burnt for heresy, t6. ; notice 
of his return to Rome, ii. 218. 

Spaniards, landing of, in Ireland, ii. 

Spencer, Sir John, his death, ii. 127 ; 
vast property, ih, n. 128 n. 

Stuart, the Lady Arabella, remarks on 
her marriage with the Earl of Hert- 
ford, i. 209; her provision, 211; 
narrative of her life and adventures, 
212 n. ; her letters to Prince Henry, 
ii. 103, 104 ; to , 105. 

Stukeley, Admiral Sir Lewis, anec- 
dote respecting him, ii. 173 ; 
arraigned for clipping the coin, 175. 

Stuteville, Sir Martin, letter to, from 
Mr. Mead, ii. 198. 249. 

Suffolk, Thomas Howard Eari of, see 

Swarton, Sarah, accused of perjury, 
her sentence, ii. 180. 185. 

Sydney, Robert, see Lyle. 


Tailor of Dartfoid, story of, i. 396. 

Theloal, Simon, his letter to Dr. 
Dun, ii. 55. 

Throckmorton, Sir Nicholas, anec- 
dote of, i. 44 n. 

• Sir John, his letters to 

Mr. William Tmmbull, ii. 153. 

Throgmorton, Francis, accused of 
treason, i. 116. 119 n. 



Thfograorton, Judge, account of, i. 
1 16 j Queen Mary's favour to, 1 18. 

Tooke, Thomas, his letter to Mr. 
John Hubberd, ii. 20. 

Treasurer, Lord, characters of the 
treasurers of the reign of James I. 
i. 289. 291. 

Tresham, Mr. one of the conspirators 
in the gunpowder plot, i. 104. 

Trumbull, Mr. William, letters to 
him from Sir J. Throckmorton, ii. 
153. 156. 

Trym, Richard, his letters to Sir Robt. 
Crane, ii. 185. 

Tufton, Sir Humphrey, account of, 
ii. 404 n. 

Tunstal, Cuthbert, Bishop of Du- 
resme, supposed to be the godfather 
of Queen Elizabeth, i. 419. 

Turner, Mrs. executed for participat- 
ing in the murder of Sir T. Over- 
bury, ii. 146 ; description of her in 
a poem on her death, 146 n. 

Tyrone, Hughe Earl of, notice of his 
rebellion in Ireland, i. 93 ; of his 
death, 96; professes his submis- 
sion to Queen Elizabeth, ii. 41 ; 
her conditions respecting his par- 
don, 50 ; his letters to Lord Mont- 
joy, 41. 53. 

Turpyn, R. his letter to the Duke of 
Buckingham, ii. 302. 


Union, Sir Henry, anecdote of his 
flattery of Queen Elizabeth, ii. 38. 

Usher, Dr. (afterwards Abp.) his 
character, ii. 199. 


Vanlore, Sir Peter, anecdote respect- 
ing him, i. 204. 

Vane, Sir Francis, notice of his being 
created Earl of Westmoreland, ii. 
361 n. 

Vaux, Guy, see Faux, 

Vemeuil, Marquise of, Henry IV. of 
France's attachment to, ii. 101 ; 
the Queen jealous of her, 102, 103. 

Villeauxclercs, M. French ambas- 
sador, account of his arrival and 
reception in England, ii. 363. 

Villiers, George, afterwards Duke of 
Buckingham, account of his being 
knighted, i. 224 ; his personal ap- 
pearance, 225 ; his character, 226 

n. ; his descent, 255 ; persuaded from 
marrying the daughter of Sir Robert 
Aston, 256 ; his persecution of the 
Earl of Middlesex, 325 ; his hatred 
of Sir Christopher Perkins, 334 ; 
accompanies Prince Charles into 
Spain, 368 ; ii. 253. ; his conduct 
there, i. 372 ; quarrels with the Earl 
of Bristol, 373. 403 i his opinion 
of the cause of the breach of the 
Spanish match, 382 ; the King's 
atfection for him, 384. 393; his 
grief on the death of King James, 
409 ; his marriage with Katharine 
Manners, ii. 189, 192 n. ; his ac- 
count of the journey to Spain with 
Prince Charles, 254 ; the King's 
fondness for his children, 290 n. ; 
the King's attachment to him, 306 ; 
reports respecting his conduct in 
Spain, 314, 315; rupture of the 
Spanish match attributed to his in- 
fluence, 322 ; account of his quarrel 
with the Cond6 of Olivares, 324 ; 
his letters — to the Earl of Rutland, 
191 ; to King James, 253. 296. 
361 ; to the Earl of Bristol, 402 ; 
letters to him — from the Abp. 
of Canterbury, 160; Chief Jus- 
tice Coke, 161 ; Sir. L. Cranfeild, 
164. 202. 207. 210 ; the Countess 
his mother, 183. 258. 276 ; the 
Earl of Rutland, 189; Prince 
Charles, 209; Lord Bacoik 222, 
223; Secretary NauntoiT 225. 
241 ; Lady Mary Jacob, 229 ; IMr 
J. Wentworth, 231 ; the Count 
Gondomar, 238; Robert Heath, 
244; the Marquis of Hamilton, 
247; KingJames 1.255. 257.297, 
298, 299. 382; Balthasar Ger- 
bier, 260. 326. 356. 369. 383. 
388 ; Toby Matthews, 267. 270 ; 
Secretary Conwey, 273. 286. 290, 
291. 306. 346. 363 ; the Duchess 
his wife, 277. 283. 309; Ed- 
ward Clarke, 300; R. Turpyn, 
302; Mr. James Waddsworth, 
314; Sir Walter Aston, 368; Sir 
R. Heath and Sir T. Coventiy, 
370 ; the Duke of Chevreuse, 380. 

Villiers, Lady Mary, daughter of the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 264 ; ac- 
count of her, 278; the King's 
fondness for her, 290. 

Sir Edward, account of his 

duel with Sir Henry Rich, ii. 




Waddsworth, James, his letter to the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 314 ; his 
character, 318 n. 

Wallis, Thomas, his letter to Dr. 
Ward, ii. 174. 

Ward, Dr. letters ta him from Thos. 
WaUis, ii, 174; Gerard Herbert, 
186; Dr. Hall, 194; Bishop 
Lake, 218 ; Bedell. 325. 

Warwidc, Robert Bich second Earl 
^, his death, ii. 1^5. 
■ Lady, a zealous friend of 

the Earl of Essex, ii. 3 n. 

Warwickshire, insurrection in, ii. 1 12. 

Watson, William, a priest, tried for 
treason, 64 ; his account of the 
Raleigh conspiracy in his letter to 
the Lords of the Privy Council, ii. 
59 ; executed, 88. 

Wentworth, Sir J. his letter to the 
Duke of Buckingham, ii. 231. 

Westmoreland, Earl of, see Vane, 

Weston, Lord, notice of Lord Claren- 
don's character of him, i. 2 n. 

Whitehall, banqueting house at, de- 
stroyed by fire, ii. 175. 187. 

Williams, Lord (afterwards Abp. of 
York), anecdote of him, i. 1 n. ; 
his character, 285 ; his charitable 
works, 287. 

Windebank, Secretary, letter to him 
fron^r. Robt. Woodward, ii. 193. 

Wind^y canons of, see Canons. 

church of, remarks on the 

management of, i. 342. 

Winter, Christopher, his connexion 

with the conspiracy of the gunpow- 
der plot, i. 104. 

Winter, Thomas, applies to the King 
of Spain in behalf of the Catholics, 
i. 88 ; his connexion in the gun- 
powder plot, 104. 

Winwood, Sir Ralph, remarks re- 
specting him, i. 186, 187 n. ; his 
discovery of the perpetrators of Sir 
Thomas Overbury's murder, 257 n. ; 
difference between him and Sir 
^ancis Bacon, 283 ; anecdote of 
his meanness, 401 ; blamed for ad- 
vising the resignation of the towns 
of Flushing and Brill, 414 n. ; his 
discoveiT of the author of the mur- 
der of Sir T. Overbury, ii. 144 n. 

Woodward, Robert, his letter to Se- 
cretary Windebank, ii. 193. 

Worcester, Edward Somerset, Earl of, 
character of, i. 201. 

Worseley, Mr. a Catholic, his con- 
spiracy against the King's life, ii. 
198 ; apprehended, 199. 

Wotton, Sir H. his description and 
character of Pope Clement VIII. 
i. 82 n. 


Yelverton, Mr. favours the Puritans, 
i. 343 ; cause of his disgrace, ib. 

York, Archbishops of, see Heath ; 
Neile; Matthews. 

Younge, Dr. Dean of Winchester, 
King James's instructions to him 
respecting the Abp. of Spaiato, i. 




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